Edit on GitHub

sqlglot.dialects.bigquery

  1from __future__ import annotations
  2
  3import logging
  4import re
  5import typing as t
  6
  7from sqlglot import exp, generator, parser, tokens, transforms
  8from sqlglot.dialects.dialect import (
  9    Dialect,
 10    NormalizationStrategy,
 11    arg_max_or_min_no_count,
 12    binary_from_function,
 13    date_add_interval_sql,
 14    datestrtodate_sql,
 15    build_formatted_time,
 16    filter_array_using_unnest,
 17    if_sql,
 18    inline_array_sql,
 19    max_or_greatest,
 20    min_or_least,
 21    no_ilike_sql,
 22    build_date_delta_with_interval,
 23    regexp_replace_sql,
 24    rename_func,
 25    timestrtotime_sql,
 26    ts_or_ds_add_cast,
 27)
 28from sqlglot.helper import seq_get, split_num_words
 29from sqlglot.tokens import TokenType
 30
 31if t.TYPE_CHECKING:
 32    from sqlglot._typing import E, Lit
 33
 34logger = logging.getLogger("sqlglot")
 35
 36
 37def _derived_table_values_to_unnest(self: BigQuery.Generator, expression: exp.Values) -> str:
 38    if not expression.find_ancestor(exp.From, exp.Join):
 39        return self.values_sql(expression)
 40
 41    structs = []
 42    alias = expression.args.get("alias")
 43    for tup in expression.find_all(exp.Tuple):
 44        field_aliases = alias.columns if alias else (f"_c{i}" for i in range(len(tup.expressions)))
 45        expressions = [
 46            exp.PropertyEQ(this=exp.to_identifier(name), expression=fld)
 47            for name, fld in zip(field_aliases, tup.expressions)
 48        ]
 49        structs.append(exp.Struct(expressions=expressions))
 50
 51    return self.unnest_sql(exp.Unnest(expressions=[exp.array(*structs, copy=False)]))
 52
 53
 54def _returnsproperty_sql(self: BigQuery.Generator, expression: exp.ReturnsProperty) -> str:
 55    this = expression.this
 56    if isinstance(this, exp.Schema):
 57        this = f"{self.sql(this, 'this')} <{self.expressions(this)}>"
 58    else:
 59        this = self.sql(this)
 60    return f"RETURNS {this}"
 61
 62
 63def _create_sql(self: BigQuery.Generator, expression: exp.Create) -> str:
 64    returns = expression.find(exp.ReturnsProperty)
 65    if expression.kind == "FUNCTION" and returns and returns.args.get("is_table"):
 66        expression.set("kind", "TABLE FUNCTION")
 67
 68        if isinstance(expression.expression, (exp.Subquery, exp.Literal)):
 69            expression.set("expression", expression.expression.this)
 70
 71    return self.create_sql(expression)
 72
 73
 74def _unqualify_unnest(expression: exp.Expression) -> exp.Expression:
 75    """Remove references to unnest table aliases since bigquery doesn't allow them.
 76
 77    These are added by the optimizer's qualify_column step.
 78    """
 79    from sqlglot.optimizer.scope import find_all_in_scope
 80
 81    if isinstance(expression, exp.Select):
 82        unnest_aliases = {
 83            unnest.alias
 84            for unnest in find_all_in_scope(expression, exp.Unnest)
 85            if isinstance(unnest.parent, (exp.From, exp.Join))
 86        }
 87        if unnest_aliases:
 88            for column in expression.find_all(exp.Column):
 89                if column.table in unnest_aliases:
 90                    column.set("table", None)
 91                elif column.db in unnest_aliases:
 92                    column.set("db", None)
 93
 94    return expression
 95
 96
 97# https://issuetracker.google.com/issues/162294746
 98# workaround for bigquery bug when grouping by an expression and then ordering
 99# WITH x AS (SELECT 1 y)
100# SELECT y + 1 z
101# FROM x
102# GROUP BY x + 1
103# ORDER by z
104def _alias_ordered_group(expression: exp.Expression) -> exp.Expression:
105    if isinstance(expression, exp.Select):
106        group = expression.args.get("group")
107        order = expression.args.get("order")
108
109        if group and order:
110            aliases = {
111                select.this: select.args["alias"]
112                for select in expression.selects
113                if isinstance(select, exp.Alias)
114            }
115
116            for grouped in group.expressions:
117                if grouped.is_int:
118                    continue
119                alias = aliases.get(grouped)
120                if alias:
121                    grouped.replace(exp.column(alias))
122
123    return expression
124
125
126def _pushdown_cte_column_names(expression: exp.Expression) -> exp.Expression:
127    """BigQuery doesn't allow column names when defining a CTE, so we try to push them down."""
128    if isinstance(expression, exp.CTE) and expression.alias_column_names:
129        cte_query = expression.this
130
131        if cte_query.is_star:
132            logger.warning(
133                "Can't push down CTE column names for star queries. Run the query through"
134                " the optimizer or use 'qualify' to expand the star projections first."
135            )
136            return expression
137
138        column_names = expression.alias_column_names
139        expression.args["alias"].set("columns", None)
140
141        for name, select in zip(column_names, cte_query.selects):
142            to_replace = select
143
144            if isinstance(select, exp.Alias):
145                select = select.this
146
147            # Inner aliases are shadowed by the CTE column names
148            to_replace.replace(exp.alias_(select, name))
149
150    return expression
151
152
153def _build_parse_timestamp(args: t.List) -> exp.StrToTime:
154    this = build_formatted_time(exp.StrToTime, "bigquery")([seq_get(args, 1), seq_get(args, 0)])
155    this.set("zone", seq_get(args, 2))
156    return this
157
158
159def _build_timestamp(args: t.List) -> exp.Timestamp:
160    timestamp = exp.Timestamp.from_arg_list(args)
161    timestamp.set("with_tz", True)
162    return timestamp
163
164
165def _build_date(args: t.List) -> exp.Date | exp.DateFromParts:
166    expr_type = exp.DateFromParts if len(args) == 3 else exp.Date
167    return expr_type.from_arg_list(args)
168
169
170def _build_to_hex(args: t.List) -> exp.Hex | exp.MD5:
171    # TO_HEX(MD5(..)) is common in BigQuery, so it's parsed into MD5 to simplify its transpilation
172    arg = seq_get(args, 0)
173    return exp.MD5(this=arg.this) if isinstance(arg, exp.MD5Digest) else exp.Hex(this=arg)
174
175
176def _array_contains_sql(self: BigQuery.Generator, expression: exp.ArrayContains) -> str:
177    return self.sql(
178        exp.Exists(
179            this=exp.select("1")
180            .from_(exp.Unnest(expressions=[expression.left]).as_("_unnest", table=["_col"]))
181            .where(exp.column("_col").eq(expression.right))
182        )
183    )
184
185
186def _ts_or_ds_add_sql(self: BigQuery.Generator, expression: exp.TsOrDsAdd) -> str:
187    return date_add_interval_sql("DATE", "ADD")(self, ts_or_ds_add_cast(expression))
188
189
190def _ts_or_ds_diff_sql(self: BigQuery.Generator, expression: exp.TsOrDsDiff) -> str:
191    expression.this.replace(exp.cast(expression.this, "TIMESTAMP", copy=True))
192    expression.expression.replace(exp.cast(expression.expression, "TIMESTAMP", copy=True))
193    unit = expression.args.get("unit") or "DAY"
194    return self.func("DATE_DIFF", expression.this, expression.expression, unit)
195
196
197def _unix_to_time_sql(self: BigQuery.Generator, expression: exp.UnixToTime) -> str:
198    scale = expression.args.get("scale")
199    timestamp = expression.this
200
201    if scale in (None, exp.UnixToTime.SECONDS):
202        return self.func("TIMESTAMP_SECONDS", timestamp)
203    if scale == exp.UnixToTime.MILLIS:
204        return self.func("TIMESTAMP_MILLIS", timestamp)
205    if scale == exp.UnixToTime.MICROS:
206        return self.func("TIMESTAMP_MICROS", timestamp)
207
208    unix_seconds = exp.cast(exp.Div(this=timestamp, expression=exp.func("POW", 10, scale)), "int64")
209    return self.func("TIMESTAMP_SECONDS", unix_seconds)
210
211
212def _build_time(args: t.List) -> exp.Func:
213    if len(args) == 1:
214        return exp.TsOrDsToTime(this=args[0])
215    if len(args) == 3:
216        return exp.TimeFromParts.from_arg_list(args)
217
218    return exp.Anonymous(this="TIME", expressions=args)
219
220
221class BigQuery(Dialect):
222    WEEK_OFFSET = -1
223    UNNEST_COLUMN_ONLY = True
224    SUPPORTS_USER_DEFINED_TYPES = False
225    SUPPORTS_SEMI_ANTI_JOIN = False
226    LOG_BASE_FIRST = False
227
228    # https://cloud.google.com/bigquery/docs/reference/standard-sql/lexical#case_sensitivity
229    NORMALIZATION_STRATEGY = NormalizationStrategy.CASE_INSENSITIVE
230
231    # bigquery udfs are case sensitive
232    NORMALIZE_FUNCTIONS = False
233
234    # https://cloud.google.com/bigquery/docs/reference/standard-sql/format-elements#format_elements_date_time
235    TIME_MAPPING = {
236        "%D": "%m/%d/%y",
237        "%E*S": "%S.%f",
238        "%E6S": "%S.%f",
239    }
240
241    ESCAPE_SEQUENCES = {
242        "\\a": "\a",
243        "\\b": "\b",
244        "\\f": "\f",
245        "\\n": "\n",
246        "\\r": "\r",
247        "\\t": "\t",
248        "\\v": "\v",
249    }
250
251    FORMAT_MAPPING = {
252        "DD": "%d",
253        "MM": "%m",
254        "MON": "%b",
255        "MONTH": "%B",
256        "YYYY": "%Y",
257        "YY": "%y",
258        "HH": "%I",
259        "HH12": "%I",
260        "HH24": "%H",
261        "MI": "%M",
262        "SS": "%S",
263        "SSSSS": "%f",
264        "TZH": "%z",
265    }
266
267    # The _PARTITIONTIME and _PARTITIONDATE pseudo-columns are not returned by a SELECT * statement
268    # https://cloud.google.com/bigquery/docs/querying-partitioned-tables#query_an_ingestion-time_partitioned_table
269    PSEUDOCOLUMNS = {"_PARTITIONTIME", "_PARTITIONDATE"}
270
271    def normalize_identifier(self, expression: E) -> E:
272        if isinstance(expression, exp.Identifier):
273            parent = expression.parent
274            while isinstance(parent, exp.Dot):
275                parent = parent.parent
276
277            # In BigQuery, CTEs are case-insensitive, but UDF and table names are case-sensitive
278            # by default. The following check uses a heuristic to detect tables based on whether
279            # they are qualified. This should generally be correct, because tables in BigQuery
280            # must be qualified with at least a dataset, unless @@dataset_id is set.
281            case_sensitive = (
282                isinstance(parent, exp.UserDefinedFunction)
283                or (
284                    isinstance(parent, exp.Table)
285                    and parent.db
286                    and (parent.meta.get("quoted_table") or not parent.meta.get("maybe_column"))
287                )
288                or expression.meta.get("is_table")
289            )
290            if not case_sensitive:
291                expression.set("this", expression.this.lower())
292
293        return expression
294
295    class Tokenizer(tokens.Tokenizer):
296        QUOTES = ["'", '"', '"""', "'''"]
297        COMMENTS = ["--", "#", ("/*", "*/")]
298        IDENTIFIERS = ["`"]
299        STRING_ESCAPES = ["\\"]
300
301        HEX_STRINGS = [("0x", ""), ("0X", "")]
302
303        BYTE_STRINGS = [
304            (prefix + q, q) for q in t.cast(t.List[str], QUOTES) for prefix in ("b", "B")
305        ]
306
307        RAW_STRINGS = [
308            (prefix + q, q) for q in t.cast(t.List[str], QUOTES) for prefix in ("r", "R")
309        ]
310
311        KEYWORDS = {
312            **tokens.Tokenizer.KEYWORDS,
313            "ANY TYPE": TokenType.VARIANT,
314            "BEGIN": TokenType.COMMAND,
315            "BEGIN TRANSACTION": TokenType.BEGIN,
316            "BYTES": TokenType.BINARY,
317            "CURRENT_DATETIME": TokenType.CURRENT_DATETIME,
318            "DECLARE": TokenType.COMMAND,
319            "ELSEIF": TokenType.COMMAND,
320            "EXCEPTION": TokenType.COMMAND,
321            "FLOAT64": TokenType.DOUBLE,
322            "FOR SYSTEM_TIME": TokenType.TIMESTAMP_SNAPSHOT,
323            "MODEL": TokenType.MODEL,
324            "NOT DETERMINISTIC": TokenType.VOLATILE,
325            "RECORD": TokenType.STRUCT,
326            "TIMESTAMP": TokenType.TIMESTAMPTZ,
327        }
328        KEYWORDS.pop("DIV")
329        KEYWORDS.pop("VALUES")
330
331    class Parser(parser.Parser):
332        PREFIXED_PIVOT_COLUMNS = True
333        LOG_DEFAULTS_TO_LN = True
334        SUPPORTS_IMPLICIT_UNNEST = True
335
336        FUNCTIONS = {
337            **parser.Parser.FUNCTIONS,
338            "DATE": _build_date,
339            "DATE_ADD": build_date_delta_with_interval(exp.DateAdd),
340            "DATE_SUB": build_date_delta_with_interval(exp.DateSub),
341            "DATE_TRUNC": lambda args: exp.DateTrunc(
342                unit=exp.Literal.string(str(seq_get(args, 1))),
343                this=seq_get(args, 0),
344            ),
345            "DATETIME_ADD": build_date_delta_with_interval(exp.DatetimeAdd),
346            "DATETIME_SUB": build_date_delta_with_interval(exp.DatetimeSub),
347            "DIV": binary_from_function(exp.IntDiv),
348            "FORMAT_DATE": lambda args: exp.TimeToStr(
349                this=exp.TsOrDsToDate(this=seq_get(args, 1)), format=seq_get(args, 0)
350            ),
351            "GENERATE_ARRAY": exp.GenerateSeries.from_arg_list,
352            "JSON_EXTRACT_SCALAR": lambda args: exp.JSONExtractScalar(
353                this=seq_get(args, 0), expression=seq_get(args, 1) or exp.Literal.string("$")
354            ),
355            "MD5": exp.MD5Digest.from_arg_list,
356            "TO_HEX": _build_to_hex,
357            "PARSE_DATE": lambda args: build_formatted_time(exp.StrToDate, "bigquery")(
358                [seq_get(args, 1), seq_get(args, 0)]
359            ),
360            "PARSE_TIMESTAMP": _build_parse_timestamp,
361            "REGEXP_CONTAINS": exp.RegexpLike.from_arg_list,
362            "REGEXP_EXTRACT": lambda args: exp.RegexpExtract(
363                this=seq_get(args, 0),
364                expression=seq_get(args, 1),
365                position=seq_get(args, 2),
366                occurrence=seq_get(args, 3),
367                group=exp.Literal.number(1) if re.compile(args[1].name).groups == 1 else None,
368            ),
369            "SHA256": lambda args: exp.SHA2(this=seq_get(args, 0), length=exp.Literal.number(256)),
370            "SHA512": lambda args: exp.SHA2(this=seq_get(args, 0), length=exp.Literal.number(512)),
371            "SPLIT": lambda args: exp.Split(
372                # https://cloud.google.com/bigquery/docs/reference/standard-sql/string_functions#split
373                this=seq_get(args, 0),
374                expression=seq_get(args, 1) or exp.Literal.string(","),
375            ),
376            "TIME": _build_time,
377            "TIME_ADD": build_date_delta_with_interval(exp.TimeAdd),
378            "TIME_SUB": build_date_delta_with_interval(exp.TimeSub),
379            "TIMESTAMP": _build_timestamp,
380            "TIMESTAMP_ADD": build_date_delta_with_interval(exp.TimestampAdd),
381            "TIMESTAMP_SUB": build_date_delta_with_interval(exp.TimestampSub),
382            "TIMESTAMP_MICROS": lambda args: exp.UnixToTime(
383                this=seq_get(args, 0), scale=exp.UnixToTime.MICROS
384            ),
385            "TIMESTAMP_MILLIS": lambda args: exp.UnixToTime(
386                this=seq_get(args, 0), scale=exp.UnixToTime.MILLIS
387            ),
388            "TIMESTAMP_SECONDS": lambda args: exp.UnixToTime(this=seq_get(args, 0)),
389            "TO_JSON_STRING": exp.JSONFormat.from_arg_list,
390        }
391
392        FUNCTION_PARSERS = {
393            **parser.Parser.FUNCTION_PARSERS,
394            "ARRAY": lambda self: self.expression(exp.Array, expressions=[self._parse_statement()]),
395        }
396        FUNCTION_PARSERS.pop("TRIM")
397
398        NO_PAREN_FUNCTIONS = {
399            **parser.Parser.NO_PAREN_FUNCTIONS,
400            TokenType.CURRENT_DATETIME: exp.CurrentDatetime,
401        }
402
403        NESTED_TYPE_TOKENS = {
404            *parser.Parser.NESTED_TYPE_TOKENS,
405            TokenType.TABLE,
406        }
407
408        PROPERTY_PARSERS = {
409            **parser.Parser.PROPERTY_PARSERS,
410            "NOT DETERMINISTIC": lambda self: self.expression(
411                exp.StabilityProperty, this=exp.Literal.string("VOLATILE")
412            ),
413            "OPTIONS": lambda self: self._parse_with_property(),
414        }
415
416        CONSTRAINT_PARSERS = {
417            **parser.Parser.CONSTRAINT_PARSERS,
418            "OPTIONS": lambda self: exp.Properties(expressions=self._parse_with_property()),
419        }
420
421        RANGE_PARSERS = parser.Parser.RANGE_PARSERS.copy()
422        RANGE_PARSERS.pop(TokenType.OVERLAPS)
423
424        NULL_TOKENS = {TokenType.NULL, TokenType.UNKNOWN}
425
426        STATEMENT_PARSERS = {
427            **parser.Parser.STATEMENT_PARSERS,
428            TokenType.ELSE: lambda self: self._parse_as_command(self._prev),
429            TokenType.END: lambda self: self._parse_as_command(self._prev),
430            TokenType.FOR: lambda self: self._parse_for_in(),
431        }
432
433        BRACKET_OFFSETS = {
434            "OFFSET": (0, False),
435            "ORDINAL": (1, False),
436            "SAFE_OFFSET": (0, True),
437            "SAFE_ORDINAL": (1, True),
438        }
439
440        def _parse_for_in(self) -> exp.ForIn:
441            this = self._parse_range()
442            self._match_text_seq("DO")
443            return self.expression(exp.ForIn, this=this, expression=self._parse_statement())
444
445        def _parse_table_part(self, schema: bool = False) -> t.Optional[exp.Expression]:
446            this = super()._parse_table_part(schema=schema) or self._parse_number()
447
448            # https://cloud.google.com/bigquery/docs/reference/standard-sql/lexical#table_names
449            if isinstance(this, exp.Identifier):
450                table_name = this.name
451                while self._match(TokenType.DASH, advance=False) and self._next:
452                    text = ""
453                    while self._curr and self._curr.token_type != TokenType.DOT:
454                        self._advance()
455                        text += self._prev.text
456                    table_name += text
457
458                this = exp.Identifier(this=table_name, quoted=this.args.get("quoted"))
459            elif isinstance(this, exp.Literal):
460                table_name = this.name
461
462                if self._is_connected() and self._parse_var(any_token=True):
463                    table_name += self._prev.text
464
465                this = exp.Identifier(this=table_name, quoted=True)
466
467            return this
468
469        def _parse_table_parts(
470            self, schema: bool = False, is_db_reference: bool = False, wildcard: bool = False
471        ) -> exp.Table:
472            table = super()._parse_table_parts(
473                schema=schema, is_db_reference=is_db_reference, wildcard=True
474            )
475
476            # proj-1.db.tbl -- `1.` is tokenized as a float so we need to unravel it here
477            if not table.catalog:
478                if table.db:
479                    parts = table.db.split(".")
480                    if len(parts) == 2 and not table.args["db"].quoted:
481                        table.set("catalog", exp.Identifier(this=parts[0]))
482                        table.set("db", exp.Identifier(this=parts[1]))
483                else:
484                    parts = table.name.split(".")
485                    if len(parts) == 2 and not table.this.quoted:
486                        table.set("db", exp.Identifier(this=parts[0]))
487                        table.set("this", exp.Identifier(this=parts[1]))
488
489            if isinstance(table.this, exp.Identifier) and "." in table.name:
490                catalog, db, this, *rest = (
491                    t.cast(t.Optional[exp.Expression], exp.to_identifier(x, quoted=True))
492                    for x in split_num_words(table.name, ".", 3)
493                )
494
495                if rest and this:
496                    this = exp.Dot.build(t.cast(t.List[exp.Expression], [this, *rest]))
497
498                table = exp.Table(this=this, db=db, catalog=catalog)
499                table.meta["quoted_table"] = True
500
501            return table
502
503        @t.overload
504        def _parse_json_object(self, agg: Lit[False]) -> exp.JSONObject: ...
505
506        @t.overload
507        def _parse_json_object(self, agg: Lit[True]) -> exp.JSONObjectAgg: ...
508
509        def _parse_json_object(self, agg=False):
510            json_object = super()._parse_json_object()
511            array_kv_pair = seq_get(json_object.expressions, 0)
512
513            # Converts BQ's "signature 2" of JSON_OBJECT into SQLGlot's canonical representation
514            # https://cloud.google.com/bigquery/docs/reference/standard-sql/json_functions#json_object_signature2
515            if (
516                array_kv_pair
517                and isinstance(array_kv_pair.this, exp.Array)
518                and isinstance(array_kv_pair.expression, exp.Array)
519            ):
520                keys = array_kv_pair.this.expressions
521                values = array_kv_pair.expression.expressions
522
523                json_object.set(
524                    "expressions",
525                    [exp.JSONKeyValue(this=k, expression=v) for k, v in zip(keys, values)],
526                )
527
528            return json_object
529
530        def _parse_bracket(self, this: t.Optional[exp.Expression]) -> t.Optional[exp.Expression]:
531            bracket = super()._parse_bracket(this)
532
533            if this is bracket:
534                return bracket
535
536            if isinstance(bracket, exp.Bracket):
537                for expression in bracket.expressions:
538                    name = expression.name.upper()
539
540                    if name not in self.BRACKET_OFFSETS:
541                        break
542
543                    offset, safe = self.BRACKET_OFFSETS[name]
544                    bracket.set("offset", offset)
545                    bracket.set("safe", safe)
546                    expression.replace(expression.expressions[0])
547
548            return bracket
549
550    class Generator(generator.Generator):
551        EXPLICIT_UNION = True
552        INTERVAL_ALLOWS_PLURAL_FORM = False
553        JOIN_HINTS = False
554        QUERY_HINTS = False
555        TABLE_HINTS = False
556        LIMIT_FETCH = "LIMIT"
557        RENAME_TABLE_WITH_DB = False
558        NVL2_SUPPORTED = False
559        UNNEST_WITH_ORDINALITY = False
560        COLLATE_IS_FUNC = True
561        LIMIT_ONLY_LITERALS = True
562        SUPPORTS_TABLE_ALIAS_COLUMNS = False
563        UNPIVOT_ALIASES_ARE_IDENTIFIERS = False
564        JSON_KEY_VALUE_PAIR_SEP = ","
565        NULL_ORDERING_SUPPORTED = False
566        IGNORE_NULLS_IN_FUNC = True
567        JSON_PATH_SINGLE_QUOTE_ESCAPE = True
568        CAN_IMPLEMENT_ARRAY_ANY = True
569        NAMED_PLACEHOLDER_TOKEN = "@"
570
571        TRANSFORMS = {
572            **generator.Generator.TRANSFORMS,
573            exp.ApproxDistinct: rename_func("APPROX_COUNT_DISTINCT"),
574            exp.ArgMax: arg_max_or_min_no_count("MAX_BY"),
575            exp.ArgMin: arg_max_or_min_no_count("MIN_BY"),
576            exp.ArrayContains: _array_contains_sql,
577            exp.ArrayFilter: filter_array_using_unnest,
578            exp.ArraySize: rename_func("ARRAY_LENGTH"),
579            exp.Cast: transforms.preprocess([transforms.remove_precision_parameterized_types]),
580            exp.CollateProperty: lambda self, e: (
581                f"DEFAULT COLLATE {self.sql(e, 'this')}"
582                if e.args.get("default")
583                else f"COLLATE {self.sql(e, 'this')}"
584            ),
585            exp.Commit: lambda *_: "COMMIT TRANSACTION",
586            exp.CountIf: rename_func("COUNTIF"),
587            exp.Create: _create_sql,
588            exp.CTE: transforms.preprocess([_pushdown_cte_column_names]),
589            exp.DateAdd: date_add_interval_sql("DATE", "ADD"),
590            exp.DateDiff: lambda self, e: self.func(
591                "DATE_DIFF", e.this, e.expression, e.unit or "DAY"
592            ),
593            exp.DateFromParts: rename_func("DATE"),
594            exp.DateStrToDate: datestrtodate_sql,
595            exp.DateSub: date_add_interval_sql("DATE", "SUB"),
596            exp.DatetimeAdd: date_add_interval_sql("DATETIME", "ADD"),
597            exp.DatetimeSub: date_add_interval_sql("DATETIME", "SUB"),
598            exp.DateTrunc: lambda self, e: self.func("DATE_TRUNC", e.this, e.text("unit")),
599            exp.FromTimeZone: lambda self, e: self.func(
600                "DATETIME", self.func("TIMESTAMP", e.this, e.args.get("zone")), "'UTC'"
601            ),
602            exp.GenerateSeries: rename_func("GENERATE_ARRAY"),
603            exp.GroupConcat: rename_func("STRING_AGG"),
604            exp.Hex: rename_func("TO_HEX"),
605            exp.If: if_sql(false_value="NULL"),
606            exp.ILike: no_ilike_sql,
607            exp.IntDiv: rename_func("DIV"),
608            exp.JSONFormat: rename_func("TO_JSON_STRING"),
609            exp.Max: max_or_greatest,
610            exp.MD5: lambda self, e: self.func("TO_HEX", self.func("MD5", e.this)),
611            exp.MD5Digest: rename_func("MD5"),
612            exp.Min: min_or_least,
613            exp.PartitionedByProperty: lambda self, e: f"PARTITION BY {self.sql(e, 'this')}",
614            exp.RegexpExtract: lambda self, e: self.func(
615                "REGEXP_EXTRACT",
616                e.this,
617                e.expression,
618                e.args.get("position"),
619                e.args.get("occurrence"),
620            ),
621            exp.RegexpReplace: regexp_replace_sql,
622            exp.RegexpLike: rename_func("REGEXP_CONTAINS"),
623            exp.ReturnsProperty: _returnsproperty_sql,
624            exp.Rollback: lambda *_: "ROLLBACK TRANSACTION",
625            exp.Select: transforms.preprocess(
626                [
627                    transforms.explode_to_unnest(),
628                    _unqualify_unnest,
629                    transforms.eliminate_distinct_on,
630                    _alias_ordered_group,
631                    transforms.eliminate_semi_and_anti_joins,
632                ]
633            ),
634            exp.SHA2: lambda self, e: self.func(
635                "SHA256" if e.text("length") == "256" else "SHA512", e.this
636            ),
637            exp.StabilityProperty: lambda self, e: (
638                "DETERMINISTIC" if e.name == "IMMUTABLE" else "NOT DETERMINISTIC"
639            ),
640            exp.StrToDate: lambda self, e: self.func("PARSE_DATE", self.format_time(e), e.this),
641            exp.StrToTime: lambda self, e: self.func(
642                "PARSE_TIMESTAMP", self.format_time(e), e.this, e.args.get("zone")
643            ),
644            exp.TimeAdd: date_add_interval_sql("TIME", "ADD"),
645            exp.TimeFromParts: rename_func("TIME"),
646            exp.TimeSub: date_add_interval_sql("TIME", "SUB"),
647            exp.TimestampAdd: date_add_interval_sql("TIMESTAMP", "ADD"),
648            exp.TimestampDiff: rename_func("TIMESTAMP_DIFF"),
649            exp.TimestampSub: date_add_interval_sql("TIMESTAMP", "SUB"),
650            exp.TimeStrToTime: timestrtotime_sql,
651            exp.Transaction: lambda *_: "BEGIN TRANSACTION",
652            exp.Trim: lambda self, e: self.func("TRIM", e.this, e.expression),
653            exp.TsOrDsAdd: _ts_or_ds_add_sql,
654            exp.TsOrDsDiff: _ts_or_ds_diff_sql,
655            exp.TsOrDsToTime: rename_func("TIME"),
656            exp.Unhex: rename_func("FROM_HEX"),
657            exp.UnixDate: rename_func("UNIX_DATE"),
658            exp.UnixToTime: _unix_to_time_sql,
659            exp.Values: _derived_table_values_to_unnest,
660            exp.VariancePop: rename_func("VAR_POP"),
661        }
662
663        SUPPORTED_JSON_PATH_PARTS = {
664            exp.JSONPathKey,
665            exp.JSONPathRoot,
666            exp.JSONPathSubscript,
667        }
668
669        TYPE_MAPPING = {
670            **generator.Generator.TYPE_MAPPING,
671            exp.DataType.Type.BIGDECIMAL: "BIGNUMERIC",
672            exp.DataType.Type.BIGINT: "INT64",
673            exp.DataType.Type.BINARY: "BYTES",
674            exp.DataType.Type.BOOLEAN: "BOOL",
675            exp.DataType.Type.CHAR: "STRING",
676            exp.DataType.Type.DECIMAL: "NUMERIC",
677            exp.DataType.Type.DOUBLE: "FLOAT64",
678            exp.DataType.Type.FLOAT: "FLOAT64",
679            exp.DataType.Type.INT: "INT64",
680            exp.DataType.Type.NCHAR: "STRING",
681            exp.DataType.Type.NVARCHAR: "STRING",
682            exp.DataType.Type.SMALLINT: "INT64",
683            exp.DataType.Type.TEXT: "STRING",
684            exp.DataType.Type.TIMESTAMP: "DATETIME",
685            exp.DataType.Type.TIMESTAMPTZ: "TIMESTAMP",
686            exp.DataType.Type.TIMESTAMPLTZ: "TIMESTAMP",
687            exp.DataType.Type.TINYINT: "INT64",
688            exp.DataType.Type.VARBINARY: "BYTES",
689            exp.DataType.Type.VARCHAR: "STRING",
690            exp.DataType.Type.VARIANT: "ANY TYPE",
691        }
692
693        PROPERTIES_LOCATION = {
694            **generator.Generator.PROPERTIES_LOCATION,
695            exp.PartitionedByProperty: exp.Properties.Location.POST_SCHEMA,
696            exp.VolatileProperty: exp.Properties.Location.UNSUPPORTED,
697        }
698
699        # from: https://cloud.google.com/bigquery/docs/reference/standard-sql/lexical#reserved_keywords
700        RESERVED_KEYWORDS = {
701            *generator.Generator.RESERVED_KEYWORDS,
702            "all",
703            "and",
704            "any",
705            "array",
706            "as",
707            "asc",
708            "assert_rows_modified",
709            "at",
710            "between",
711            "by",
712            "case",
713            "cast",
714            "collate",
715            "contains",
716            "create",
717            "cross",
718            "cube",
719            "current",
720            "default",
721            "define",
722            "desc",
723            "distinct",
724            "else",
725            "end",
726            "enum",
727            "escape",
728            "except",
729            "exclude",
730            "exists",
731            "extract",
732            "false",
733            "fetch",
734            "following",
735            "for",
736            "from",
737            "full",
738            "group",
739            "grouping",
740            "groups",
741            "hash",
742            "having",
743            "if",
744            "ignore",
745            "in",
746            "inner",
747            "intersect",
748            "interval",
749            "into",
750            "is",
751            "join",
752            "lateral",
753            "left",
754            "like",
755            "limit",
756            "lookup",
757            "merge",
758            "natural",
759            "new",
760            "no",
761            "not",
762            "null",
763            "nulls",
764            "of",
765            "on",
766            "or",
767            "order",
768            "outer",
769            "over",
770            "partition",
771            "preceding",
772            "proto",
773            "qualify",
774            "range",
775            "recursive",
776            "respect",
777            "right",
778            "rollup",
779            "rows",
780            "select",
781            "set",
782            "some",
783            "struct",
784            "tablesample",
785            "then",
786            "to",
787            "treat",
788            "true",
789            "unbounded",
790            "union",
791            "unnest",
792            "using",
793            "when",
794            "where",
795            "window",
796            "with",
797            "within",
798        }
799
800        def table_parts(self, expression: exp.Table) -> str:
801            # Depending on the context, `x.y` may not resolve to the same data source as `x`.`y`, so
802            # we need to make sure the correct quoting is used in each case.
803            #
804            # For example, if there is a CTE x that clashes with a schema name, then the former will
805            # return the table y in that schema, whereas the latter will return the CTE's y column:
806            #
807            # - WITH x AS (SELECT [1, 2] AS y) SELECT * FROM x, `x.y`   -> cross join
808            # - WITH x AS (SELECT [1, 2] AS y) SELECT * FROM x, `x`.`y` -> implicit unnest
809            if expression.meta.get("quoted_table"):
810                table_parts = ".".join(p.name for p in expression.parts)
811                return self.sql(exp.Identifier(this=table_parts, quoted=True))
812
813            return super().table_parts(expression)
814
815        def timetostr_sql(self, expression: exp.TimeToStr) -> str:
816            this = expression.this if isinstance(expression.this, exp.TsOrDsToDate) else expression
817            return self.func("FORMAT_DATE", self.format_time(expression), this.this)
818
819        def eq_sql(self, expression: exp.EQ) -> str:
820            # Operands of = cannot be NULL in BigQuery
821            if isinstance(expression.left, exp.Null) or isinstance(expression.right, exp.Null):
822                if not isinstance(expression.parent, exp.Update):
823                    return "NULL"
824
825            return self.binary(expression, "=")
826
827        def attimezone_sql(self, expression: exp.AtTimeZone) -> str:
828            parent = expression.parent
829
830            # BigQuery allows CAST(.. AS {STRING|TIMESTAMP} [FORMAT <fmt> [AT TIME ZONE <tz>]]).
831            # Only the TIMESTAMP one should use the below conversion, when AT TIME ZONE is included.
832            if not isinstance(parent, exp.Cast) or not parent.to.is_type("text"):
833                return self.func(
834                    "TIMESTAMP", self.func("DATETIME", expression.this, expression.args.get("zone"))
835                )
836
837            return super().attimezone_sql(expression)
838
839        def trycast_sql(self, expression: exp.TryCast) -> str:
840            return self.cast_sql(expression, safe_prefix="SAFE_")
841
842        def array_sql(self, expression: exp.Array) -> str:
843            first_arg = seq_get(expression.expressions, 0)
844            if isinstance(first_arg, exp.Query):
845                return f"ARRAY{self.wrap(self.sql(first_arg))}"
846
847            return inline_array_sql(self, expression)
848
849        def bracket_sql(self, expression: exp.Bracket) -> str:
850            this = self.sql(expression, "this")
851            expressions = expression.expressions
852
853            if len(expressions) == 1:
854                arg = expressions[0]
855                if arg.type is None:
856                    from sqlglot.optimizer.annotate_types import annotate_types
857
858                    arg = annotate_types(arg)
859
860                if arg.type and arg.type.this in exp.DataType.TEXT_TYPES:
861                    # BQ doesn't support bracket syntax with string values
862                    return f"{this}.{arg.name}"
863
864            expressions_sql = ", ".join(self.sql(e) for e in expressions)
865            offset = expression.args.get("offset")
866
867            if offset == 0:
868                expressions_sql = f"OFFSET({expressions_sql})"
869            elif offset == 1:
870                expressions_sql = f"ORDINAL({expressions_sql})"
871            elif offset is not None:
872                self.unsupported(f"Unsupported array offset: {offset}")
873
874            if expression.args.get("safe"):
875                expressions_sql = f"SAFE_{expressions_sql}"
876
877            return f"{this}[{expressions_sql}]"
878
879        def in_unnest_op(self, expression: exp.Unnest) -> str:
880            return self.sql(expression)
881
882        def except_op(self, expression: exp.Except) -> str:
883            if not expression.args.get("distinct"):
884                self.unsupported("EXCEPT without DISTINCT is not supported in BigQuery")
885            return f"EXCEPT{' DISTINCT' if expression.args.get('distinct') else ' ALL'}"
886
887        def intersect_op(self, expression: exp.Intersect) -> str:
888            if not expression.args.get("distinct"):
889                self.unsupported("INTERSECT without DISTINCT is not supported in BigQuery")
890            return f"INTERSECT{' DISTINCT' if expression.args.get('distinct') else ' ALL'}"
891
892        def with_properties(self, properties: exp.Properties) -> str:
893            return self.properties(properties, prefix=self.seg("OPTIONS"))
894
895        def version_sql(self, expression: exp.Version) -> str:
896            if expression.name == "TIMESTAMP":
897                expression.set("this", "SYSTEM_TIME")
898            return super().version_sql(expression)
logger = <Logger sqlglot (WARNING)>
class BigQuery(sqlglot.dialects.dialect.Dialect):
222class BigQuery(Dialect):
223    WEEK_OFFSET = -1
224    UNNEST_COLUMN_ONLY = True
225    SUPPORTS_USER_DEFINED_TYPES = False
226    SUPPORTS_SEMI_ANTI_JOIN = False
227    LOG_BASE_FIRST = False
228
229    # https://cloud.google.com/bigquery/docs/reference/standard-sql/lexical#case_sensitivity
230    NORMALIZATION_STRATEGY = NormalizationStrategy.CASE_INSENSITIVE
231
232    # bigquery udfs are case sensitive
233    NORMALIZE_FUNCTIONS = False
234
235    # https://cloud.google.com/bigquery/docs/reference/standard-sql/format-elements#format_elements_date_time
236    TIME_MAPPING = {
237        "%D": "%m/%d/%y",
238        "%E*S": "%S.%f",
239        "%E6S": "%S.%f",
240    }
241
242    ESCAPE_SEQUENCES = {
243        "\\a": "\a",
244        "\\b": "\b",
245        "\\f": "\f",
246        "\\n": "\n",
247        "\\r": "\r",
248        "\\t": "\t",
249        "\\v": "\v",
250    }
251
252    FORMAT_MAPPING = {
253        "DD": "%d",
254        "MM": "%m",
255        "MON": "%b",
256        "MONTH": "%B",
257        "YYYY": "%Y",
258        "YY": "%y",
259        "HH": "%I",
260        "HH12": "%I",
261        "HH24": "%H",
262        "MI": "%M",
263        "SS": "%S",
264        "SSSSS": "%f",
265        "TZH": "%z",
266    }
267
268    # The _PARTITIONTIME and _PARTITIONDATE pseudo-columns are not returned by a SELECT * statement
269    # https://cloud.google.com/bigquery/docs/querying-partitioned-tables#query_an_ingestion-time_partitioned_table
270    PSEUDOCOLUMNS = {"_PARTITIONTIME", "_PARTITIONDATE"}
271
272    def normalize_identifier(self, expression: E) -> E:
273        if isinstance(expression, exp.Identifier):
274            parent = expression.parent
275            while isinstance(parent, exp.Dot):
276                parent = parent.parent
277
278            # In BigQuery, CTEs are case-insensitive, but UDF and table names are case-sensitive
279            # by default. The following check uses a heuristic to detect tables based on whether
280            # they are qualified. This should generally be correct, because tables in BigQuery
281            # must be qualified with at least a dataset, unless @@dataset_id is set.
282            case_sensitive = (
283                isinstance(parent, exp.UserDefinedFunction)
284                or (
285                    isinstance(parent, exp.Table)
286                    and parent.db
287                    and (parent.meta.get("quoted_table") or not parent.meta.get("maybe_column"))
288                )
289                or expression.meta.get("is_table")
290            )
291            if not case_sensitive:
292                expression.set("this", expression.this.lower())
293
294        return expression
295
296    class Tokenizer(tokens.Tokenizer):
297        QUOTES = ["'", '"', '"""', "'''"]
298        COMMENTS = ["--", "#", ("/*", "*/")]
299        IDENTIFIERS = ["`"]
300        STRING_ESCAPES = ["\\"]
301
302        HEX_STRINGS = [("0x", ""), ("0X", "")]
303
304        BYTE_STRINGS = [
305            (prefix + q, q) for q in t.cast(t.List[str], QUOTES) for prefix in ("b", "B")
306        ]
307
308        RAW_STRINGS = [
309            (prefix + q, q) for q in t.cast(t.List[str], QUOTES) for prefix in ("r", "R")
310        ]
311
312        KEYWORDS = {
313            **tokens.Tokenizer.KEYWORDS,
314            "ANY TYPE": TokenType.VARIANT,
315            "BEGIN": TokenType.COMMAND,
316            "BEGIN TRANSACTION": TokenType.BEGIN,
317            "BYTES": TokenType.BINARY,
318            "CURRENT_DATETIME": TokenType.CURRENT_DATETIME,
319            "DECLARE": TokenType.COMMAND,
320            "ELSEIF": TokenType.COMMAND,
321            "EXCEPTION": TokenType.COMMAND,
322            "FLOAT64": TokenType.DOUBLE,
323            "FOR SYSTEM_TIME": TokenType.TIMESTAMP_SNAPSHOT,
324            "MODEL": TokenType.MODEL,
325            "NOT DETERMINISTIC": TokenType.VOLATILE,
326            "RECORD": TokenType.STRUCT,
327            "TIMESTAMP": TokenType.TIMESTAMPTZ,
328        }
329        KEYWORDS.pop("DIV")
330        KEYWORDS.pop("VALUES")
331
332    class Parser(parser.Parser):
333        PREFIXED_PIVOT_COLUMNS = True
334        LOG_DEFAULTS_TO_LN = True
335        SUPPORTS_IMPLICIT_UNNEST = True
336
337        FUNCTIONS = {
338            **parser.Parser.FUNCTIONS,
339            "DATE": _build_date,
340            "DATE_ADD": build_date_delta_with_interval(exp.DateAdd),
341            "DATE_SUB": build_date_delta_with_interval(exp.DateSub),
342            "DATE_TRUNC": lambda args: exp.DateTrunc(
343                unit=exp.Literal.string(str(seq_get(args, 1))),
344                this=seq_get(args, 0),
345            ),
346            "DATETIME_ADD": build_date_delta_with_interval(exp.DatetimeAdd),
347            "DATETIME_SUB": build_date_delta_with_interval(exp.DatetimeSub),
348            "DIV": binary_from_function(exp.IntDiv),
349            "FORMAT_DATE": lambda args: exp.TimeToStr(
350                this=exp.TsOrDsToDate(this=seq_get(args, 1)), format=seq_get(args, 0)
351            ),
352            "GENERATE_ARRAY": exp.GenerateSeries.from_arg_list,
353            "JSON_EXTRACT_SCALAR": lambda args: exp.JSONExtractScalar(
354                this=seq_get(args, 0), expression=seq_get(args, 1) or exp.Literal.string("$")
355            ),
356            "MD5": exp.MD5Digest.from_arg_list,
357            "TO_HEX": _build_to_hex,
358            "PARSE_DATE": lambda args: build_formatted_time(exp.StrToDate, "bigquery")(
359                [seq_get(args, 1), seq_get(args, 0)]
360            ),
361            "PARSE_TIMESTAMP": _build_parse_timestamp,
362            "REGEXP_CONTAINS": exp.RegexpLike.from_arg_list,
363            "REGEXP_EXTRACT": lambda args: exp.RegexpExtract(
364                this=seq_get(args, 0),
365                expression=seq_get(args, 1),
366                position=seq_get(args, 2),
367                occurrence=seq_get(args, 3),
368                group=exp.Literal.number(1) if re.compile(args[1].name).groups == 1 else None,
369            ),
370            "SHA256": lambda args: exp.SHA2(this=seq_get(args, 0), length=exp.Literal.number(256)),
371            "SHA512": lambda args: exp.SHA2(this=seq_get(args, 0), length=exp.Literal.number(512)),
372            "SPLIT": lambda args: exp.Split(
373                # https://cloud.google.com/bigquery/docs/reference/standard-sql/string_functions#split
374                this=seq_get(args, 0),
375                expression=seq_get(args, 1) or exp.Literal.string(","),
376            ),
377            "TIME": _build_time,
378            "TIME_ADD": build_date_delta_with_interval(exp.TimeAdd),
379            "TIME_SUB": build_date_delta_with_interval(exp.TimeSub),
380            "TIMESTAMP": _build_timestamp,
381            "TIMESTAMP_ADD": build_date_delta_with_interval(exp.TimestampAdd),
382            "TIMESTAMP_SUB": build_date_delta_with_interval(exp.TimestampSub),
383            "TIMESTAMP_MICROS": lambda args: exp.UnixToTime(
384                this=seq_get(args, 0), scale=exp.UnixToTime.MICROS
385            ),
386            "TIMESTAMP_MILLIS": lambda args: exp.UnixToTime(
387                this=seq_get(args, 0), scale=exp.UnixToTime.MILLIS
388            ),
389            "TIMESTAMP_SECONDS": lambda args: exp.UnixToTime(this=seq_get(args, 0)),
390            "TO_JSON_STRING": exp.JSONFormat.from_arg_list,
391        }
392
393        FUNCTION_PARSERS = {
394            **parser.Parser.FUNCTION_PARSERS,
395            "ARRAY": lambda self: self.expression(exp.Array, expressions=[self._parse_statement()]),
396        }
397        FUNCTION_PARSERS.pop("TRIM")
398
399        NO_PAREN_FUNCTIONS = {
400            **parser.Parser.NO_PAREN_FUNCTIONS,
401            TokenType.CURRENT_DATETIME: exp.CurrentDatetime,
402        }
403
404        NESTED_TYPE_TOKENS = {
405            *parser.Parser.NESTED_TYPE_TOKENS,
406            TokenType.TABLE,
407        }
408
409        PROPERTY_PARSERS = {
410            **parser.Parser.PROPERTY_PARSERS,
411            "NOT DETERMINISTIC": lambda self: self.expression(
412                exp.StabilityProperty, this=exp.Literal.string("VOLATILE")
413            ),
414            "OPTIONS": lambda self: self._parse_with_property(),
415        }
416
417        CONSTRAINT_PARSERS = {
418            **parser.Parser.CONSTRAINT_PARSERS,
419            "OPTIONS": lambda self: exp.Properties(expressions=self._parse_with_property()),
420        }
421
422        RANGE_PARSERS = parser.Parser.RANGE_PARSERS.copy()
423        RANGE_PARSERS.pop(TokenType.OVERLAPS)
424
425        NULL_TOKENS = {TokenType.NULL, TokenType.UNKNOWN}
426
427        STATEMENT_PARSERS = {
428            **parser.Parser.STATEMENT_PARSERS,
429            TokenType.ELSE: lambda self: self._parse_as_command(self._prev),
430            TokenType.END: lambda self: self._parse_as_command(self._prev),
431            TokenType.FOR: lambda self: self._parse_for_in(),
432        }
433
434        BRACKET_OFFSETS = {
435            "OFFSET": (0, False),
436            "ORDINAL": (1, False),
437            "SAFE_OFFSET": (0, True),
438            "SAFE_ORDINAL": (1, True),
439        }
440
441        def _parse_for_in(self) -> exp.ForIn:
442            this = self._parse_range()
443            self._match_text_seq("DO")
444            return self.expression(exp.ForIn, this=this, expression=self._parse_statement())
445
446        def _parse_table_part(self, schema: bool = False) -> t.Optional[exp.Expression]:
447            this = super()._parse_table_part(schema=schema) or self._parse_number()
448
449            # https://cloud.google.com/bigquery/docs/reference/standard-sql/lexical#table_names
450            if isinstance(this, exp.Identifier):
451                table_name = this.name
452                while self._match(TokenType.DASH, advance=False) and self._next:
453                    text = ""
454                    while self._curr and self._curr.token_type != TokenType.DOT:
455                        self._advance()
456                        text += self._prev.text
457                    table_name += text
458
459                this = exp.Identifier(this=table_name, quoted=this.args.get("quoted"))
460            elif isinstance(this, exp.Literal):
461                table_name = this.name
462
463                if self._is_connected() and self._parse_var(any_token=True):
464                    table_name += self._prev.text
465
466                this = exp.Identifier(this=table_name, quoted=True)
467
468            return this
469
470        def _parse_table_parts(
471            self, schema: bool = False, is_db_reference: bool = False, wildcard: bool = False
472        ) -> exp.Table:
473            table = super()._parse_table_parts(
474                schema=schema, is_db_reference=is_db_reference, wildcard=True
475            )
476
477            # proj-1.db.tbl -- `1.` is tokenized as a float so we need to unravel it here
478            if not table.catalog:
479                if table.db:
480                    parts = table.db.split(".")
481                    if len(parts) == 2 and not table.args["db"].quoted:
482                        table.set("catalog", exp.Identifier(this=parts[0]))
483                        table.set("db", exp.Identifier(this=parts[1]))
484                else:
485                    parts = table.name.split(".")
486                    if len(parts) == 2 and not table.this.quoted:
487                        table.set("db", exp.Identifier(this=parts[0]))
488                        table.set("this", exp.Identifier(this=parts[1]))
489
490            if isinstance(table.this, exp.Identifier) and "." in table.name:
491                catalog, db, this, *rest = (
492                    t.cast(t.Optional[exp.Expression], exp.to_identifier(x, quoted=True))
493                    for x in split_num_words(table.name, ".", 3)
494                )
495
496                if rest and this:
497                    this = exp.Dot.build(t.cast(t.List[exp.Expression], [this, *rest]))
498
499                table = exp.Table(this=this, db=db, catalog=catalog)
500                table.meta["quoted_table"] = True
501
502            return table
503
504        @t.overload
505        def _parse_json_object(self, agg: Lit[False]) -> exp.JSONObject: ...
506
507        @t.overload
508        def _parse_json_object(self, agg: Lit[True]) -> exp.JSONObjectAgg: ...
509
510        def _parse_json_object(self, agg=False):
511            json_object = super()._parse_json_object()
512            array_kv_pair = seq_get(json_object.expressions, 0)
513
514            # Converts BQ's "signature 2" of JSON_OBJECT into SQLGlot's canonical representation
515            # https://cloud.google.com/bigquery/docs/reference/standard-sql/json_functions#json_object_signature2
516            if (
517                array_kv_pair
518                and isinstance(array_kv_pair.this, exp.Array)
519                and isinstance(array_kv_pair.expression, exp.Array)
520            ):
521                keys = array_kv_pair.this.expressions
522                values = array_kv_pair.expression.expressions
523
524                json_object.set(
525                    "expressions",
526                    [exp.JSONKeyValue(this=k, expression=v) for k, v in zip(keys, values)],
527                )
528
529            return json_object
530
531        def _parse_bracket(self, this: t.Optional[exp.Expression]) -> t.Optional[exp.Expression]:
532            bracket = super()._parse_bracket(this)
533
534            if this is bracket:
535                return bracket
536
537            if isinstance(bracket, exp.Bracket):
538                for expression in bracket.expressions:
539                    name = expression.name.upper()
540
541                    if name not in self.BRACKET_OFFSETS:
542                        break
543
544                    offset, safe = self.BRACKET_OFFSETS[name]
545                    bracket.set("offset", offset)
546                    bracket.set("safe", safe)
547                    expression.replace(expression.expressions[0])
548
549            return bracket
550
551    class Generator(generator.Generator):
552        EXPLICIT_UNION = True
553        INTERVAL_ALLOWS_PLURAL_FORM = False
554        JOIN_HINTS = False
555        QUERY_HINTS = False
556        TABLE_HINTS = False
557        LIMIT_FETCH = "LIMIT"
558        RENAME_TABLE_WITH_DB = False
559        NVL2_SUPPORTED = False
560        UNNEST_WITH_ORDINALITY = False
561        COLLATE_IS_FUNC = True
562        LIMIT_ONLY_LITERALS = True
563        SUPPORTS_TABLE_ALIAS_COLUMNS = False
564        UNPIVOT_ALIASES_ARE_IDENTIFIERS = False
565        JSON_KEY_VALUE_PAIR_SEP = ","
566        NULL_ORDERING_SUPPORTED = False
567        IGNORE_NULLS_IN_FUNC = True
568        JSON_PATH_SINGLE_QUOTE_ESCAPE = True
569        CAN_IMPLEMENT_ARRAY_ANY = True
570        NAMED_PLACEHOLDER_TOKEN = "@"
571
572        TRANSFORMS = {
573            **generator.Generator.TRANSFORMS,
574            exp.ApproxDistinct: rename_func("APPROX_COUNT_DISTINCT"),
575            exp.ArgMax: arg_max_or_min_no_count("MAX_BY"),
576            exp.ArgMin: arg_max_or_min_no_count("MIN_BY"),
577            exp.ArrayContains: _array_contains_sql,
578            exp.ArrayFilter: filter_array_using_unnest,
579            exp.ArraySize: rename_func("ARRAY_LENGTH"),
580            exp.Cast: transforms.preprocess([transforms.remove_precision_parameterized_types]),
581            exp.CollateProperty: lambda self, e: (
582                f"DEFAULT COLLATE {self.sql(e, 'this')}"
583                if e.args.get("default")
584                else f"COLLATE {self.sql(e, 'this')}"
585            ),
586            exp.Commit: lambda *_: "COMMIT TRANSACTION",
587            exp.CountIf: rename_func("COUNTIF"),
588            exp.Create: _create_sql,
589            exp.CTE: transforms.preprocess([_pushdown_cte_column_names]),
590            exp.DateAdd: date_add_interval_sql("DATE", "ADD"),
591            exp.DateDiff: lambda self, e: self.func(
592                "DATE_DIFF", e.this, e.expression, e.unit or "DAY"
593            ),
594            exp.DateFromParts: rename_func("DATE"),
595            exp.DateStrToDate: datestrtodate_sql,
596            exp.DateSub: date_add_interval_sql("DATE", "SUB"),
597            exp.DatetimeAdd: date_add_interval_sql("DATETIME", "ADD"),
598            exp.DatetimeSub: date_add_interval_sql("DATETIME", "SUB"),
599            exp.DateTrunc: lambda self, e: self.func("DATE_TRUNC", e.this, e.text("unit")),
600            exp.FromTimeZone: lambda self, e: self.func(
601                "DATETIME", self.func("TIMESTAMP", e.this, e.args.get("zone")), "'UTC'"
602            ),
603            exp.GenerateSeries: rename_func("GENERATE_ARRAY"),
604            exp.GroupConcat: rename_func("STRING_AGG"),
605            exp.Hex: rename_func("TO_HEX"),
606            exp.If: if_sql(false_value="NULL"),
607            exp.ILike: no_ilike_sql,
608            exp.IntDiv: rename_func("DIV"),
609            exp.JSONFormat: rename_func("TO_JSON_STRING"),
610            exp.Max: max_or_greatest,
611            exp.MD5: lambda self, e: self.func("TO_HEX", self.func("MD5", e.this)),
612            exp.MD5Digest: rename_func("MD5"),
613            exp.Min: min_or_least,
614            exp.PartitionedByProperty: lambda self, e: f"PARTITION BY {self.sql(e, 'this')}",
615            exp.RegexpExtract: lambda self, e: self.func(
616                "REGEXP_EXTRACT",
617                e.this,
618                e.expression,
619                e.args.get("position"),
620                e.args.get("occurrence"),
621            ),
622            exp.RegexpReplace: regexp_replace_sql,
623            exp.RegexpLike: rename_func("REGEXP_CONTAINS"),
624            exp.ReturnsProperty: _returnsproperty_sql,
625            exp.Rollback: lambda *_: "ROLLBACK TRANSACTION",
626            exp.Select: transforms.preprocess(
627                [
628                    transforms.explode_to_unnest(),
629                    _unqualify_unnest,
630                    transforms.eliminate_distinct_on,
631                    _alias_ordered_group,
632                    transforms.eliminate_semi_and_anti_joins,
633                ]
634            ),
635            exp.SHA2: lambda self, e: self.func(
636                "SHA256" if e.text("length") == "256" else "SHA512", e.this
637            ),
638            exp.StabilityProperty: lambda self, e: (
639                "DETERMINISTIC" if e.name == "IMMUTABLE" else "NOT DETERMINISTIC"
640            ),
641            exp.StrToDate: lambda self, e: self.func("PARSE_DATE", self.format_time(e), e.this),
642            exp.StrToTime: lambda self, e: self.func(
643                "PARSE_TIMESTAMP", self.format_time(e), e.this, e.args.get("zone")
644            ),
645            exp.TimeAdd: date_add_interval_sql("TIME", "ADD"),
646            exp.TimeFromParts: rename_func("TIME"),
647            exp.TimeSub: date_add_interval_sql("TIME", "SUB"),
648            exp.TimestampAdd: date_add_interval_sql("TIMESTAMP", "ADD"),
649            exp.TimestampDiff: rename_func("TIMESTAMP_DIFF"),
650            exp.TimestampSub: date_add_interval_sql("TIMESTAMP", "SUB"),
651            exp.TimeStrToTime: timestrtotime_sql,
652            exp.Transaction: lambda *_: "BEGIN TRANSACTION",
653            exp.Trim: lambda self, e: self.func("TRIM", e.this, e.expression),
654            exp.TsOrDsAdd: _ts_or_ds_add_sql,
655            exp.TsOrDsDiff: _ts_or_ds_diff_sql,
656            exp.TsOrDsToTime: rename_func("TIME"),
657            exp.Unhex: rename_func("FROM_HEX"),
658            exp.UnixDate: rename_func("UNIX_DATE"),
659            exp.UnixToTime: _unix_to_time_sql,
660            exp.Values: _derived_table_values_to_unnest,
661            exp.VariancePop: rename_func("VAR_POP"),
662        }
663
664        SUPPORTED_JSON_PATH_PARTS = {
665            exp.JSONPathKey,
666            exp.JSONPathRoot,
667            exp.JSONPathSubscript,
668        }
669
670        TYPE_MAPPING = {
671            **generator.Generator.TYPE_MAPPING,
672            exp.DataType.Type.BIGDECIMAL: "BIGNUMERIC",
673            exp.DataType.Type.BIGINT: "INT64",
674            exp.DataType.Type.BINARY: "BYTES",
675            exp.DataType.Type.BOOLEAN: "BOOL",
676            exp.DataType.Type.CHAR: "STRING",
677            exp.DataType.Type.DECIMAL: "NUMERIC",
678            exp.DataType.Type.DOUBLE: "FLOAT64",
679            exp.DataType.Type.FLOAT: "FLOAT64",
680            exp.DataType.Type.INT: "INT64",
681            exp.DataType.Type.NCHAR: "STRING",
682            exp.DataType.Type.NVARCHAR: "STRING",
683            exp.DataType.Type.SMALLINT: "INT64",
684            exp.DataType.Type.TEXT: "STRING",
685            exp.DataType.Type.TIMESTAMP: "DATETIME",
686            exp.DataType.Type.TIMESTAMPTZ: "TIMESTAMP",
687            exp.DataType.Type.TIMESTAMPLTZ: "TIMESTAMP",
688            exp.DataType.Type.TINYINT: "INT64",
689            exp.DataType.Type.VARBINARY: "BYTES",
690            exp.DataType.Type.VARCHAR: "STRING",
691            exp.DataType.Type.VARIANT: "ANY TYPE",
692        }
693
694        PROPERTIES_LOCATION = {
695            **generator.Generator.PROPERTIES_LOCATION,
696            exp.PartitionedByProperty: exp.Properties.Location.POST_SCHEMA,
697            exp.VolatileProperty: exp.Properties.Location.UNSUPPORTED,
698        }
699
700        # from: https://cloud.google.com/bigquery/docs/reference/standard-sql/lexical#reserved_keywords
701        RESERVED_KEYWORDS = {
702            *generator.Generator.RESERVED_KEYWORDS,
703            "all",
704            "and",
705            "any",
706            "array",
707            "as",
708            "asc",
709            "assert_rows_modified",
710            "at",
711            "between",
712            "by",
713            "case",
714            "cast",
715            "collate",
716            "contains",
717            "create",
718            "cross",
719            "cube",
720            "current",
721            "default",
722            "define",
723            "desc",
724            "distinct",
725            "else",
726            "end",
727            "enum",
728            "escape",
729            "except",
730            "exclude",
731            "exists",
732            "extract",
733            "false",
734            "fetch",
735            "following",
736            "for",
737            "from",
738            "full",
739            "group",
740            "grouping",
741            "groups",
742            "hash",
743            "having",
744            "if",
745            "ignore",
746            "in",
747            "inner",
748            "intersect",
749            "interval",
750            "into",
751            "is",
752            "join",
753            "lateral",
754            "left",
755            "like",
756            "limit",
757            "lookup",
758            "merge",
759            "natural",
760            "new",
761            "no",
762            "not",
763            "null",
764            "nulls",
765            "of",
766            "on",
767            "or",
768            "order",
769            "outer",
770            "over",
771            "partition",
772            "preceding",
773            "proto",
774            "qualify",
775            "range",
776            "recursive",
777            "respect",
778            "right",
779            "rollup",
780            "rows",
781            "select",
782            "set",
783            "some",
784            "struct",
785            "tablesample",
786            "then",
787            "to",
788            "treat",
789            "true",
790            "unbounded",
791            "union",
792            "unnest",
793            "using",
794            "when",
795            "where",
796            "window",
797            "with",
798            "within",
799        }
800
801        def table_parts(self, expression: exp.Table) -> str:
802            # Depending on the context, `x.y` may not resolve to the same data source as `x`.`y`, so
803            # we need to make sure the correct quoting is used in each case.
804            #
805            # For example, if there is a CTE x that clashes with a schema name, then the former will
806            # return the table y in that schema, whereas the latter will return the CTE's y column:
807            #
808            # - WITH x AS (SELECT [1, 2] AS y) SELECT * FROM x, `x.y`   -> cross join
809            # - WITH x AS (SELECT [1, 2] AS y) SELECT * FROM x, `x`.`y` -> implicit unnest
810            if expression.meta.get("quoted_table"):
811                table_parts = ".".join(p.name for p in expression.parts)
812                return self.sql(exp.Identifier(this=table_parts, quoted=True))
813
814            return super().table_parts(expression)
815
816        def timetostr_sql(self, expression: exp.TimeToStr) -> str:
817            this = expression.this if isinstance(expression.this, exp.TsOrDsToDate) else expression
818            return self.func("FORMAT_DATE", self.format_time(expression), this.this)
819
820        def eq_sql(self, expression: exp.EQ) -> str:
821            # Operands of = cannot be NULL in BigQuery
822            if isinstance(expression.left, exp.Null) or isinstance(expression.right, exp.Null):
823                if not isinstance(expression.parent, exp.Update):
824                    return "NULL"
825
826            return self.binary(expression, "=")
827
828        def attimezone_sql(self, expression: exp.AtTimeZone) -> str:
829            parent = expression.parent
830
831            # BigQuery allows CAST(.. AS {STRING|TIMESTAMP} [FORMAT <fmt> [AT TIME ZONE <tz>]]).
832            # Only the TIMESTAMP one should use the below conversion, when AT TIME ZONE is included.
833            if not isinstance(parent, exp.Cast) or not parent.to.is_type("text"):
834                return self.func(
835                    "TIMESTAMP", self.func("DATETIME", expression.this, expression.args.get("zone"))
836                )
837
838            return super().attimezone_sql(expression)
839
840        def trycast_sql(self, expression: exp.TryCast) -> str:
841            return self.cast_sql(expression, safe_prefix="SAFE_")
842
843        def array_sql(self, expression: exp.Array) -> str:
844            first_arg = seq_get(expression.expressions, 0)
845            if isinstance(first_arg, exp.Query):
846                return f"ARRAY{self.wrap(self.sql(first_arg))}"
847
848            return inline_array_sql(self, expression)
849
850        def bracket_sql(self, expression: exp.Bracket) -> str:
851            this = self.sql(expression, "this")
852            expressions = expression.expressions
853
854            if len(expressions) == 1:
855                arg = expressions[0]
856                if arg.type is None:
857                    from sqlglot.optimizer.annotate_types import annotate_types
858
859                    arg = annotate_types(arg)
860
861                if arg.type and arg.type.this in exp.DataType.TEXT_TYPES:
862                    # BQ doesn't support bracket syntax with string values
863                    return f"{this}.{arg.name}"
864
865            expressions_sql = ", ".join(self.sql(e) for e in expressions)
866            offset = expression.args.get("offset")
867
868            if offset == 0:
869                expressions_sql = f"OFFSET({expressions_sql})"
870            elif offset == 1:
871                expressions_sql = f"ORDINAL({expressions_sql})"
872            elif offset is not None:
873                self.unsupported(f"Unsupported array offset: {offset}")
874
875            if expression.args.get("safe"):
876                expressions_sql = f"SAFE_{expressions_sql}"
877
878            return f"{this}[{expressions_sql}]"
879
880        def in_unnest_op(self, expression: exp.Unnest) -> str:
881            return self.sql(expression)
882
883        def except_op(self, expression: exp.Except) -> str:
884            if not expression.args.get("distinct"):
885                self.unsupported("EXCEPT without DISTINCT is not supported in BigQuery")
886            return f"EXCEPT{' DISTINCT' if expression.args.get('distinct') else ' ALL'}"
887
888        def intersect_op(self, expression: exp.Intersect) -> str:
889            if not expression.args.get("distinct"):
890                self.unsupported("INTERSECT without DISTINCT is not supported in BigQuery")
891            return f"INTERSECT{' DISTINCT' if expression.args.get('distinct') else ' ALL'}"
892
893        def with_properties(self, properties: exp.Properties) -> str:
894            return self.properties(properties, prefix=self.seg("OPTIONS"))
895
896        def version_sql(self, expression: exp.Version) -> str:
897            if expression.name == "TIMESTAMP":
898                expression.set("this", "SYSTEM_TIME")
899            return super().version_sql(expression)
WEEK_OFFSET = -1

First day of the week in DATE_TRUNC(week). Defaults to 0 (Monday). -1 would be Sunday.

UNNEST_COLUMN_ONLY = True

Whether UNNEST table aliases are treated as column aliases.

SUPPORTS_USER_DEFINED_TYPES = False

Whether user-defined data types are supported.

SUPPORTS_SEMI_ANTI_JOIN = False

Whether SEMI or ANTI joins are supported.

LOG_BASE_FIRST = False

Whether the base comes first in the LOG function.

NORMALIZATION_STRATEGY = <NormalizationStrategy.CASE_INSENSITIVE: 'CASE_INSENSITIVE'>

Specifies the strategy according to which identifiers should be normalized.

NORMALIZE_FUNCTIONS: bool | str = False

Determines how function names are going to be normalized.

Possible values:

"upper" or True: Convert names to uppercase. "lower": Convert names to lowercase. False: Disables function name normalization.

TIME_MAPPING: Dict[str, str] = {'%D': '%m/%d/%y', '%E*S': '%S.%f', '%E6S': '%S.%f'}

Associates this dialect's time formats with their equivalent Python strftime formats.

ESCAPE_SEQUENCES: Dict[str, str] = {'\\a': '\x07', '\\b': '\x08', '\\f': '\x0c', '\\n': '\n', '\\r': '\r', '\\t': '\t', '\\v': '\x0b'}

Mapping of an unescaped escape sequence to the corresponding character.

FORMAT_MAPPING: Dict[str, str] = {'DD': '%d', 'MM': '%m', 'MON': '%b', 'MONTH': '%B', 'YYYY': '%Y', 'YY': '%y', 'HH': '%I', 'HH12': '%I', 'HH24': '%H', 'MI': '%M', 'SS': '%S', 'SSSSS': '%f', 'TZH': '%z'}

Helper which is used for parsing the special syntax CAST(x AS DATE FORMAT 'yyyy'). If empty, the corresponding trie will be constructed off of TIME_MAPPING.

PSEUDOCOLUMNS: Set[str] = {'_PARTITIONTIME', '_PARTITIONDATE'}

Columns that are auto-generated by the engine corresponding to this dialect. For example, such columns may be excluded from SELECT * queries.

def normalize_identifier(self, expression: ~E) -> ~E:
272    def normalize_identifier(self, expression: E) -> E:
273        if isinstance(expression, exp.Identifier):
274            parent = expression.parent
275            while isinstance(parent, exp.Dot):
276                parent = parent.parent
277
278            # In BigQuery, CTEs are case-insensitive, but UDF and table names are case-sensitive
279            # by default. The following check uses a heuristic to detect tables based on whether
280            # they are qualified. This should generally be correct, because tables in BigQuery
281            # must be qualified with at least a dataset, unless @@dataset_id is set.
282            case_sensitive = (
283                isinstance(parent, exp.UserDefinedFunction)
284                or (
285                    isinstance(parent, exp.Table)
286                    and parent.db
287                    and (parent.meta.get("quoted_table") or not parent.meta.get("maybe_column"))
288                )
289                or expression.meta.get("is_table")
290            )
291            if not case_sensitive:
292                expression.set("this", expression.this.lower())
293
294        return expression

Transforms an identifier in a way that resembles how it'd be resolved by this dialect.

For example, an identifier like FoO would be resolved as foo in Postgres, because it lowercases all unquoted identifiers. On the other hand, Snowflake uppercases them, so it would resolve it as FOO. If it was quoted, it'd need to be treated as case-sensitive, and so any normalization would be prohibited in order to avoid "breaking" the identifier.

There are also dialects like Spark, which are case-insensitive even when quotes are present, and dialects like MySQL, whose resolution rules match those employed by the underlying operating system, for example they may always be case-sensitive in Linux.

Finally, the normalization behavior of some engines can even be controlled through flags, like in Redshift's case, where users can explicitly set enable_case_sensitive_identifier.

SQLGlot aims to understand and handle all of these different behaviors gracefully, so that it can analyze queries in the optimizer and successfully capture their semantics.

tokenizer_class = <class 'BigQuery.Tokenizer'>
parser_class = <class 'BigQuery.Parser'>
generator_class = <class 'BigQuery.Generator'>
TIME_TRIE: Dict = {'%': {'D': {0: True}, 'E': {'*': {'S': {0: True}}, '6': {'S': {0: True}}}}}
FORMAT_TRIE: Dict = {'D': {'D': {0: True}}, 'M': {'M': {0: True}, 'O': {'N': {0: True, 'T': {'H': {0: True}}}}, 'I': {0: True}}, 'Y': {'Y': {'Y': {'Y': {0: True}}, 0: True}}, 'H': {'H': {0: True, '1': {'2': {0: True}}, '2': {'4': {0: True}}}}, 'S': {'S': {0: True, 'S': {'S': {'S': {0: True}}}}}, 'T': {'Z': {'H': {0: True}}}}
INVERSE_TIME_MAPPING: Dict[str, str] = {'%m/%d/%y': '%D', '%S.%f': '%E6S'}
INVERSE_TIME_TRIE: Dict = {'%': {'m': {'/': {'%': {'d': {'/': {'%': {'y': {0: True}}}}}}}, 'S': {'.': {'%': {'f': {0: True}}}}}}
INVERSE_ESCAPE_SEQUENCES: Dict[str, str] = {'\x07': '\\a', '\x08': '\\b', '\x0c': '\\f', '\n': '\\n', '\r': '\\r', '\t': '\\t', '\x0b': '\\v'}
QUOTE_START = "'"
QUOTE_END = "'"
IDENTIFIER_START = '`'
IDENTIFIER_END = '`'
BIT_START: Optional[str] = None
BIT_END: Optional[str] = None
HEX_START: Optional[str] = '0x'
HEX_END: Optional[str] = ''
BYTE_START: Optional[str] = "b'"
BYTE_END: Optional[str] = "'"
UNICODE_START: Optional[str] = None
UNICODE_END: Optional[str] = None
class BigQuery.Tokenizer(sqlglot.tokens.Tokenizer):
296    class Tokenizer(tokens.Tokenizer):
297        QUOTES = ["'", '"', '"""', "'''"]
298        COMMENTS = ["--", "#", ("/*", "*/")]
299        IDENTIFIERS = ["`"]
300        STRING_ESCAPES = ["\\"]
301
302        HEX_STRINGS = [("0x", ""), ("0X", "")]
303
304        BYTE_STRINGS = [
305            (prefix + q, q) for q in t.cast(t.List[str], QUOTES) for prefix in ("b", "B")
306        ]
307
308        RAW_STRINGS = [
309            (prefix + q, q) for q in t.cast(t.List[str], QUOTES) for prefix in ("r", "R")
310        ]
311
312        KEYWORDS = {
313            **tokens.Tokenizer.KEYWORDS,
314            "ANY TYPE": TokenType.VARIANT,
315            "BEGIN": TokenType.COMMAND,
316            "BEGIN TRANSACTION": TokenType.BEGIN,
317            "BYTES": TokenType.BINARY,
318            "CURRENT_DATETIME": TokenType.CURRENT_DATETIME,
319            "DECLARE": TokenType.COMMAND,
320            "ELSEIF": TokenType.COMMAND,
321            "EXCEPTION": TokenType.COMMAND,
322            "FLOAT64": TokenType.DOUBLE,
323            "FOR SYSTEM_TIME": TokenType.TIMESTAMP_SNAPSHOT,
324            "MODEL": TokenType.MODEL,
325            "NOT DETERMINISTIC": TokenType.VOLATILE,
326            "RECORD": TokenType.STRUCT,
327            "TIMESTAMP": TokenType.TIMESTAMPTZ,
328        }
329        KEYWORDS.pop("DIV")
330        KEYWORDS.pop("VALUES")
QUOTES = ["'", '"', '"""', "'''"]
COMMENTS = ['--', '#', ('/*', '*/')]
IDENTIFIERS = ['`']
STRING_ESCAPES = ['\\']
HEX_STRINGS = [('0x', ''), ('0X', '')]
BYTE_STRINGS = [("b'", "'"), ("B'", "'"), ('b"', '"'), ('B"', '"'), ('b"""', '"""'), ('B"""', '"""'), ("b'''", "'''"), ("B'''", "'''")]
RAW_STRINGS = [("r'", "'"), ("R'", "'"), ('r"', '"'), ('R"', '"'), ('r"""', '"""'), ('R"""', '"""'), ("r'''", "'''"), ("R'''", "'''")]
KEYWORDS = {'{%': <TokenType.BLOCK_START: 'BLOCK_START'>, '{%+': <TokenType.BLOCK_START: 'BLOCK_START'>, '{%-': <TokenType.BLOCK_START: 'BLOCK_START'>, '%}': <TokenType.BLOCK_END: 'BLOCK_END'>, '+%}': <TokenType.BLOCK_END: 'BLOCK_END'>, '-%}': <TokenType.BLOCK_END: 'BLOCK_END'>, '{{+': <TokenType.BLOCK_START: 'BLOCK_START'>, '{{-': <TokenType.BLOCK_START: 'BLOCK_START'>, '+}}': <TokenType.BLOCK_END: 'BLOCK_END'>, '-}}': <TokenType.BLOCK_END: 'BLOCK_END'>, '/*+': <TokenType.HINT: 'HINT'>, '==': <TokenType.EQ: 'EQ'>, '::': <TokenType.DCOLON: 'DCOLON'>, '||': <TokenType.DPIPE: 'DPIPE'>, '>=': <TokenType.GTE: 'GTE'>, '<=': <TokenType.LTE: 'LTE'>, '<>': <TokenType.NEQ: 'NEQ'>, '!=': <TokenType.NEQ: 'NEQ'>, ':=': <TokenType.COLON_EQ: 'COLON_EQ'>, '<=>': <TokenType.NULLSAFE_EQ: 'NULLSAFE_EQ'>, '->': <TokenType.ARROW: 'ARROW'>, '->>': <TokenType.DARROW: 'DARROW'>, '=>': <TokenType.FARROW: 'FARROW'>, '#>': <TokenType.HASH_ARROW: 'HASH_ARROW'>, '#>>': <TokenType.DHASH_ARROW: 'DHASH_ARROW'>, '<->': <TokenType.LR_ARROW: 'LR_ARROW'>, '&&': <TokenType.DAMP: 'DAMP'>, '??': <TokenType.DQMARK: 'DQMARK'>, 'ALL': <TokenType.ALL: 'ALL'>, 'ALWAYS': <TokenType.ALWAYS: 'ALWAYS'>, 'AND': <TokenType.AND: 'AND'>, 'ANTI': <TokenType.ANTI: 'ANTI'>, 'ANY': <TokenType.ANY: 'ANY'>, 'ASC': <TokenType.ASC: 'ASC'>, 'AS': <TokenType.ALIAS: 'ALIAS'>, 'ASOF': <TokenType.ASOF: 'ASOF'>, 'AUTOINCREMENT': <TokenType.AUTO_INCREMENT: 'AUTO_INCREMENT'>, 'AUTO_INCREMENT': <TokenType.AUTO_INCREMENT: 'AUTO_INCREMENT'>, 'BEGIN': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'BETWEEN': <TokenType.BETWEEN: 'BETWEEN'>, 'CACHE': <TokenType.CACHE: 'CACHE'>, 'UNCACHE': <TokenType.UNCACHE: 'UNCACHE'>, 'CASE': <TokenType.CASE: 'CASE'>, 'CHARACTER SET': <TokenType.CHARACTER_SET: 'CHARACTER_SET'>, 'CLUSTER BY': <TokenType.CLUSTER_BY: 'CLUSTER_BY'>, 'COLLATE': <TokenType.COLLATE: 'COLLATE'>, 'COLUMN': <TokenType.COLUMN: 'COLUMN'>, 'COMMIT': <TokenType.COMMIT: 'COMMIT'>, 'CONNECT BY': <TokenType.CONNECT_BY: 'CONNECT_BY'>, 'CONSTRAINT': <TokenType.CONSTRAINT: 'CONSTRAINT'>, 'CREATE': <TokenType.CREATE: 'CREATE'>, 'CROSS': <TokenType.CROSS: 'CROSS'>, 'CUBE': <TokenType.CUBE: 'CUBE'>, 'CURRENT_DATE': <TokenType.CURRENT_DATE: 'CURRENT_DATE'>, 'CURRENT_TIME': <TokenType.CURRENT_TIME: 'CURRENT_TIME'>, 'CURRENT_TIMESTAMP': <TokenType.CURRENT_TIMESTAMP: 'CURRENT_TIMESTAMP'>, 'CURRENT_USER': <TokenType.CURRENT_USER: 'CURRENT_USER'>, 'DATABASE': <TokenType.DATABASE: 'DATABASE'>, 'DEFAULT': <TokenType.DEFAULT: 'DEFAULT'>, 'DELETE': <TokenType.DELETE: 'DELETE'>, 'DESC': <TokenType.DESC: 'DESC'>, 'DESCRIBE': <TokenType.DESCRIBE: 'DESCRIBE'>, 'DISTINCT': <TokenType.DISTINCT: 'DISTINCT'>, 'DISTRIBUTE BY': <TokenType.DISTRIBUTE_BY: 'DISTRIBUTE_BY'>, 'DROP': <TokenType.DROP: 'DROP'>, 'ELSE': <TokenType.ELSE: 'ELSE'>, 'END': <TokenType.END: 'END'>, 'ENUM': <TokenType.ENUM: 'ENUM'>, 'ESCAPE': <TokenType.ESCAPE: 'ESCAPE'>, 'EXCEPT': <TokenType.EXCEPT: 'EXCEPT'>, 'EXECUTE': <TokenType.EXECUTE: 'EXECUTE'>, 'EXISTS': <TokenType.EXISTS: 'EXISTS'>, 'FALSE': <TokenType.FALSE: 'FALSE'>, 'FETCH': <TokenType.FETCH: 'FETCH'>, 'FILTER': <TokenType.FILTER: 'FILTER'>, 'FIRST': <TokenType.FIRST: 'FIRST'>, 'FULL': <TokenType.FULL: 'FULL'>, 'FUNCTION': <TokenType.FUNCTION: 'FUNCTION'>, 'FOR': <TokenType.FOR: 'FOR'>, 'FOREIGN KEY': <TokenType.FOREIGN_KEY: 'FOREIGN_KEY'>, 'FORMAT': <TokenType.FORMAT: 'FORMAT'>, 'FROM': <TokenType.FROM: 'FROM'>, 'GEOGRAPHY': <TokenType.GEOGRAPHY: 'GEOGRAPHY'>, 'GEOMETRY': <TokenType.GEOMETRY: 'GEOMETRY'>, 'GLOB': <TokenType.GLOB: 'GLOB'>, 'GROUP BY': <TokenType.GROUP_BY: 'GROUP_BY'>, 'GROUPING SETS': <TokenType.GROUPING_SETS: 'GROUPING_SETS'>, 'HAVING': <TokenType.HAVING: 'HAVING'>, 'ILIKE': <TokenType.ILIKE: 'ILIKE'>, 'IN': <TokenType.IN: 'IN'>, 'INDEX': <TokenType.INDEX: 'INDEX'>, 'INET': <TokenType.INET: 'INET'>, 'INNER': <TokenType.INNER: 'INNER'>, 'INSERT': <TokenType.INSERT: 'INSERT'>, 'INTERVAL': <TokenType.INTERVAL: 'INTERVAL'>, 'INTERSECT': <TokenType.INTERSECT: 'INTERSECT'>, 'INTO': <TokenType.INTO: 'INTO'>, 'IS': <TokenType.IS: 'IS'>, 'ISNULL': <TokenType.ISNULL: 'ISNULL'>, 'JOIN': <TokenType.JOIN: 'JOIN'>, 'KEEP': <TokenType.KEEP: 'KEEP'>, 'KILL': <TokenType.KILL: 'KILL'>, 'LATERAL': <TokenType.LATERAL: 'LATERAL'>, 'LEFT': <TokenType.LEFT: 'LEFT'>, 'LIKE': <TokenType.LIKE: 'LIKE'>, 'LIMIT': <TokenType.LIMIT: 'LIMIT'>, 'LOAD': <TokenType.LOAD: 'LOAD'>, 'LOCK': <TokenType.LOCK: 'LOCK'>, 'MERGE': <TokenType.MERGE: 'MERGE'>, 'NATURAL': <TokenType.NATURAL: 'NATURAL'>, 'NEXT': <TokenType.NEXT: 'NEXT'>, 'NOT': <TokenType.NOT: 'NOT'>, 'NOTNULL': <TokenType.NOTNULL: 'NOTNULL'>, 'NULL': <TokenType.NULL: 'NULL'>, 'OBJECT': <TokenType.OBJECT: 'OBJECT'>, 'OFFSET': <TokenType.OFFSET: 'OFFSET'>, 'ON': <TokenType.ON: 'ON'>, 'OR': <TokenType.OR: 'OR'>, 'XOR': <TokenType.XOR: 'XOR'>, 'ORDER BY': <TokenType.ORDER_BY: 'ORDER_BY'>, 'ORDINALITY': <TokenType.ORDINALITY: 'ORDINALITY'>, 'OUTER': <TokenType.OUTER: 'OUTER'>, 'OVER': <TokenType.OVER: 'OVER'>, 'OVERLAPS': <TokenType.OVERLAPS: 'OVERLAPS'>, 'OVERWRITE': <TokenType.OVERWRITE: 'OVERWRITE'>, 'PARTITION': <TokenType.PARTITION: 'PARTITION'>, 'PARTITION BY': <TokenType.PARTITION_BY: 'PARTITION_BY'>, 'PARTITIONED BY': <TokenType.PARTITION_BY: 'PARTITION_BY'>, 'PARTITIONED_BY': <TokenType.PARTITION_BY: 'PARTITION_BY'>, 'PERCENT': <TokenType.PERCENT: 'PERCENT'>, 'PIVOT': <TokenType.PIVOT: 'PIVOT'>, 'PRAGMA': <TokenType.PRAGMA: 'PRAGMA'>, 'PRIMARY KEY': <TokenType.PRIMARY_KEY: 'PRIMARY_KEY'>, 'PROCEDURE': <TokenType.PROCEDURE: 'PROCEDURE'>, 'QUALIFY': <TokenType.QUALIFY: 'QUALIFY'>, 'RANGE': <TokenType.RANGE: 'RANGE'>, 'RECURSIVE': <TokenType.RECURSIVE: 'RECURSIVE'>, 'REGEXP': <TokenType.RLIKE: 'RLIKE'>, 'REPLACE': <TokenType.REPLACE: 'REPLACE'>, 'RETURNING': <TokenType.RETURNING: 'RETURNING'>, 'REFERENCES': <TokenType.REFERENCES: 'REFERENCES'>, 'RIGHT': <TokenType.RIGHT: 'RIGHT'>, 'RLIKE': <TokenType.RLIKE: 'RLIKE'>, 'ROLLBACK': <TokenType.ROLLBACK: 'ROLLBACK'>, 'ROLLUP': <TokenType.ROLLUP: 'ROLLUP'>, 'ROW': <TokenType.ROW: 'ROW'>, 'ROWS': <TokenType.ROWS: 'ROWS'>, 'SCHEMA': <TokenType.SCHEMA: 'SCHEMA'>, 'SELECT': <TokenType.SELECT: 'SELECT'>, 'SEMI': <TokenType.SEMI: 'SEMI'>, 'SET': <TokenType.SET: 'SET'>, 'SETTINGS': <TokenType.SETTINGS: 'SETTINGS'>, 'SHOW': <TokenType.SHOW: 'SHOW'>, 'SIMILAR TO': <TokenType.SIMILAR_TO: 'SIMILAR_TO'>, 'SOME': <TokenType.SOME: 'SOME'>, 'SORT BY': <TokenType.SORT_BY: 'SORT_BY'>, 'START WITH': <TokenType.START_WITH: 'START_WITH'>, 'TABLE': <TokenType.TABLE: 'TABLE'>, 'TABLESAMPLE': <TokenType.TABLE_SAMPLE: 'TABLE_SAMPLE'>, 'TEMP': <TokenType.TEMPORARY: 'TEMPORARY'>, 'TEMPORARY': <TokenType.TEMPORARY: 'TEMPORARY'>, 'THEN': <TokenType.THEN: 'THEN'>, 'TRUE': <TokenType.TRUE: 'TRUE'>, 'TRUNCATE': <TokenType.TRUNCATE: 'TRUNCATE'>, 'UNION': <TokenType.UNION: 'UNION'>, 'UNKNOWN': <TokenType.UNKNOWN: 'UNKNOWN'>, 'UNNEST': <TokenType.UNNEST: 'UNNEST'>, 'UNPIVOT': <TokenType.UNPIVOT: 'UNPIVOT'>, 'UPDATE': <TokenType.UPDATE: 'UPDATE'>, 'USE': <TokenType.USE: 'USE'>, 'USING': <TokenType.USING: 'USING'>, 'UUID': <TokenType.UUID: 'UUID'>, 'VIEW': <TokenType.VIEW: 'VIEW'>, 'VOLATILE': <TokenType.VOLATILE: 'VOLATILE'>, 'WHEN': <TokenType.WHEN: 'WHEN'>, 'WHERE': <TokenType.WHERE: 'WHERE'>, 'WINDOW': <TokenType.WINDOW: 'WINDOW'>, 'WITH': <TokenType.WITH: 'WITH'>, 'APPLY': <TokenType.APPLY: 'APPLY'>, 'ARRAY': <TokenType.ARRAY: 'ARRAY'>, 'BIT': <TokenType.BIT: 'BIT'>, 'BOOL': <TokenType.BOOLEAN: 'BOOLEAN'>, 'BOOLEAN': <TokenType.BOOLEAN: 'BOOLEAN'>, 'BYTE': <TokenType.TINYINT: 'TINYINT'>, 'MEDIUMINT': <TokenType.MEDIUMINT: 'MEDIUMINT'>, 'INT1': <TokenType.TINYINT: 'TINYINT'>, 'TINYINT': <TokenType.TINYINT: 'TINYINT'>, 'INT16': <TokenType.SMALLINT: 'SMALLINT'>, 'SHORT': <TokenType.SMALLINT: 'SMALLINT'>, 'SMALLINT': <TokenType.SMALLINT: 'SMALLINT'>, 'INT128': <TokenType.INT128: 'INT128'>, 'HUGEINT': <TokenType.INT128: 'INT128'>, 'INT2': <TokenType.SMALLINT: 'SMALLINT'>, 'INTEGER': <TokenType.INT: 'INT'>, 'INT': <TokenType.INT: 'INT'>, 'INT4': <TokenType.INT: 'INT'>, 'INT32': <TokenType.INT: 'INT'>, 'INT64': <TokenType.BIGINT: 'BIGINT'>, 'LONG': <TokenType.BIGINT: 'BIGINT'>, 'BIGINT': <TokenType.BIGINT: 'BIGINT'>, 'INT8': <TokenType.TINYINT: 'TINYINT'>, 'DEC': <TokenType.DECIMAL: 'DECIMAL'>, 'DECIMAL': <TokenType.DECIMAL: 'DECIMAL'>, 'BIGDECIMAL': <TokenType.BIGDECIMAL: 'BIGDECIMAL'>, 'BIGNUMERIC': <TokenType.BIGDECIMAL: 'BIGDECIMAL'>, 'MAP': <TokenType.MAP: 'MAP'>, 'NULLABLE': <TokenType.NULLABLE: 'NULLABLE'>, 'NUMBER': <TokenType.DECIMAL: 'DECIMAL'>, 'NUMERIC': <TokenType.DECIMAL: 'DECIMAL'>, 'FIXED': <TokenType.DECIMAL: 'DECIMAL'>, 'REAL': <TokenType.FLOAT: 'FLOAT'>, 'FLOAT': <TokenType.FLOAT: 'FLOAT'>, 'FLOAT4': <TokenType.FLOAT: 'FLOAT'>, 'FLOAT8': <TokenType.DOUBLE: 'DOUBLE'>, 'DOUBLE': <TokenType.DOUBLE: 'DOUBLE'>, 'DOUBLE PRECISION': <TokenType.DOUBLE: 'DOUBLE'>, 'JSON': <TokenType.JSON: 'JSON'>, 'CHAR': <TokenType.CHAR: 'CHAR'>, 'CHARACTER': <TokenType.CHAR: 'CHAR'>, 'NCHAR': <TokenType.NCHAR: 'NCHAR'>, 'VARCHAR': <TokenType.VARCHAR: 'VARCHAR'>, 'VARCHAR2': <TokenType.VARCHAR: 'VARCHAR'>, 'NVARCHAR': <TokenType.NVARCHAR: 'NVARCHAR'>, 'NVARCHAR2': <TokenType.NVARCHAR: 'NVARCHAR'>, 'BPCHAR': <TokenType.BPCHAR: 'BPCHAR'>, 'STR': <TokenType.TEXT: 'TEXT'>, 'STRING': <TokenType.TEXT: 'TEXT'>, 'TEXT': <TokenType.TEXT: 'TEXT'>, 'LONGTEXT': <TokenType.LONGTEXT: 'LONGTEXT'>, 'MEDIUMTEXT': <TokenType.MEDIUMTEXT: 'MEDIUMTEXT'>, 'TINYTEXT': <TokenType.TINYTEXT: 'TINYTEXT'>, 'CLOB': <TokenType.TEXT: 'TEXT'>, 'LONGVARCHAR': <TokenType.TEXT: 'TEXT'>, 'BINARY': <TokenType.BINARY: 'BINARY'>, 'BLOB': <TokenType.VARBINARY: 'VARBINARY'>, 'LONGBLOB': <TokenType.LONGBLOB: 'LONGBLOB'>, 'MEDIUMBLOB': <TokenType.MEDIUMBLOB: 'MEDIUMBLOB'>, 'TINYBLOB': <TokenType.TINYBLOB: 'TINYBLOB'>, 'BYTEA': <TokenType.VARBINARY: 'VARBINARY'>, 'VARBINARY': <TokenType.VARBINARY: 'VARBINARY'>, 'TIME': <TokenType.TIME: 'TIME'>, 'TIMETZ': <TokenType.TIMETZ: 'TIMETZ'>, 'TIMESTAMP': <TokenType.TIMESTAMPTZ: 'TIMESTAMPTZ'>, 'TIMESTAMPTZ': <TokenType.TIMESTAMPTZ: 'TIMESTAMPTZ'>, 'TIMESTAMPLTZ': <TokenType.TIMESTAMPLTZ: 'TIMESTAMPLTZ'>, 'DATE': <TokenType.DATE: 'DATE'>, 'DATETIME': <TokenType.DATETIME: 'DATETIME'>, 'INT4RANGE': <TokenType.INT4RANGE: 'INT4RANGE'>, 'INT4MULTIRANGE': <TokenType.INT4MULTIRANGE: 'INT4MULTIRANGE'>, 'INT8RANGE': <TokenType.INT8RANGE: 'INT8RANGE'>, 'INT8MULTIRANGE': <TokenType.INT8MULTIRANGE: 'INT8MULTIRANGE'>, 'NUMRANGE': <TokenType.NUMRANGE: 'NUMRANGE'>, 'NUMMULTIRANGE': <TokenType.NUMMULTIRANGE: 'NUMMULTIRANGE'>, 'TSRANGE': <TokenType.TSRANGE: 'TSRANGE'>, 'TSMULTIRANGE': <TokenType.TSMULTIRANGE: 'TSMULTIRANGE'>, 'TSTZRANGE': <TokenType.TSTZRANGE: 'TSTZRANGE'>, 'TSTZMULTIRANGE': <TokenType.TSTZMULTIRANGE: 'TSTZMULTIRANGE'>, 'DATERANGE': <TokenType.DATERANGE: 'DATERANGE'>, 'DATEMULTIRANGE': <TokenType.DATEMULTIRANGE: 'DATEMULTIRANGE'>, 'UNIQUE': <TokenType.UNIQUE: 'UNIQUE'>, 'STRUCT': <TokenType.STRUCT: 'STRUCT'>, 'VARIANT': <TokenType.VARIANT: 'VARIANT'>, 'ALTER': <TokenType.ALTER: 'ALTER'>, 'ANALYZE': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'CALL': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'COMMENT': <TokenType.COMMENT: 'COMMENT'>, 'COPY': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'EXPLAIN': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'GRANT': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'OPTIMIZE': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'PREPARE': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'VACUUM': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'USER-DEFINED': <TokenType.USERDEFINED: 'USERDEFINED'>, 'FOR VERSION': <TokenType.VERSION_SNAPSHOT: 'VERSION_SNAPSHOT'>, 'FOR TIMESTAMP': <TokenType.TIMESTAMP_SNAPSHOT: 'TIMESTAMP_SNAPSHOT'>, 'ANY TYPE': <TokenType.VARIANT: 'VARIANT'>, 'BEGIN TRANSACTION': <TokenType.BEGIN: 'BEGIN'>, 'BYTES': <TokenType.BINARY: 'BINARY'>, 'CURRENT_DATETIME': <TokenType.CURRENT_DATETIME: 'CURRENT_DATETIME'>, 'DECLARE': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'ELSEIF': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'EXCEPTION': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'FLOAT64': <TokenType.DOUBLE: 'DOUBLE'>, 'FOR SYSTEM_TIME': <TokenType.TIMESTAMP_SNAPSHOT: 'TIMESTAMP_SNAPSHOT'>, 'MODEL': <TokenType.MODEL: 'MODEL'>, 'NOT DETERMINISTIC': <TokenType.VOLATILE: 'VOLATILE'>, 'RECORD': <TokenType.STRUCT: 'STRUCT'>}
class BigQuery.Parser(sqlglot.parser.Parser):
332    class Parser(parser.Parser):
333        PREFIXED_PIVOT_COLUMNS = True
334        LOG_DEFAULTS_TO_LN = True
335        SUPPORTS_IMPLICIT_UNNEST = True
336
337        FUNCTIONS = {
338            **parser.Parser.FUNCTIONS,
339            "DATE": _build_date,
340            "DATE_ADD": build_date_delta_with_interval(exp.DateAdd),
341            "DATE_SUB": build_date_delta_with_interval(exp.DateSub),
342            "DATE_TRUNC": lambda args: exp.DateTrunc(
343                unit=exp.Literal.string(str(seq_get(args, 1))),
344                this=seq_get(args, 0),
345            ),
346            "DATETIME_ADD": build_date_delta_with_interval(exp.DatetimeAdd),
347            "DATETIME_SUB": build_date_delta_with_interval(exp.DatetimeSub),
348            "DIV": binary_from_function(exp.IntDiv),
349            "FORMAT_DATE": lambda args: exp.TimeToStr(
350                this=exp.TsOrDsToDate(this=seq_get(args, 1)), format=seq_get(args, 0)
351            ),
352            "GENERATE_ARRAY": exp.GenerateSeries.from_arg_list,
353            "JSON_EXTRACT_SCALAR": lambda args: exp.JSONExtractScalar(
354                this=seq_get(args, 0), expression=seq_get(args, 1) or exp.Literal.string("$")
355            ),
356            "MD5": exp.MD5Digest.from_arg_list,
357            "TO_HEX": _build_to_hex,
358            "PARSE_DATE": lambda args: build_formatted_time(exp.StrToDate, "bigquery")(
359                [seq_get(args, 1), seq_get(args, 0)]
360            ),
361            "PARSE_TIMESTAMP": _build_parse_timestamp,
362            "REGEXP_CONTAINS": exp.RegexpLike.from_arg_list,
363            "REGEXP_EXTRACT": lambda args: exp.RegexpExtract(
364                this=seq_get(args, 0),
365                expression=seq_get(args, 1),
366                position=seq_get(args, 2),
367                occurrence=seq_get(args, 3),
368                group=exp.Literal.number(1) if re.compile(args[1].name).groups == 1 else None,
369            ),
370            "SHA256": lambda args: exp.SHA2(this=seq_get(args, 0), length=exp.Literal.number(256)),
371            "SHA512": lambda args: exp.SHA2(this=seq_get(args, 0), length=exp.Literal.number(512)),
372            "SPLIT": lambda args: exp.Split(
373                # https://cloud.google.com/bigquery/docs/reference/standard-sql/string_functions#split
374                this=seq_get(args, 0),
375                expression=seq_get(args, 1) or exp.Literal.string(","),
376            ),
377            "TIME": _build_time,
378            "TIME_ADD": build_date_delta_with_interval(exp.TimeAdd),
379            "TIME_SUB": build_date_delta_with_interval(exp.TimeSub),
380            "TIMESTAMP": _build_timestamp,
381            "TIMESTAMP_ADD": build_date_delta_with_interval(exp.TimestampAdd),
382            "TIMESTAMP_SUB": build_date_delta_with_interval(exp.TimestampSub),
383            "TIMESTAMP_MICROS": lambda args: exp.UnixToTime(
384                this=seq_get(args, 0), scale=exp.UnixToTime.MICROS
385            ),
386            "TIMESTAMP_MILLIS": lambda args: exp.UnixToTime(
387                this=seq_get(args, 0), scale=exp.UnixToTime.MILLIS
388            ),
389            "TIMESTAMP_SECONDS": lambda args: exp.UnixToTime(this=seq_get(args, 0)),
390            "TO_JSON_STRING": exp.JSONFormat.from_arg_list,
391        }
392
393        FUNCTION_PARSERS = {
394            **parser.Parser.FUNCTION_PARSERS,
395            "ARRAY": lambda self: self.expression(exp.Array, expressions=[self._parse_statement()]),
396        }
397        FUNCTION_PARSERS.pop("TRIM")
398
399        NO_PAREN_FUNCTIONS = {
400            **parser.Parser.NO_PAREN_FUNCTIONS,
401            TokenType.CURRENT_DATETIME: exp.CurrentDatetime,
402        }
403
404        NESTED_TYPE_TOKENS = {
405            *parser.Parser.NESTED_TYPE_TOKENS,
406            TokenType.TABLE,
407        }
408
409        PROPERTY_PARSERS = {
410            **parser.Parser.PROPERTY_PARSERS,
411            "NOT DETERMINISTIC": lambda self: self.expression(
412                exp.StabilityProperty, this=exp.Literal.string("VOLATILE")
413            ),
414            "OPTIONS": lambda self: self._parse_with_property(),
415        }
416
417        CONSTRAINT_PARSERS = {
418            **parser.Parser.CONSTRAINT_PARSERS,
419            "OPTIONS": lambda self: exp.Properties(expressions=self._parse_with_property()),
420        }
421
422        RANGE_PARSERS = parser.Parser.RANGE_PARSERS.copy()
423        RANGE_PARSERS.pop(TokenType.OVERLAPS)
424
425        NULL_TOKENS = {TokenType.NULL, TokenType.UNKNOWN}
426
427        STATEMENT_PARSERS = {
428            **parser.Parser.STATEMENT_PARSERS,
429            TokenType.ELSE: lambda self: self._parse_as_command(self._prev),
430            TokenType.END: lambda self: self._parse_as_command(self._prev),
431            TokenType.FOR: lambda self: self._parse_for_in(),
432        }
433
434        BRACKET_OFFSETS = {
435            "OFFSET": (0, False),
436            "ORDINAL": (1, False),
437            "SAFE_OFFSET": (0, True),
438            "SAFE_ORDINAL": (1, True),
439        }
440
441        def _parse_for_in(self) -> exp.ForIn:
442            this = self._parse_range()
443            self._match_text_seq("DO")
444            return self.expression(exp.ForIn, this=this, expression=self._parse_statement())
445
446        def _parse_table_part(self, schema: bool = False) -> t.Optional[exp.Expression]:
447            this = super()._parse_table_part(schema=schema) or self._parse_number()
448
449            # https://cloud.google.com/bigquery/docs/reference/standard-sql/lexical#table_names
450            if isinstance(this, exp.Identifier):
451                table_name = this.name
452                while self._match(TokenType.DASH, advance=False) and self._next:
453                    text = ""
454                    while self._curr and self._curr.token_type != TokenType.DOT:
455                        self._advance()
456                        text += self._prev.text
457                    table_name += text
458
459                this = exp.Identifier(this=table_name, quoted=this.args.get("quoted"))
460            elif isinstance(this, exp.Literal):
461                table_name = this.name
462
463                if self._is_connected() and self._parse_var(any_token=True):
464                    table_name += self._prev.text
465
466                this = exp.Identifier(this=table_name, quoted=True)
467
468            return this
469
470        def _parse_table_parts(
471            self, schema: bool = False, is_db_reference: bool = False, wildcard: bool = False
472        ) -> exp.Table:
473            table = super()._parse_table_parts(
474                schema=schema, is_db_reference=is_db_reference, wildcard=True
475            )
476
477            # proj-1.db.tbl -- `1.` is tokenized as a float so we need to unravel it here
478            if not table.catalog:
479                if table.db:
480                    parts = table.db.split(".")
481                    if len(parts) == 2 and not table.args["db"].quoted:
482                        table.set("catalog", exp.Identifier(this=parts[0]))
483                        table.set("db", exp.Identifier(this=parts[1]))
484                else:
485                    parts = table.name.split(".")
486                    if len(parts) == 2 and not table.this.quoted:
487                        table.set("db", exp.Identifier(this=parts[0]))
488                        table.set("this", exp.Identifier(this=parts[1]))
489
490            if isinstance(table.this, exp.Identifier) and "." in table.name:
491                catalog, db, this, *rest = (
492                    t.cast(t.Optional[exp.Expression], exp.to_identifier(x, quoted=True))
493                    for x in split_num_words(table.name, ".", 3)
494                )
495
496                if rest and this:
497                    this = exp.Dot.build(t.cast(t.List[exp.Expression], [this, *rest]))
498
499                table = exp.Table(this=this, db=db, catalog=catalog)
500                table.meta["quoted_table"] = True
501
502            return table
503
504        @t.overload
505        def _parse_json_object(self, agg: Lit[False]) -> exp.JSONObject: ...
506
507        @t.overload
508        def _parse_json_object(self, agg: Lit[True]) -> exp.JSONObjectAgg: ...
509
510        def _parse_json_object(self, agg=False):
511            json_object = super()._parse_json_object()
512            array_kv_pair = seq_get(json_object.expressions, 0)
513
514            # Converts BQ's "signature 2" of JSON_OBJECT into SQLGlot's canonical representation
515            # https://cloud.google.com/bigquery/docs/reference/standard-sql/json_functions#json_object_signature2
516            if (
517                array_kv_pair
518                and isinstance(array_kv_pair.this, exp.Array)
519                and isinstance(array_kv_pair.expression, exp.Array)
520            ):
521                keys = array_kv_pair.this.expressions
522                values = array_kv_pair.expression.expressions
523
524                json_object.set(
525                    "expressions",
526                    [exp.JSONKeyValue(this=k, expression=v) for k, v in zip(keys, values)],
527                )
528
529            return json_object
530
531        def _parse_bracket(self, this: t.Optional[exp.Expression]) -> t.Optional[exp.Expression]:
532            bracket = super()._parse_bracket(this)
533
534            if this is bracket:
535                return bracket
536
537            if isinstance(bracket, exp.Bracket):
538                for expression in bracket.expressions:
539                    name = expression.name.upper()
540
541                    if name not in self.BRACKET_OFFSETS:
542                        break
543
544                    offset, safe = self.BRACKET_OFFSETS[name]
545                    bracket.set("offset", offset)
546                    bracket.set("safe", safe)
547                    expression.replace(expression.expressions[0])
548
549            return bracket

Parser consumes a list of tokens produced by the Tokenizer and produces a parsed syntax tree.

Arguments:
  • error_level: The desired error level. Default: ErrorLevel.IMMEDIATE
  • error_message_context: The amount of context to capture from a query string when displaying the error message (in number of characters). Default: 100
  • max_errors: Maximum number of error messages to include in a raised ParseError. This is only relevant if error_level is ErrorLevel.RAISE. Default: 3
PREFIXED_PIVOT_COLUMNS = True
LOG_DEFAULTS_TO_LN = True
SUPPORTS_IMPLICIT_UNNEST = True
FUNCTIONS = {'ABS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Abs'>>, 'ADD_MONTHS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.AddMonths'>>, 'ANONYMOUS_AGG_FUNC': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.AnonymousAggFunc'>>, 'ANY_VALUE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.AnyValue'>>, 'APPROX_DISTINCT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ApproxDistinct'>>, 'APPROX_COUNT_DISTINCT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ApproxDistinct'>>, 'APPROX_QUANTILE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ApproxQuantile'>>, 'APPROX_TOP_K': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ApproxTopK'>>, 'ARG_MAX': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArgMax'>>, 'ARGMAX': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArgMax'>>, 'MAX_BY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArgMax'>>, 'ARG_MIN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArgMin'>>, 'ARGMIN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArgMin'>>, 'MIN_BY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArgMin'>>, 'ARRAY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Array'>>, 'ARRAY_AGG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayAgg'>>, 'ARRAY_ALL': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayAll'>>, 'ARRAY_ANY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayAny'>>, 'ARRAY_CONCAT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayConcat'>>, 'ARRAY_CAT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayConcat'>>, 'ARRAY_CONTAINS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayContains'>>, 'FILTER': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayFilter'>>, 'ARRAY_FILTER': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayFilter'>>, 'ARRAY_JOIN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayJoin'>>, 'ARRAY_OVERLAPS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayOverlaps'>>, 'ARRAY_SIZE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArraySize'>>, 'ARRAY_LENGTH': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArraySize'>>, 'ARRAY_SORT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArraySort'>>, 'ARRAY_SUM': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArraySum'>>, 'ARRAY_UNION_AGG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayUnionAgg'>>, 'ARRAY_UNIQUE_AGG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayUniqueAgg'>>, 'AVG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Avg'>>, 'CASE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Case'>>, 'CAST': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Cast'>>, 'CAST_TO_STR_TYPE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CastToStrType'>>, 'CBRT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Cbrt'>>, 'CEIL': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Ceil'>>, 'CEILING': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Ceil'>>, 'CHR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Chr'>>, 'CHAR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Chr'>>, 'COALESCE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Coalesce'>>, 'IFNULL': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Coalesce'>>, 'NVL': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Coalesce'>>, 'COLLATE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Collate'>>, 'COMBINED_AGG_FUNC': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CombinedAggFunc'>>, 'COMBINED_PARAMETERIZED_AGG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CombinedParameterizedAgg'>>, 'CONCAT': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'CONCAT_WS': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'CONNECT_BY_ROOT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ConnectByRoot'>>, 'CONVERT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Convert'>>, 'COUNT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Count'>>, 'COUNT_IF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CountIf'>>, 'COUNTIF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CountIf'>>, 'CURRENT_DATE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CurrentDate'>>, 'CURRENT_DATETIME': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CurrentDatetime'>>, 'CURRENT_TIME': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CurrentTime'>>, 'CURRENT_TIMESTAMP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CurrentTimestamp'>>, 'CURRENT_USER': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CurrentUser'>>, 'DATE': <function _build_date>, 'DATE_ADD': <function build_date_delta_with_interval.<locals>._builder>, 'DATEDIFF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateDiff'>>, 'DATE_DIFF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateDiff'>>, 'DATE_FROM_PARTS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateFromParts'>>, 'DATEFROMPARTS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateFromParts'>>, 'DATE_STR_TO_DATE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateStrToDate'>>, 'DATE_SUB': <function build_date_delta_with_interval.<locals>._builder>, 'DATE_TO_DATE_STR': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'DATE_TO_DI': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateToDi'>>, 'DATE_TRUNC': <function BigQuery.Parser.<lambda>>, 'DATETIME_ADD': <function build_date_delta_with_interval.<locals>._builder>, 'DATETIME_DIFF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DatetimeDiff'>>, 'DATETIME_SUB': <function build_date_delta_with_interval.<locals>._builder>, 'DATETIME_TRUNC': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DatetimeTrunc'>>, 'DAY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Day'>>, 'DAY_OF_MONTH': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DayOfMonth'>>, 'DAYOFMONTH': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DayOfMonth'>>, 'DAY_OF_WEEK': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DayOfWeek'>>, 'DAYOFWEEK': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DayOfWeek'>>, 'DAY_OF_YEAR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DayOfYear'>>, 'DAYOFYEAR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DayOfYear'>>, 'DECODE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Decode'>>, 'DI_TO_DATE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DiToDate'>>, 'ENCODE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Encode'>>, 'EXP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Exp'>>, 'EXPLODE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Explode'>>, 'EXPLODE_OUTER': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ExplodeOuter'>>, 'EXTRACT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Extract'>>, 'FIRST': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.First'>>, 'FIRST_VALUE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.FirstValue'>>, 'FLATTEN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Flatten'>>, 'FLOOR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Floor'>>, 'FROM_BASE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.FromBase'>>, 'FROM_BASE64': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.FromBase64'>>, 'GENERATE_SERIES': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.GenerateSeries'>>, 'GREATEST': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Greatest'>>, 'GROUP_CONCAT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.GroupConcat'>>, 'HEX': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Hex'>>, 'HLL': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Hll'>>, 'IF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.If'>>, 'IIF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.If'>>, 'INITCAP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Initcap'>>, 'IS_INF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.IsInf'>>, 'ISINF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.IsInf'>>, 'IS_NAN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.IsNan'>>, 'ISNAN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.IsNan'>>, 'J_S_O_N_ARRAY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONArray'>>, 'J_S_O_N_ARRAY_AGG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONArrayAgg'>>, 'JSON_ARRAY_CONTAINS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONArrayContains'>>, 'JSONB_EXTRACT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONBExtract'>>, 'JSONB_EXTRACT_SCALAR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONBExtractScalar'>>, 'JSON_EXTRACT': <function build_extract_json_with_path.<locals>._builder>, 'JSON_EXTRACT_SCALAR': <function BigQuery.Parser.<lambda>>, 'JSON_FORMAT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONFormat'>>, 'J_S_O_N_OBJECT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONObject'>>, 'J_S_O_N_OBJECT_AGG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONObjectAgg'>>, 'J_S_O_N_TABLE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONTable'>>, 'LAG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Lag'>>, 'LAST': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Last'>>, 'LAST_DAY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LastDay'>>, 'LAST_DAY_OF_MONTH': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LastDay'>>, 'LAST_VALUE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LastValue'>>, 'LEAD': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Lead'>>, 'LEAST': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Least'>>, 'LEFT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Left'>>, 'LENGTH': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Length'>>, 'LEN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Length'>>, 'LEVENSHTEIN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Levenshtein'>>, 'LN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Ln'>>, 'LOG': <function build_logarithm>, 'LOG10': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Log10'>>, 'LOG2': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Log2'>>, 'LOGICAL_AND': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LogicalAnd'>>, 'BOOL_AND': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LogicalAnd'>>, 'BOOLAND_AGG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LogicalAnd'>>, 'LOGICAL_OR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LogicalOr'>>, 'BOOL_OR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LogicalOr'>>, 'BOOLOR_AGG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LogicalOr'>>, 'LOWER': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Lower'>>, 'LCASE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Lower'>>, 'MD5': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.MD5Digest'>>, 'MD5_DIGEST': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.MD5Digest'>>, 'MAP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Map'>>, 'MAP_FROM_ENTRIES': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.MapFromEntries'>>, 'MATCH_AGAINST': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.MatchAgainst'>>, 'MAX': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Max'>>, 'MIN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Min'>>, 'MONTH': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Month'>>, 'MONTHS_BETWEEN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.MonthsBetween'>>, 'NEXT_VALUE_FOR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.NextValueFor'>>, 'NTH_VALUE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.NthValue'>>, 'NULLIF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Nullif'>>, 'NUMBER_TO_STR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.NumberToStr'>>, 'NVL2': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Nvl2'>>, 'OPEN_J_S_O_N': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.OpenJSON'>>, 'PARAMETERIZED_AGG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ParameterizedAgg'>>, 'PARSE_JSON': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ParseJSON'>>, 'JSON_PARSE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ParseJSON'>>, 'PERCENTILE_CONT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.PercentileCont'>>, 'PERCENTILE_DISC': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.PercentileDisc'>>, 'POSEXPLODE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Posexplode'>>, 'POSEXPLODE_OUTER': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.PosexplodeOuter'>>, 'POWER': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Pow'>>, 'POW': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Pow'>>, 'PREDICT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Predict'>>, 'QUANTILE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Quantile'>>, 'RAND': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Rand'>>, 'RANDOM': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Rand'>>, 'RANDN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Randn'>>, 'RANGE_N': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RangeN'>>, 'READ_CSV': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ReadCSV'>>, 'REDUCE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Reduce'>>, 'REGEXP_EXTRACT': <function BigQuery.Parser.<lambda>>, 'REGEXP_I_LIKE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RegexpILike'>>, 'REGEXP_LIKE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RegexpLike'>>, 'REGEXP_REPLACE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RegexpReplace'>>, 'REGEXP_SPLIT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RegexpSplit'>>, 'REPEAT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Repeat'>>, 'RIGHT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Right'>>, 'ROUND': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Round'>>, 'ROW_NUMBER': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RowNumber'>>, 'SHA': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SHA'>>, 'SHA1': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SHA'>>, 'SHA2': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SHA2'>>, 'SAFE_DIVIDE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SafeDivide'>>, 'SIGN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Sign'>>, 'SIGNUM': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Sign'>>, 'SORT_ARRAY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SortArray'>>, 'SPLIT': <function BigQuery.Parser.<lambda>>, 'SQRT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Sqrt'>>, 'STANDARD_HASH': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StandardHash'>>, 'STAR_MAP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StarMap'>>, 'STARTS_WITH': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StartsWith'>>, 'STARTSWITH': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StartsWith'>>, 'STDDEV': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Stddev'>>, 'STDDEV_POP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StddevPop'>>, 'STDDEV_SAMP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StddevSamp'>>, 'STR_POSITION': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StrPosition'>>, 'STR_TO_DATE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StrToDate'>>, 'STR_TO_MAP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StrToMap'>>, 'STR_TO_TIME': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StrToTime'>>, 'STR_TO_UNIX': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StrToUnix'>>, 'STRUCT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Struct'>>, 'STRUCT_EXTRACT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StructExtract'>>, 'STUFF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Stuff'>>, 'INSERT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Stuff'>>, 'SUBSTRING': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Substring'>>, 'SUM': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Sum'>>, 'TIME_ADD': <function build_date_delta_with_interval.<locals>._builder>, 'TIME_DIFF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeDiff'>>, 'TIME_FROM_PARTS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeFromParts'>>, 'TIMEFROMPARTS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeFromParts'>>, 'TIME_STR_TO_DATE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeStrToDate'>>, 'TIME_STR_TO_TIME': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeStrToTime'>>, 'TIME_STR_TO_UNIX': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeStrToUnix'>>, 'TIME_SUB': <function build_date_delta_with_interval.<locals>._builder>, 'TIME_TO_STR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeToStr'>>, 'TIME_TO_TIME_STR': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'TIME_TO_UNIX': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeToUnix'>>, 'TIME_TRUNC': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeTrunc'>>, 'TIMESTAMP': <function _build_timestamp>, 'TIMESTAMP_ADD': <function build_date_delta_with_interval.<locals>._builder>, 'TIMESTAMPDIFF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimestampDiff'>>, 'TIMESTAMP_DIFF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimestampDiff'>>, 'TIMESTAMP_FROM_PARTS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimestampFromParts'>>, 'TIMESTAMPFROMPARTS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimestampFromParts'>>, 'TIMESTAMP_SUB': <function build_date_delta_with_interval.<locals>._builder>, 'TIMESTAMP_TRUNC': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimestampTrunc'>>, 'TO_ARRAY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ToArray'>>, 'TO_BASE64': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ToBase64'>>, 'TO_CHAR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ToChar'>>, 'TO_DAYS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ToDays'>>, 'TRANSFORM': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Transform'>>, 'TRIM': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Trim'>>, 'TRY_CAST': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TryCast'>>, 'TS_OR_DI_TO_DI': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TsOrDiToDi'>>, 'TS_OR_DS_ADD': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TsOrDsAdd'>>, 'TS_OR_DS_DIFF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TsOrDsDiff'>>, 'TS_OR_DS_TO_DATE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TsOrDsToDate'>>, 'TS_OR_DS_TO_DATE_STR': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'TS_OR_DS_TO_TIME': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TsOrDsToTime'>>, 'UNHEX': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Unhex'>>, 'UNIX_DATE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.UnixDate'>>, 'UNIX_TO_STR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.UnixToStr'>>, 'UNIX_TO_TIME': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.UnixToTime'>>, 'UNIX_TO_TIME_STR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.UnixToTimeStr'>>, 'UPPER': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Upper'>>, 'UCASE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Upper'>>, 'VAR_MAP': <function build_var_map>, 'VARIANCE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Variance'>>, 'VARIANCE_SAMP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Variance'>>, 'VAR_SAMP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Variance'>>, 'VARIANCE_POP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.VariancePop'>>, 'VAR_POP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.VariancePop'>>, 'WEEK': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Week'>>, 'WEEK_OF_YEAR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.WeekOfYear'>>, 'WEEKOFYEAR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.WeekOfYear'>>, 'WHEN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.When'>>, 'X_M_L_TABLE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.XMLTable'>>, 'XOR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Xor'>>, 'YEAR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Year'>>, 'GLOB': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'JSON_EXTRACT_PATH_TEXT': <function build_extract_json_with_path.<locals>._builder>, 'LIKE': <function build_like>, 'DIV': <function binary_from_function.<locals>.<lambda>>, 'FORMAT_DATE': <function BigQuery.Parser.<lambda>>, 'GENERATE_ARRAY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.GenerateSeries'>>, 'TO_HEX': <function _build_to_hex>, 'PARSE_DATE': <function BigQuery.Parser.<lambda>>, 'PARSE_TIMESTAMP': <function _build_parse_timestamp>, 'REGEXP_CONTAINS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RegexpLike'>>, 'SHA256': <function BigQuery.Parser.<lambda>>, 'SHA512': <function BigQuery.Parser.<lambda>>, 'TIME': <function _build_time>, 'TIMESTAMP_MICROS': <function BigQuery.Parser.<lambda>>, 'TIMESTAMP_MILLIS': <function BigQuery.Parser.<lambda>>, 'TIMESTAMP_SECONDS': <function BigQuery.Parser.<lambda>>, 'TO_JSON_STRING': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONFormat'>>}
FUNCTION_PARSERS = {'CAST': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'CONVERT': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'DECODE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'EXTRACT': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'JSON_OBJECT': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'JSON_OBJECTAGG': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'JSON_TABLE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'MATCH': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'OPENJSON': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'POSITION': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'PREDICT': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'SAFE_CAST': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'STRING_AGG': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'SUBSTRING': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'TRY_CAST': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'TRY_CONVERT': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'ARRAY': <function BigQuery.Parser.<lambda>>}
NO_PAREN_FUNCTIONS = {<TokenType.CURRENT_DATE: 'CURRENT_DATE'>: <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CurrentDate'>, <TokenType.CURRENT_DATETIME: 'CURRENT_DATETIME'>: <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CurrentDatetime'>, <TokenType.CURRENT_TIME: 'CURRENT_TIME'>: <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CurrentTime'>, <TokenType.CURRENT_TIMESTAMP: 'CURRENT_TIMESTAMP'>: <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CurrentTimestamp'>, <TokenType.CURRENT_USER: 'CURRENT_USER'>: <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CurrentUser'>}
NESTED_TYPE_TOKENS = {<TokenType.NESTED: 'NESTED'>, <TokenType.STRUCT: 'STRUCT'>, <TokenType.NULLABLE: 'NULLABLE'>, <TokenType.TABLE: 'TABLE'>, <TokenType.LOWCARDINALITY: 'LOWCARDINALITY'>, <TokenType.MAP: 'MAP'>, <TokenType.ARRAY: 'ARRAY'>}
PROPERTY_PARSERS = {'ALGORITHM': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'AUTO': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'AUTO_INCREMENT': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'BLOCKCOMPRESSION': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'CHARSET': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'CHARACTER SET': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'CHECKSUM': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'CLUSTER BY': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'CLUSTERED': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'COLLATE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'COMMENT': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'CONTAINS': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'COPY': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'DATABLOCKSIZE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'DEFINER': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'DETERMINISTIC': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'DISTKEY': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'DISTSTYLE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'ENGINE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'EXECUTE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'EXTERNAL': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'FALLBACK': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'FORMAT': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'FREESPACE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'HEAP': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'IMMUTABLE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'INHERITS': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'INPUT': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'JOURNAL': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'LANGUAGE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'LAYOUT': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'LIFETIME': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'LIKE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'LOCATION': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'LOCK': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'LOCKING': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'LOG': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'MATERIALIZED': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'MERGEBLOCKRATIO': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'MODIFIES': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'MULTISET': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'NO': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'ON': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'ORDER BY': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'OUTPUT': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'PARTITION': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'PARTITION BY': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'PARTITIONED BY': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'PARTITIONED_BY': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'PRIMARY KEY': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'RANGE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'READS': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'REMOTE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'RETURNS': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'ROW': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'ROW_FORMAT': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'SAMPLE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'SET': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'SETTINGS': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'SORTKEY': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'SOURCE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'STABLE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'STORED': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'SYSTEM_VERSIONING': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'TBLPROPERTIES': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'TEMP': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'TEMPORARY': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'TO': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'TRANSIENT': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'TRANSFORM': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'TTL': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'USING': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'VOLATILE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'WITH': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'NOT DETERMINISTIC': <function BigQuery.Parser.<lambda>>, 'OPTIONS': <function BigQuery.Parser.<lambda>>}
CONSTRAINT_PARSERS = {'AUTOINCREMENT': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'AUTO_INCREMENT': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'CASESPECIFIC': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'CHARACTER SET': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'CHECK': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'COLLATE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'COMMENT': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'COMPRESS': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'CLUSTERED': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'NONCLUSTERED': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'DEFAULT': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'ENCODE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'FOREIGN KEY': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'FORMAT': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'GENERATED': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'IDENTITY': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'INLINE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'LIKE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'NOT': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'NULL': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'ON': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'PATH': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'PERIOD': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'PRIMARY KEY': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'REFERENCES': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'TITLE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'TTL': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'UNIQUE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'UPPERCASE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'WITH': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'OPTIONS': <function BigQuery.Parser.<lambda>>}
RANGE_PARSERS = {<TokenType.BETWEEN: 'BETWEEN'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.GLOB: 'GLOB'>: <function binary_range_parser.<locals>.<lambda>>, <TokenType.ILIKE: 'ILIKE'>: <function binary_range_parser.<locals>.<lambda>>, <TokenType.IN: 'IN'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.IRLIKE: 'IRLIKE'>: <function binary_range_parser.<locals>.<lambda>>, <TokenType.IS: 'IS'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.LIKE: 'LIKE'>: <function binary_range_parser.<locals>.<lambda>>, <TokenType.RLIKE: 'RLIKE'>: <function binary_range_parser.<locals>.<lambda>>, <TokenType.SIMILAR_TO: 'SIMILAR_TO'>: <function binary_range_parser.<locals>.<lambda>>, <TokenType.FOR: 'FOR'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>}
NULL_TOKENS = {<TokenType.NULL: 'NULL'>, <TokenType.UNKNOWN: 'UNKNOWN'>}
STATEMENT_PARSERS = {<TokenType.ALTER: 'ALTER'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.BEGIN: 'BEGIN'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.CACHE: 'CACHE'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.COMMIT: 'COMMIT'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.COMMENT: 'COMMENT'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.CREATE: 'CREATE'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.DELETE: 'DELETE'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.DESC: 'DESC'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.DESCRIBE: 'DESCRIBE'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.DROP: 'DROP'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.INSERT: 'INSERT'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.KILL: 'KILL'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.LOAD: 'LOAD'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.MERGE: 'MERGE'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.PIVOT: 'PIVOT'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.PRAGMA: 'PRAGMA'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.REFRESH: 'REFRESH'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.ROLLBACK: 'ROLLBACK'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.SET: 'SET'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.UNCACHE: 'UNCACHE'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.UPDATE: 'UPDATE'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.TRUNCATE: 'TRUNCATE'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.USE: 'USE'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.ELSE: 'ELSE'>: <function BigQuery.Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.END: 'END'>: <function BigQuery.Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.FOR: 'FOR'>: <function BigQuery.Parser.<lambda>>}
BRACKET_OFFSETS = {'OFFSET': (0, False), 'ORDINAL': (1, False), 'SAFE_OFFSET': (0, True), 'SAFE_ORDINAL': (1, True)}
TABLE_ALIAS_TOKENS = {<TokenType.COMMIT: 'COMMIT'>, <TokenType.NVARCHAR: 'NVARCHAR'>, <TokenType.STORAGE_INTEGRATION: 'STORAGE_INTEGRATION'>, <TokenType.INTERVAL: 'INTERVAL'>, <TokenType.OPERATOR: 'OPERATOR'>, <TokenType.UNKNOWN: 'UNKNOWN'>, <TokenType.FORMAT: 'FORMAT'>, <TokenType.TINYTEXT: 'TINYTEXT'>, <TokenType.STRUCT: 'STRUCT'>, <TokenType.REPLACE: 'REPLACE'>, <TokenType.FINAL: 'FINAL'>, <TokenType.DATETIME64: 'DATETIME64'>, <TokenType.CHAR: 'CHAR'>, <TokenType.PIVOT: 'PIVOT'>, <TokenType.FOREIGN_KEY: 'FOREIGN_KEY'>, <TokenType.SMALLINT: 'SMALLINT'>, <TokenType.VIEW: 'VIEW'>, <TokenType.INT128: 'INT128'>, <TokenType.INT256: 'INT256'>, <TokenType.DESC: 'DESC'>, <TokenType.INT4MULTIRANGE: 'INT4MULTIRANGE'>, <TokenType.TEXT: 'TEXT'>, <TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER: 'OBJECT_IDENTIFIER'>, <TokenType.UTINYINT: 'UTINYINT'>, <TokenType.OVERWRITE: 'OVERWRITE'>, <TokenType.YEAR: 'YEAR'>, <TokenType.TIME: 'TIME'>, <TokenType.TSTZMULTIRANGE: 'TSTZMULTIRANGE'>, <TokenType.BIGINT: 'BIGINT'>, <TokenType.DICTIONARY: 'DICTIONARY'>, <TokenType.CURRENT_USER: 'CURRENT_USER'>, <TokenType.NUMRANGE: 'NUMRANGE'>, <TokenType.ESCAPE: 'ESCAPE'>, <TokenType.PARTITION: 'PARTITION'>, <TokenType.IPV4: 'IPV4'>, <TokenType.AUTO_INCREMENT: 'AUTO_INCREMENT'>, <TokenType.ASC: 'ASC'>, <TokenType.DATE32: 'DATE32'>, <TokenType.IMAGE: 'IMAGE'>, <TokenType.SEMI: 'SEMI'>, <TokenType.BPCHAR: 'BPCHAR'>, <TokenType.INT8MULTIRANGE: 'INT8MULTIRANGE'>, <TokenType.PERCENT: 'PERCENT'>, <TokenType.REFRESH: 'REFRESH'>, <TokenType.INDEX: 'INDEX'>, <TokenType.USE: 'USE'>, <TokenType.PSEUDO_TYPE: 'PSEUDO_TYPE'>, <TokenType.SUPER: 'SUPER'>, <TokenType.ROW: 'ROW'>, <TokenType.TIMETZ: 'TIMETZ'>, <TokenType.CURRENT_DATETIME: 'CURRENT_DATETIME'>, <TokenType.FIXEDSTRING: 'FIXEDSTRING'>, <TokenType.DATEMULTIRANGE: 'DATEMULTIRANGE'>, <TokenType.DECIMAL: 'DECIMAL'>, <TokenType.AGGREGATEFUNCTION: 'AGGREGATEFUNCTION'>, <TokenType.SMALLMONEY: 'SMALLMONEY'>, <TokenType.USMALLINT: 'USMALLINT'>, <TokenType.INT4RANGE: 'INT4RANGE'>, <TokenType.TRUNCATE: 'TRUNCATE'>, <TokenType.UNIQUEIDENTIFIER: 'UNIQUEIDENTIFIER'>, <TokenType.UINT128: 'UINT128'>, <TokenType.UBIGINT: 'UBIGINT'>, <TokenType.COMMENT: 'COMMENT'>, <TokenType.PROCEDURE: 'PROCEDURE'>, <TokenType.VARBINARY: 'VARBINARY'>, <TokenType.NCHAR: 'NCHAR'>, <TokenType.TIMESTAMP_MS: 'TIMESTAMP_MS'>, <TokenType.USERDEFINED: 'USERDEFINED'>, <TokenType.DIV: 'DIV'>, <TokenType.ENUM16: 'ENUM16'>, <TokenType.UNPIVOT: 'UNPIVOT'>, <TokenType.CURRENT_TIME: 'CURRENT_TIME'>, <TokenType.TSMULTIRANGE: 'TSMULTIRANGE'>, <TokenType.NUMMULTIRANGE: 'NUMMULTIRANGE'>, <TokenType.SHOW: 'SHOW'>, <TokenType.RANGE: 'RANGE'>, <TokenType.FLOAT: 'FLOAT'>, <TokenType.MEDIUMTEXT: 'MEDIUMTEXT'>, <TokenType.ENUM8: 'ENUM8'>, <TokenType.CURRENT_TIMESTAMP: 'CURRENT_TIMESTAMP'>, <TokenType.TINYBLOB: 'TINYBLOB'>, <TokenType.NESTED: 'NESTED'>, <TokenType.UUID: 'UUID'>, <TokenType.RECURSIVE: 'RECURSIVE'>, <TokenType.FIRST: 'FIRST'>, <TokenType.TIMESTAMP: 'TIMESTAMP'>, <TokenType.IS: 'IS'>, <TokenType.INT: 'INT'>, <TokenType.FUNCTION: 'FUNCTION'>, <TokenType.ANY: 'ANY'>, <TokenType.VAR: 'VAR'>, <TokenType.BIGDECIMAL: 'BIGDECIMAL'>, <TokenType.MAP: 'MAP'>, <TokenType.UDECIMAL: 'UDECIMAL'>, <TokenType.MEDIUMBLOB: 'MEDIUMBLOB'>, <TokenType.FALSE: 'FALSE'>, <TokenType.SERIAL: 'SERIAL'>, <TokenType.COLUMN: 'COLUMN'>, <TokenType.BIT: 'BIT'>, <TokenType.BIGSERIAL: 'BIGSERIAL'>, <TokenType.FILTER: 'FILTER'>, <TokenType.COLLATE: 'COLLATE'>, <TokenType.IPADDRESS: 'IPADDRESS'>, <TokenType.KILL: 'KILL'>, <TokenType.ROWS: 'ROWS'>, <TokenType.TRUE: 'TRUE'>, <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, <TokenType.PRAGMA: 'PRAGMA'>, <TokenType.BOOLEAN: 'BOOLEAN'>, <TokenType.TOP: 'TOP'>, <TokenType.TIMESTAMP_NS: 'TIMESTAMP_NS'>, <TokenType.HSTORE: 'HSTORE'>, <TokenType.DATERANGE: 'DATERANGE'>, <TokenType.REFERENCES: 'REFERENCES'>, <TokenType.UNIQUE: 'UNIQUE'>, <TokenType.MEDIUMINT: 'MEDIUMINT'>, <TokenType.SET: 'SET'>, <TokenType.INET: 'INET'>, <TokenType.UMEDIUMINT: 'UMEDIUMINT'>, <TokenType.DATE: 'DATE'>, <TokenType.NULLABLE: 'NULLABLE'>, <TokenType.LONGBLOB: 'LONGBLOB'>, <TokenType.NULL: 'NULL'>, <TokenType.EXECUTE: 'EXECUTE'>, <TokenType.MONEY: 'MONEY'>, <TokenType.LONGTEXT: 'LONGTEXT'>, <TokenType.JSONB: 'JSONB'>, <TokenType.SMALLSERIAL: 'SMALLSERIAL'>, <TokenType.ORDINALITY: 'ORDINALITY'>, <TokenType.TIMESTAMPLTZ: 'TIMESTAMPLTZ'>, <TokenType.CONSTRAINT: 'CONSTRAINT'>, <TokenType.TSTZRANGE: 'TSTZRANGE'>, <TokenType.UPDATE: 'UPDATE'>, <TokenType.BINARY: 'BINARY'>, <TokenType.NEXT: 'NEXT'>, <TokenType.SIMPLEAGGREGATEFUNCTION: 'SIMPLEAGGREGATEFUNCTION'>, <TokenType.LOAD: 'LOAD'>, <TokenType.OVERLAPS: 'OVERLAPS'>, <TokenType.DELETE: 'DELETE'>, <TokenType.GEOGRAPHY: 'GEOGRAPHY'>, <TokenType.END: 'END'>, <TokenType.DOUBLE: 'DOUBLE'>, <TokenType.ALL: 'ALL'>, <TokenType.SOME: 'SOME'>, <TokenType.ARRAY: 'ARRAY'>, <TokenType.DATABASE: 'DATABASE'>, <TokenType.ANTI: 'ANTI'>, <TokenType.DEFAULT: 'DEFAULT'>, <TokenType.UINT256: 'UINT256'>, <TokenType.INT8RANGE: 'INT8RANGE'>, <TokenType.CURRENT_DATE: 'CURRENT_DATE'>, <TokenType.TIMESTAMP_S: 'TIMESTAMP_S'>, <TokenType.MODEL: 'MODEL'>, <TokenType.KEEP: 'KEEP'>, <TokenType.CASE: 'CASE'>, <TokenType.ISNULL: 'ISNULL'>, <TokenType.TINYINT: 'TINYINT'>, <TokenType.SCHEMA: 'SCHEMA'>, <TokenType.GEOMETRY: 'GEOMETRY'>, <TokenType.VARIANT: 'VARIANT'>, <TokenType.LOWCARDINALITY: 'LOWCARDINALITY'>, <TokenType.BEGIN: 'BEGIN'>, <TokenType.CACHE: 'CACHE'>, <TokenType.MERGE: 'MERGE'>, <TokenType.SETTINGS: 'SETTINGS'>, <TokenType.HLLSKETCH: 'HLLSKETCH'>, <TokenType.ROWVERSION: 'ROWVERSION'>, <TokenType.TABLE: 'TABLE'>, <TokenType.VARCHAR: 'VARCHAR'>, <TokenType.ENUM: 'ENUM'>, <TokenType.XML: 'XML'>, <TokenType.VOLATILE: 'VOLATILE'>, <TokenType.IPPREFIX: 'IPPREFIX'>, <TokenType.DATETIME: 'DATETIME'>, <TokenType.TSRANGE: 'TSRANGE'>, <TokenType.EXISTS: 'EXISTS'>, <TokenType.TIMESTAMPTZ: 'TIMESTAMPTZ'>, <TokenType.TEMPORARY: 'TEMPORARY'>, <TokenType.JSON: 'JSON'>, <TokenType.UINT: 'UINT'>, <TokenType.OBJECT: 'OBJECT'>, <TokenType.DESCRIBE: 'DESCRIBE'>, <TokenType.IPV6: 'IPV6'>}
SHOW_TRIE: Dict = {}
SET_TRIE: Dict = {'GLOBAL': {0: True}, 'LOCAL': {0: True}, 'SESSION': {0: True}, 'TRANSACTION': {0: True}}
Inherited Members
sqlglot.parser.Parser
Parser
STRUCT_TYPE_TOKENS
ENUM_TYPE_TOKENS
AGGREGATE_TYPE_TOKENS
TYPE_TOKENS
SIGNED_TO_UNSIGNED_TYPE_TOKEN
SUBQUERY_PREDICATES
RESERVED_TOKENS
DB_CREATABLES
CREATABLES
ID_VAR_TOKENS
INTERVAL_VARS
COMMENT_TABLE_ALIAS_TOKENS
UPDATE_ALIAS_TOKENS
TRIM_TYPES
FUNC_TOKENS
CONJUNCTION
EQUALITY
COMPARISON
BITWISE
TERM
FACTOR
EXPONENT
TIMES
TIMESTAMPS
SET_OPERATIONS
JOIN_METHODS
JOIN_SIDES
JOIN_KINDS
JOIN_HINTS
LAMBDAS
COLUMN_OPERATORS
EXPRESSION_PARSERS
UNARY_PARSERS
STRING_PARSERS
NUMERIC_PARSERS
PRIMARY_PARSERS
PLACEHOLDER_PARSERS
ALTER_PARSERS
SCHEMA_UNNAMED_CONSTRAINTS
NO_PAREN_FUNCTION_PARSERS
INVALID_FUNC_NAME_TOKENS
FUNCTIONS_WITH_ALIASED_ARGS
KEY_VALUE_DEFINITIONS
QUERY_MODIFIER_PARSERS
SET_PARSERS
SHOW_PARSERS
TYPE_LITERAL_PARSERS
DDL_SELECT_TOKENS
PRE_VOLATILE_TOKENS
TRANSACTION_KIND
TRANSACTION_CHARACTERISTICS
USABLES
INSERT_ALTERNATIVES
CLONE_KEYWORDS
HISTORICAL_DATA_KIND
OPCLASS_FOLLOW_KEYWORDS
OPTYPE_FOLLOW_TOKENS
TABLE_INDEX_HINT_TOKENS
WINDOW_ALIAS_TOKENS
WINDOW_BEFORE_PAREN_TOKENS
WINDOW_SIDES
JSON_KEY_VALUE_SEPARATOR_TOKENS
FETCH_TOKENS
ADD_CONSTRAINT_TOKENS
DISTINCT_TOKENS
UNNEST_OFFSET_ALIAS_TOKENS
STRICT_CAST
IDENTIFY_PIVOT_STRINGS
ALTER_TABLE_ADD_REQUIRED_FOR_EACH_COLUMN
TABLESAMPLE_CSV
SET_REQUIRES_ASSIGNMENT_DELIMITER
TRIM_PATTERN_FIRST
STRING_ALIASES
MODIFIERS_ATTACHED_TO_UNION
UNION_MODIFIERS
NO_PAREN_IF_COMMANDS
JSON_ARROWS_REQUIRE_JSON_TYPE
VALUES_FOLLOWED_BY_PAREN
error_level
error_message_context
max_errors
dialect
reset
parse
parse_into
check_errors
raise_error
expression
validate_expression
errors
sql
class BigQuery.Generator(sqlglot.generator.Generator):
551    class Generator(generator.Generator):
552        EXPLICIT_UNION = True
553        INTERVAL_ALLOWS_PLURAL_FORM = False
554        JOIN_HINTS = False
555        QUERY_HINTS = False
556        TABLE_HINTS = False
557        LIMIT_FETCH = "LIMIT"
558        RENAME_TABLE_WITH_DB = False
559        NVL2_SUPPORTED = False
560        UNNEST_WITH_ORDINALITY = False
561        COLLATE_IS_FUNC = True
562        LIMIT_ONLY_LITERALS = True
563        SUPPORTS_TABLE_ALIAS_COLUMNS = False
564        UNPIVOT_ALIASES_ARE_IDENTIFIERS = False
565        JSON_KEY_VALUE_PAIR_SEP = ","
566        NULL_ORDERING_SUPPORTED = False
567        IGNORE_NULLS_IN_FUNC = True
568        JSON_PATH_SINGLE_QUOTE_ESCAPE = True
569        CAN_IMPLEMENT_ARRAY_ANY = True
570        NAMED_PLACEHOLDER_TOKEN = "@"
571
572        TRANSFORMS = {
573            **generator.Generator.TRANSFORMS,
574            exp.ApproxDistinct: rename_func("APPROX_COUNT_DISTINCT"),
575            exp.ArgMax: arg_max_or_min_no_count("MAX_BY"),
576            exp.ArgMin: arg_max_or_min_no_count("MIN_BY"),
577            exp.ArrayContains: _array_contains_sql,
578            exp.ArrayFilter: filter_array_using_unnest,
579            exp.ArraySize: rename_func("ARRAY_LENGTH"),
580            exp.Cast: transforms.preprocess([transforms.remove_precision_parameterized_types]),
581            exp.CollateProperty: lambda self, e: (
582                f"DEFAULT COLLATE {self.sql(e, 'this')}"
583                if e.args.get("default")
584                else f"COLLATE {self.sql(e, 'this')}"
585            ),
586            exp.Commit: lambda *_: "COMMIT TRANSACTION",
587            exp.CountIf: rename_func("COUNTIF"),
588            exp.Create: _create_sql,
589            exp.CTE: transforms.preprocess([_pushdown_cte_column_names]),
590            exp.DateAdd: date_add_interval_sql("DATE", "ADD"),
591            exp.DateDiff: lambda self, e: self.func(
592                "DATE_DIFF", e.this, e.expression, e.unit or "DAY"
593            ),
594            exp.DateFromParts: rename_func("DATE"),
595            exp.DateStrToDate: datestrtodate_sql,
596            exp.DateSub: date_add_interval_sql("DATE", "SUB"),
597            exp.DatetimeAdd: date_add_interval_sql("DATETIME", "ADD"),
598            exp.DatetimeSub: date_add_interval_sql("DATETIME", "SUB"),
599            exp.DateTrunc: lambda self, e: self.func("DATE_TRUNC", e.this, e.text("unit")),
600            exp.FromTimeZone: lambda self, e: self.func(
601                "DATETIME", self.func("TIMESTAMP", e.this, e.args.get("zone")), "'UTC'"
602            ),
603            exp.GenerateSeries: rename_func("GENERATE_ARRAY"),
604            exp.GroupConcat: rename_func("STRING_AGG"),
605            exp.Hex: rename_func("TO_HEX"),
606            exp.If: if_sql(false_value="NULL"),
607            exp.ILike: no_ilike_sql,
608            exp.IntDiv: rename_func("DIV"),
609            exp.JSONFormat: rename_func("TO_JSON_STRING"),
610            exp.Max: max_or_greatest,
611            exp.MD5: lambda self, e: self.func("TO_HEX", self.func("MD5", e.this)),
612            exp.MD5Digest: rename_func("MD5"),
613            exp.Min: min_or_least,
614            exp.PartitionedByProperty: lambda self, e: f"PARTITION BY {self.sql(e, 'this')}",
615            exp.RegexpExtract: lambda self, e: self.func(
616                "REGEXP_EXTRACT",
617                e.this,
618                e.expression,
619                e.args.get("position"),
620                e.args.get("occurrence"),
621            ),
622            exp.RegexpReplace: regexp_replace_sql,
623            exp.RegexpLike: rename_func("REGEXP_CONTAINS"),
624            exp.ReturnsProperty: _returnsproperty_sql,
625            exp.Rollback: lambda *_: "ROLLBACK TRANSACTION",
626            exp.Select: transforms.preprocess(
627                [
628                    transforms.explode_to_unnest(),
629                    _unqualify_unnest,
630                    transforms.eliminate_distinct_on,
631                    _alias_ordered_group,
632                    transforms.eliminate_semi_and_anti_joins,
633                ]
634            ),
635            exp.SHA2: lambda self, e: self.func(
636                "SHA256" if e.text("length") == "256" else "SHA512", e.this
637            ),
638            exp.StabilityProperty: lambda self, e: (
639                "DETERMINISTIC" if e.name == "IMMUTABLE" else "NOT DETERMINISTIC"
640            ),
641            exp.StrToDate: lambda self, e: self.func("PARSE_DATE", self.format_time(e), e.this),
642            exp.StrToTime: lambda self, e: self.func(
643                "PARSE_TIMESTAMP", self.format_time(e), e.this, e.args.get("zone")
644            ),
645            exp.TimeAdd: date_add_interval_sql("TIME", "ADD"),
646            exp.TimeFromParts: rename_func("TIME"),
647            exp.TimeSub: date_add_interval_sql("TIME", "SUB"),
648            exp.TimestampAdd: date_add_interval_sql("TIMESTAMP", "ADD"),
649            exp.TimestampDiff: rename_func("TIMESTAMP_DIFF"),
650            exp.TimestampSub: date_add_interval_sql("TIMESTAMP", "SUB"),
651            exp.TimeStrToTime: timestrtotime_sql,
652            exp.Transaction: lambda *_: "BEGIN TRANSACTION",
653            exp.Trim: lambda self, e: self.func("TRIM", e.this, e.expression),
654            exp.TsOrDsAdd: _ts_or_ds_add_sql,
655            exp.TsOrDsDiff: _ts_or_ds_diff_sql,
656            exp.TsOrDsToTime: rename_func("TIME"),
657            exp.Unhex: rename_func("FROM_HEX"),
658            exp.UnixDate: rename_func("UNIX_DATE"),
659            exp.UnixToTime: _unix_to_time_sql,
660            exp.Values: _derived_table_values_to_unnest,
661            exp.VariancePop: rename_func("VAR_POP"),
662        }
663
664        SUPPORTED_JSON_PATH_PARTS = {
665            exp.JSONPathKey,
666            exp.JSONPathRoot,
667            exp.JSONPathSubscript,
668        }
669
670        TYPE_MAPPING = {
671            **generator.Generator.TYPE_MAPPING,
672            exp.DataType.Type.BIGDECIMAL: "BIGNUMERIC",
673            exp.DataType.Type.BIGINT: "INT64",
674            exp.DataType.Type.BINARY: "BYTES",
675            exp.DataType.Type.BOOLEAN: "BOOL",
676            exp.DataType.Type.CHAR: "STRING",
677            exp.DataType.Type.DECIMAL: "NUMERIC",
678            exp.DataType.Type.DOUBLE: "FLOAT64",
679            exp.DataType.Type.FLOAT: "FLOAT64",
680            exp.DataType.Type.INT: "INT64",
681            exp.DataType.Type.NCHAR: "STRING",
682            exp.DataType.Type.NVARCHAR: "STRING",
683            exp.DataType.Type.SMALLINT: "INT64",
684            exp.DataType.Type.TEXT: "STRING",
685            exp.DataType.Type.TIMESTAMP: "DATETIME",
686            exp.DataType.Type.TIMESTAMPTZ: "TIMESTAMP",
687            exp.DataType.Type.TIMESTAMPLTZ: "TIMESTAMP",
688            exp.DataType.Type.TINYINT: "INT64",
689            exp.DataType.Type.VARBINARY: "BYTES",
690            exp.DataType.Type.VARCHAR: "STRING",
691            exp.DataType.Type.VARIANT: "ANY TYPE",
692        }
693
694        PROPERTIES_LOCATION = {
695            **generator.Generator.PROPERTIES_LOCATION,
696            exp.PartitionedByProperty: exp.Properties.Location.POST_SCHEMA,
697            exp.VolatileProperty: exp.Properties.Location.UNSUPPORTED,
698        }
699
700        # from: https://cloud.google.com/bigquery/docs/reference/standard-sql/lexical#reserved_keywords
701        RESERVED_KEYWORDS = {
702            *generator.Generator.RESERVED_KEYWORDS,
703            "all",
704            "and",
705            "any",
706            "array",
707            "as",
708            "asc",
709            "assert_rows_modified",
710            "at",
711            "between",
712            "by",
713            "case",
714            "cast",
715            "collate",
716            "contains",
717            "create",
718            "cross",
719            "cube",
720            "current",
721            "default",
722            "define",
723            "desc",
724            "distinct",
725            "else",
726            "end",
727            "enum",
728            "escape",
729            "except",
730            "exclude",
731            "exists",
732            "extract",
733            "false",
734            "fetch",
735            "following",
736            "for",
737            "from",
738            "full",
739            "group",
740            "grouping",
741            "groups",
742            "hash",
743            "having",
744            "if",
745            "ignore",
746            "in",
747            "inner",
748            "intersect",
749            "interval",
750            "into",
751            "is",
752            "join",
753            "lateral",
754            "left",
755            "like",
756            "limit",
757            "lookup",
758            "merge",
759            "natural",
760            "new",
761            "no",
762            "not",
763            "null",
764            "nulls",
765            "of",
766            "on",
767            "or",
768            "order",
769            "outer",
770            "over",
771            "partition",
772            "preceding",
773            "proto",
774            "qualify",
775            "range",
776            "recursive",
777            "respect",
778            "right",
779            "rollup",
780            "rows",
781            "select",
782            "set",
783            "some",
784            "struct",
785            "tablesample",
786            "then",
787            "to",
788            "treat",
789            "true",
790            "unbounded",
791            "union",
792            "unnest",
793            "using",
794            "when",
795            "where",
796            "window",
797            "with",
798            "within",
799        }
800
801        def table_parts(self, expression: exp.Table) -> str:
802            # Depending on the context, `x.y` may not resolve to the same data source as `x`.`y`, so
803            # we need to make sure the correct quoting is used in each case.
804            #
805            # For example, if there is a CTE x that clashes with a schema name, then the former will
806            # return the table y in that schema, whereas the latter will return the CTE's y column:
807            #
808            # - WITH x AS (SELECT [1, 2] AS y) SELECT * FROM x, `x.y`   -> cross join
809            # - WITH x AS (SELECT [1, 2] AS y) SELECT * FROM x, `x`.`y` -> implicit unnest
810            if expression.meta.get("quoted_table"):
811                table_parts = ".".join(p.name for p in expression.parts)
812                return self.sql(exp.Identifier(this=table_parts, quoted=True))
813
814            return super().table_parts(expression)
815
816        def timetostr_sql(self, expression: exp.TimeToStr) -> str:
817            this = expression.this if isinstance(expression.this, exp.TsOrDsToDate) else expression
818            return self.func("FORMAT_DATE", self.format_time(expression), this.this)
819
820        def eq_sql(self, expression: exp.EQ) -> str:
821            # Operands of = cannot be NULL in BigQuery
822            if isinstance(expression.left, exp.Null) or isinstance(expression.right, exp.Null):
823                if not isinstance(expression.parent, exp.Update):
824                    return "NULL"
825
826            return self.binary(expression, "=")
827
828        def attimezone_sql(self, expression: exp.AtTimeZone) -> str:
829            parent = expression.parent
830
831            # BigQuery allows CAST(.. AS {STRING|TIMESTAMP} [FORMAT <fmt> [AT TIME ZONE <tz>]]).
832            # Only the TIMESTAMP one should use the below conversion, when AT TIME ZONE is included.
833            if not isinstance(parent, exp.Cast) or not parent.to.is_type("text"):
834                return self.func(
835                    "TIMESTAMP", self.func("DATETIME", expression.this, expression.args.get("zone"))
836                )
837
838            return super().attimezone_sql(expression)
839
840        def trycast_sql(self, expression: exp.TryCast) -> str:
841            return self.cast_sql(expression, safe_prefix="SAFE_")
842
843        def array_sql(self, expression: exp.Array) -> str:
844            first_arg = seq_get(expression.expressions, 0)
845            if isinstance(first_arg, exp.Query):
846                return f"ARRAY{self.wrap(self.sql(first_arg))}"
847
848            return inline_array_sql(self, expression)
849
850        def bracket_sql(self, expression: exp.Bracket) -> str:
851            this = self.sql(expression, "this")
852            expressions = expression.expressions
853
854            if len(expressions) == 1:
855                arg = expressions[0]
856                if arg.type is None:
857                    from sqlglot.optimizer.annotate_types import annotate_types
858
859                    arg = annotate_types(arg)
860
861                if arg.type and arg.type.this in exp.DataType.TEXT_TYPES:
862                    # BQ doesn't support bracket syntax with string values
863                    return f"{this}.{arg.name}"
864
865            expressions_sql = ", ".join(self.sql(e) for e in expressions)
866            offset = expression.args.get("offset")
867
868            if offset == 0:
869                expressions_sql = f"OFFSET({expressions_sql})"
870            elif offset == 1:
871                expressions_sql = f"ORDINAL({expressions_sql})"
872            elif offset is not None:
873                self.unsupported(f"Unsupported array offset: {offset}")
874
875            if expression.args.get("safe"):
876                expressions_sql = f"SAFE_{expressions_sql}"
877
878            return f"{this}[{expressions_sql}]"
879
880        def in_unnest_op(self, expression: exp.Unnest) -> str:
881            return self.sql(expression)
882
883        def except_op(self, expression: exp.Except) -> str:
884            if not expression.args.get("distinct"):
885                self.unsupported("EXCEPT without DISTINCT is not supported in BigQuery")
886            return f"EXCEPT{' DISTINCT' if expression.args.get('distinct') else ' ALL'}"
887
888        def intersect_op(self, expression: exp.Intersect) -> str:
889            if not expression.args.get("distinct"):
890                self.unsupported("INTERSECT without DISTINCT is not supported in BigQuery")
891            return f"INTERSECT{' DISTINCT' if expression.args.get('distinct') else ' ALL'}"
892
893        def with_properties(self, properties: exp.Properties) -> str:
894            return self.properties(properties, prefix=self.seg("OPTIONS"))
895
896        def version_sql(self, expression: exp.Version) -> str:
897            if expression.name == "TIMESTAMP":
898                expression.set("this", "SYSTEM_TIME")
899            return super().version_sql(expression)

Generator converts a given syntax tree to the corresponding SQL string.

Arguments:
  • pretty: Whether to format the produced SQL string. Default: False.
  • identify: Determines when an identifier should be quoted. Possible values are: False (default): Never quote, except in cases where it's mandatory by the dialect. True or 'always': Always quote. 'safe': Only quote identifiers that are case insensitive.
  • normalize: Whether to normalize identifiers to lowercase. Default: False.
  • pad: The pad size in a formatted string. Default: 2.
  • indent: The indentation size in a formatted string. Default: 2.
  • normalize_functions: How to normalize function names. Possible values are: "upper" or True (default): Convert names to uppercase. "lower": Convert names to lowercase. False: Disables function name normalization.
  • unsupported_level: Determines the generator's behavior when it encounters unsupported expressions. Default ErrorLevel.WARN.
  • max_unsupported: Maximum number of unsupported messages to include in a raised UnsupportedError. This is only relevant if unsupported_level is ErrorLevel.RAISE. Default: 3
  • leading_comma: Whether the comma is leading or trailing in select expressions. This is only relevant when generating in pretty mode. Default: False
  • max_text_width: The max number of characters in a segment before creating new lines in pretty mode. The default is on the smaller end because the length only represents a segment and not the true line length. Default: 80
  • comments: Whether to preserve comments in the output SQL code. Default: True
EXPLICIT_UNION = True
INTERVAL_ALLOWS_PLURAL_FORM = False
JOIN_HINTS = False
QUERY_HINTS = False
TABLE_HINTS = False
LIMIT_FETCH = 'LIMIT'
RENAME_TABLE_WITH_DB = False
NVL2_SUPPORTED = False
UNNEST_WITH_ORDINALITY = False
COLLATE_IS_FUNC = True
LIMIT_ONLY_LITERALS = True
SUPPORTS_TABLE_ALIAS_COLUMNS = False
UNPIVOT_ALIASES_ARE_IDENTIFIERS = False
JSON_KEY_VALUE_PAIR_SEP = ','
NULL_ORDERING_SUPPORTED = False
IGNORE_NULLS_IN_FUNC = True
JSON_PATH_SINGLE_QUOTE_ESCAPE = True
CAN_IMPLEMENT_ARRAY_ANY = True
NAMED_PLACEHOLDER_TOKEN = '@'
TRANSFORMS = {<class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONPathKey'>: <function <lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONPathRoot'>: <function <lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONPathSubscript'>: <function <lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.AutoRefreshProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CaseSpecificColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CharacterSetColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CharacterSetProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ClusteredColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CollateColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CommentColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CopyGrantsProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateAdd'>: <function date_add_interval_sql.<locals>.func>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateFormatColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DefaultColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.EncodeColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ExecuteAsProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ExternalProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.HeapProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.InheritsProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.InlineLengthColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.InputModelProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.IntervalSpan'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONExtract'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONExtractScalar'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LanguageProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LocationProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LogProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.MaterializedProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.NonClusteredColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.NoPrimaryIndexProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.NotForReplicationColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.OnCommitProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.OnProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.OnUpdateColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.OutputModelProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.PathColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RemoteWithConnectionModelProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ReturnsProperty'>: <function _returnsproperty_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SampleProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SetConfigProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SetProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SettingsProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SqlReadWriteProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SqlSecurityProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StabilityProperty'>: <function BigQuery.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TemporaryProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TitleColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Timestamp'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ToTableProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TransformModelProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TransientProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.UppercaseColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.VarMap'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.VolatileProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.WithJournalTableProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ApproxDistinct'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArgMax'>: <function arg_max_or_min_no_count.<locals>._arg_max_or_min_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArgMin'>: <function arg_max_or_min_no_count.<locals>._arg_max_or_min_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayContains'>: <function _array_contains_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayFilter'>: <function filter_array_using_unnest>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArraySize'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Cast'>: <function preprocess.<locals>._to_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CollateProperty'>: <function BigQuery.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Commit'>: <function BigQuery.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CountIf'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Create'>: <function _create_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CTE'>: <function preprocess.<locals>._to_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateDiff'>: <function BigQuery.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateFromParts'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateStrToDate'>: <function datestrtodate_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateSub'>: <function date_add_interval_sql.<locals>.func>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DatetimeAdd'>: <function date_add_interval_sql.<locals>.func>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DatetimeSub'>: <function date_add_interval_sql.<locals>.func>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateTrunc'>: <function BigQuery.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.FromTimeZone'>: <function BigQuery.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.GenerateSeries'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.GroupConcat'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Hex'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.If'>: <function if_sql.<locals>._if_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ILike'>: <function no_ilike_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.IntDiv'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONFormat'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Max'>: <function max_or_greatest>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.MD5'>: <function BigQuery.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.MD5Digest'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Min'>: <function min_or_least>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.PartitionedByProperty'>: <function BigQuery.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RegexpExtract'>: <function BigQuery.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RegexpReplace'>: <function regexp_replace_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RegexpLike'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Rollback'>: <function BigQuery.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Select'>: <function preprocess.<locals>._to_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SHA2'>: <function BigQuery.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StrToDate'>: <function BigQuery.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StrToTime'>: <function BigQuery.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeAdd'>: <function date_add_interval_sql.<locals>.func>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeFromParts'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeSub'>: <function date_add_interval_sql.<locals>.func>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimestampAdd'>: <function date_add_interval_sql.<locals>.func>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimestampDiff'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimestampSub'>: <function date_add_interval_sql.<locals>.func>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeStrToTime'>: <function timestrtotime_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Transaction'>: <function BigQuery.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Trim'>: <function BigQuery.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TsOrDsAdd'>: <function _ts_or_ds_add_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TsOrDsDiff'>: <function _ts_or_ds_diff_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TsOrDsToTime'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Unhex'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.UnixDate'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.UnixToTime'>: <function _unix_to_time_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Values'>: <function _derived_table_values_to_unnest>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.VariancePop'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>}
TYPE_MAPPING = {<Type.NCHAR: 'NCHAR'>: 'STRING', <Type.NVARCHAR: 'NVARCHAR'>: 'STRING', <Type.MEDIUMTEXT: 'MEDIUMTEXT'>: 'TEXT', <Type.LONGTEXT: 'LONGTEXT'>: 'TEXT', <Type.TINYTEXT: 'TINYTEXT'>: 'TEXT', <Type.MEDIUMBLOB: 'MEDIUMBLOB'>: 'BLOB', <Type.LONGBLOB: 'LONGBLOB'>: 'BLOB', <Type.TINYBLOB: 'TINYBLOB'>: 'BLOB', <Type.INET: 'INET'>: 'INET', <Type.BIGDECIMAL: 'BIGDECIMAL'>: 'BIGNUMERIC', <Type.BIGINT: 'BIGINT'>: 'INT64', <Type.BINARY: 'BINARY'>: 'BYTES', <Type.BOOLEAN: 'BOOLEAN'>: 'BOOL', <Type.CHAR: 'CHAR'>: 'STRING', <Type.DECIMAL: 'DECIMAL'>: 'NUMERIC', <Type.DOUBLE: 'DOUBLE'>: 'FLOAT64', <Type.FLOAT: 'FLOAT'>: 'FLOAT64', <Type.INT: 'INT'>: 'INT64', <Type.SMALLINT: 'SMALLINT'>: 'INT64', <Type.TEXT: 'TEXT'>: 'STRING', <Type.TIMESTAMP: 'TIMESTAMP'>: 'DATETIME', <Type.TIMESTAMPTZ: 'TIMESTAMPTZ'>: 'TIMESTAMP', <Type.TIMESTAMPLTZ: 'TIMESTAMPLTZ'>: 'TIMESTAMP', <Type.TINYINT: 'TINYINT'>: 'INT64', <Type.VARBINARY: 'VARBINARY'>: 'BYTES', <Type.VARCHAR: 'VARCHAR'>: 'STRING', <Type.VARIANT: 'VARIANT'>: 'ANY TYPE'}
PROPERTIES_LOCATION = {<class 'sqlglot.expressions.AlgorithmProperty'>: <Location.POST_CREATE: 'POST_CREATE'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.AutoIncrementProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.AutoRefreshProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.BlockCompressionProperty'>: <Location.POST_NAME: 'POST_NAME'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CharacterSetProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ChecksumProperty'>: <Location.POST_NAME: 'POST_NAME'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CollateProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CopyGrantsProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Cluster'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ClusteredByProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DataBlocksizeProperty'>: <Location.POST_NAME: 'POST_NAME'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DefinerProperty'>: <Location.POST_CREATE: 'POST_CREATE'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DictRange'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DictProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DistKeyProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DistStyleProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.EngineProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ExecuteAsProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ExternalProperty'>: <Location.POST_CREATE: 'POST_CREATE'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.FallbackProperty'>: <Location.POST_NAME: 'POST_NAME'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.FileFormatProperty'>: <Location.POST_WITH: 'POST_WITH'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.FreespaceProperty'>: <Location.POST_NAME: 'POST_NAME'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.HeapProperty'>: <Location.POST_WITH: 'POST_WITH'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.InheritsProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.InputModelProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.IsolatedLoadingProperty'>: <Location.POST_NAME: 'POST_NAME'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JournalProperty'>: <Location.POST_NAME: 'POST_NAME'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LanguageProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LikeProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LocationProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LockProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LockingProperty'>: <Location.POST_ALIAS: 'POST_ALIAS'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LogProperty'>: <Location.POST_NAME: 'POST_NAME'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.MaterializedProperty'>: <Location.POST_CREATE: 'POST_CREATE'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.MergeBlockRatioProperty'>: <Location.POST_NAME: 'POST_NAME'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.NoPrimaryIndexProperty'>: <Location.POST_EXPRESSION: 'POST_EXPRESSION'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.OnProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.OnCommitProperty'>: <Location.POST_EXPRESSION: 'POST_EXPRESSION'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Order'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.OutputModelProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.PartitionedByProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.PartitionedOfProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.PrimaryKey'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Property'>: <Location.POST_WITH: 'POST_WITH'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RemoteWithConnectionModelProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ReturnsProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RowFormatProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RowFormatDelimitedProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RowFormatSerdeProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SampleProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SchemaCommentProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SerdeProperties'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Set'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SettingsProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SetProperty'>: <Location.POST_CREATE: 'POST_CREATE'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SetConfigProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SortKeyProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SqlReadWriteProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SqlSecurityProperty'>: <Location.POST_CREATE: 'POST_CREATE'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StabilityProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TemporaryProperty'>: <Location.POST_CREATE: 'POST_CREATE'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ToTableProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TransientProperty'>: <Location.POST_CREATE: 'POST_CREATE'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TransformModelProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.MergeTreeTTL'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.VolatileProperty'>: <Location.UNSUPPORTED: 'UNSUPPORTED'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.WithDataProperty'>: <Location.POST_EXPRESSION: 'POST_EXPRESSION'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.WithJournalTableProperty'>: <Location.POST_NAME: 'POST_NAME'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.WithSystemVersioningProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>}
RESERVED_KEYWORDS = {'any', 'cross', 'cube', 'natural', 'interval', 'between', 'order', 'over', 'some', 'range', 'true', 'desc', 'current', 'collate', 'on', 'following', 'with', 'for', 'groups', 'hash', 'union', 'lookup', 'new', 'intersect', 'all', 'preceding', 'window', 'is', 'null', 'partition', 'to', 'or', 'create', 'group', 'at', 'unbounded', 'within', 'default', 'asc', 'except', 'enum', 'unnest', 'grouping', 'treat', 'end', 'where', 'having', 'rows', 'define', 'assert_rows_modified', 'inner', 'proto', 'right', 'outer', 'and', 'of', 'rollup', 'exclude', 'when', 'left', 'select', 'in', 'qualify', 'tablesample', 'then', 'extract', 'using', 'from', 'false', 'limit', 'not', 'fetch', 'set', 'recursive', 'cast', 'lateral', 'escape', 'as', 'exists', 'no', 'else', 'into', 'like', 'full', 'join', 'merge', 'by', 'array', 'struct', 'contains', 'ignore', 'distinct', 'respect', 'nulls', 'case', 'if'}
def table_parts(self, expression: sqlglot.expressions.Table) -> str:
801        def table_parts(self, expression: exp.Table) -> str:
802            # Depending on the context, `x.y` may not resolve to the same data source as `x`.`y`, so
803            # we need to make sure the correct quoting is used in each case.
804            #
805            # For example, if there is a CTE x that clashes with a schema name, then the former will
806            # return the table y in that schema, whereas the latter will return the CTE's y column:
807            #
808            # - WITH x AS (SELECT [1, 2] AS y) SELECT * FROM x, `x.y`   -> cross join
809            # - WITH x AS (SELECT [1, 2] AS y) SELECT * FROM x, `x`.`y` -> implicit unnest
810            if expression.meta.get("quoted_table"):
811                table_parts = ".".join(p.name for p in expression.parts)
812                return self.sql(exp.Identifier(this=table_parts, quoted=True))
813
814            return super().table_parts(expression)
def timetostr_sql(self, expression: sqlglot.expressions.TimeToStr) -> str:
816        def timetostr_sql(self, expression: exp.TimeToStr) -> str:
817            this = expression.this if isinstance(expression.this, exp.TsOrDsToDate) else expression
818            return self.func("FORMAT_DATE", self.format_time(expression), this.this)
def eq_sql(self, expression: sqlglot.expressions.EQ) -> str:
820        def eq_sql(self, expression: exp.EQ) -> str:
821            # Operands of = cannot be NULL in BigQuery
822            if isinstance(expression.left, exp.Null) or isinstance(expression.right, exp.Null):
823                if not isinstance(expression.parent, exp.Update):
824                    return "NULL"
825
826            return self.binary(expression, "=")
def attimezone_sql(self, expression: sqlglot.expressions.AtTimeZone) -> str:
828        def attimezone_sql(self, expression: exp.AtTimeZone) -> str:
829            parent = expression.parent
830
831            # BigQuery allows CAST(.. AS {STRING|TIMESTAMP} [FORMAT <fmt> [AT TIME ZONE <tz>]]).
832            # Only the TIMESTAMP one should use the below conversion, when AT TIME ZONE is included.
833            if not isinstance(parent, exp.Cast) or not parent.to.is_type("text"):
834                return self.func(
835                    "TIMESTAMP", self.func("DATETIME", expression.this, expression.args.get("zone"))
836                )
837
838            return super().attimezone_sql(expression)
def trycast_sql(self, expression: sqlglot.expressions.TryCast) -> str:
840        def trycast_sql(self, expression: exp.TryCast) -> str:
841            return self.cast_sql(expression, safe_prefix="SAFE_")
def array_sql(self, expression: sqlglot.expressions.Array) -> str:
843        def array_sql(self, expression: exp.Array) -> str:
844            first_arg = seq_get(expression.expressions, 0)
845            if isinstance(first_arg, exp.Query):
846                return f"ARRAY{self.wrap(self.sql(first_arg))}"
847
848            return inline_array_sql(self, expression)
def bracket_sql(self, expression: sqlglot.expressions.Bracket) -> str:
850        def bracket_sql(self, expression: exp.Bracket) -> str:
851            this = self.sql(expression, "this")
852            expressions = expression.expressions
853
854            if len(expressions) == 1:
855                arg = expressions[0]
856                if arg.type is None:
857                    from sqlglot.optimizer.annotate_types import annotate_types
858
859                    arg = annotate_types(arg)
860
861                if arg.type and arg.type.this in exp.DataType.TEXT_TYPES:
862                    # BQ doesn't support bracket syntax with string values
863                    return f"{this}.{arg.name}"
864
865            expressions_sql = ", ".join(self.sql(e) for e in expressions)
866            offset = expression.args.get("offset")
867
868            if offset == 0:
869                expressions_sql = f"OFFSET({expressions_sql})"
870            elif offset == 1:
871                expressions_sql = f"ORDINAL({expressions_sql})"
872            elif offset is not None:
873                self.unsupported(f"Unsupported array offset: {offset}")
874
875            if expression.args.get("safe"):
876                expressions_sql = f"SAFE_{expressions_sql}"
877
878            return f"{this}[{expressions_sql}]"
def in_unnest_op(self, expression: sqlglot.expressions.Unnest) -> str:
880        def in_unnest_op(self, expression: exp.Unnest) -> str:
881            return self.sql(expression)
def except_op(self, expression: sqlglot.expressions.Except) -> str:
883        def except_op(self, expression: exp.Except) -> str:
884            if not expression.args.get("distinct"):
885                self.unsupported("EXCEPT without DISTINCT is not supported in BigQuery")
886            return f"EXCEPT{' DISTINCT' if expression.args.get('distinct') else ' ALL'}"
def intersect_op(self, expression: sqlglot.expressions.Intersect) -> str:
888        def intersect_op(self, expression: exp.Intersect) -> str:
889            if not expression.args.get("distinct"):
890                self.unsupported("INTERSECT without DISTINCT is not supported in BigQuery")
891            return f"INTERSECT{' DISTINCT' if expression.args.get('distinct') else ' ALL'}"
def with_properties(self, properties: sqlglot.expressions.Properties) -> str:
893        def with_properties(self, properties: exp.Properties) -> str:
894            return self.properties(properties, prefix=self.seg("OPTIONS"))
def version_sql(self, expression: sqlglot.expressions.Version) -> str:
896        def version_sql(self, expression: exp.Version) -> str:
897            if expression.name == "TIMESTAMP":
898                expression.set("this", "SYSTEM_TIME")
899            return super().version_sql(expression)
Inherited Members
sqlglot.generator.Generator
Generator
LOCKING_READS_SUPPORTED
WRAP_DERIVED_VALUES
CREATE_FUNCTION_RETURN_AS
MATCHED_BY_SOURCE
SINGLE_STRING_INTERVAL
GROUPINGS_SEP
INDEX_ON
QUERY_HINT_SEP
IS_BOOL_ALLOWED
DUPLICATE_KEY_UPDATE_WITH_SET
LIMIT_IS_TOP
RETURNING_END
COLUMN_JOIN_MARKS_SUPPORTED
EXTRACT_ALLOWS_QUOTES
TZ_TO_WITH_TIME_ZONE
SELECT_KINDS
VALUES_AS_TABLE
ALTER_TABLE_INCLUDE_COLUMN_KEYWORD
AGGREGATE_FILTER_SUPPORTED
SEMI_ANTI_JOIN_WITH_SIDE
COMPUTED_COLUMN_WITH_TYPE
SUPPORTS_TABLE_COPY
TABLESAMPLE_REQUIRES_PARENS
TABLESAMPLE_SIZE_IS_ROWS
TABLESAMPLE_KEYWORDS
TABLESAMPLE_WITH_METHOD
TABLESAMPLE_SEED_KEYWORD
DATA_TYPE_SPECIFIERS_ALLOWED
ENSURE_BOOLS
CTE_RECURSIVE_KEYWORD_REQUIRED
SUPPORTS_SINGLE_ARG_CONCAT
LAST_DAY_SUPPORTS_DATE_PART
INSERT_OVERWRITE
SUPPORTS_SELECT_INTO
SUPPORTS_UNLOGGED_TABLES
SUPPORTS_CREATE_TABLE_LIKE
LIKE_PROPERTY_INSIDE_SCHEMA
MULTI_ARG_DISTINCT
JSON_TYPE_REQUIRED_FOR_EXTRACTION
JSON_PATH_BRACKETED_KEY_SUPPORTED
STAR_MAPPING
TIME_PART_SINGULARS
TOKEN_MAPPING
STRUCT_DELIMITER
PARAMETER_TOKEN
WITH_SEPARATED_COMMENTS
EXCLUDE_COMMENTS
UNWRAPPED_INTERVAL_VALUES
PARAMETERIZABLE_TEXT_TYPES
EXPRESSIONS_WITHOUT_NESTED_CTES
SENTINEL_LINE_BREAK
pretty
identify
normalize
pad
unsupported_level
max_unsupported
leading_comma
max_text_width
comments
dialect
normalize_functions
unsupported_messages
generate
preprocess
unsupported
sep
seg
pad_comment
maybe_comment
wrap
no_identify
normalize_func
indent
sql
uncache_sql
cache_sql
characterset_sql
column_sql
columnposition_sql
columndef_sql
columnconstraint_sql
computedcolumnconstraint_sql
autoincrementcolumnconstraint_sql
compresscolumnconstraint_sql
generatedasidentitycolumnconstraint_sql
generatedasrowcolumnconstraint_sql
periodforsystemtimeconstraint_sql
notnullcolumnconstraint_sql
transformcolumnconstraint_sql
primarykeycolumnconstraint_sql
uniquecolumnconstraint_sql
createable_sql
create_sql
clone_sql
describe_sql
heredoc_sql
prepend_ctes
with_sql
cte_sql
tablealias_sql
bitstring_sql
hexstring_sql
bytestring_sql
unicodestring_sql
rawstring_sql
datatypeparam_sql
datatype_sql
directory_sql
delete_sql
drop_sql
except_sql
fetch_sql
filter_sql
hint_sql
index_sql
identifier_sql
inputoutputformat_sql
national_sql
partition_sql
properties_sql
root_properties
properties
locate_properties
property_name
property_sql
likeproperty_sql
fallbackproperty_sql
journalproperty_sql
freespaceproperty_sql
checksumproperty_sql
mergeblockratioproperty_sql
datablocksizeproperty_sql
blockcompressionproperty_sql
isolatedloadingproperty_sql
partitionboundspec_sql
partitionedofproperty_sql
lockingproperty_sql
withdataproperty_sql
withsystemversioningproperty_sql
insert_sql
intersect_sql
introducer_sql
kill_sql
pseudotype_sql
objectidentifier_sql
onconflict_sql
returning_sql
rowformatdelimitedproperty_sql
withtablehint_sql
indextablehint_sql
historicaldata_sql
table_sql
tablesample_sql
pivot_sql
tuple_sql
update_sql
values_sql
var_sql
into_sql
from_sql
group_sql
having_sql
connect_sql
prior_sql
join_sql
lambda_sql
lateral_op
lateral_sql
limit_sql
offset_sql
setitem_sql
set_sql
pragma_sql
lock_sql
literal_sql
escape_str
loaddata_sql
null_sql
boolean_sql
order_sql
withfill_sql
cluster_sql
distribute_sql
sort_sql
ordered_sql
matchrecognize_sql
query_modifiers
queryoption_sql
offset_limit_modifiers
after_having_modifiers
after_limit_modifiers
select_sql
schema_sql
schema_columns_sql
star_sql
parameter_sql
sessionparameter_sql
placeholder_sql
subquery_sql
qualify_sql
union_sql
union_op
unnest_sql
prewhere_sql
where_sql
window_sql
partition_by_sql
windowspec_sql
withingroup_sql
between_sql
all_sql
any_sql
exists_sql
case_sql
constraint_sql
nextvaluefor_sql
extract_sql
trim_sql
convert_concat_args
concat_sql
concatws_sql
check_sql
foreignkey_sql
primarykey_sql
if_sql
matchagainst_sql
jsonkeyvalue_sql
jsonpath_sql
json_path_part
formatjson_sql
jsonobject_sql
jsonobjectagg_sql
jsonarray_sql
jsonarrayagg_sql
jsoncolumndef_sql
jsonschema_sql
jsontable_sql
openjsoncolumndef_sql
openjson_sql
in_sql
interval_sql
return_sql
reference_sql
anonymous_sql
paren_sql
neg_sql
not_sql
alias_sql
pivotalias_sql
aliases_sql
atindex_sql
fromtimezone_sql
add_sql
and_sql
xor_sql
connector_sql
bitwiseand_sql
bitwiseleftshift_sql
bitwisenot_sql
bitwiseor_sql
bitwiserightshift_sql
bitwisexor_sql
cast_sql
currentdate_sql
currenttimestamp_sql
collate_sql
command_sql
comment_sql
mergetreettlaction_sql
mergetreettl_sql
transaction_sql
commit_sql
rollback_sql
altercolumn_sql
renametable_sql
renamecolumn_sql
altertable_sql
add_column_sql
droppartition_sql
addconstraint_sql
distinct_sql
ignorenulls_sql
respectnulls_sql
havingmax_sql
intdiv_sql
dpipe_sql
div_sql
overlaps_sql
distance_sql
dot_sql
propertyeq_sql
escape_sql
glob_sql
gt_sql
gte_sql
ilike_sql
ilikeany_sql
is_sql
like_sql
likeany_sql
similarto_sql
lt_sql
lte_sql
mod_sql
mul_sql
neq_sql
nullsafeeq_sql
nullsafeneq_sql
or_sql
slice_sql
sub_sql
log_sql
use_sql
binary
function_fallback_sql
func
format_args
text_width
format_time
expressions
op_expressions
naked_property
set_operation
tag_sql
token_sql
userdefinedfunction_sql
joinhint_sql
kwarg_sql
when_sql
merge_sql
tochar_sql
dictproperty_sql
dictrange_sql
dictsubproperty_sql
oncluster_sql
clusteredbyproperty_sql
anyvalue_sql
querytransform_sql
indexconstraintoption_sql
checkcolumnconstraint_sql
indexcolumnconstraint_sql
nvl2_sql
comprehension_sql
columnprefix_sql
opclass_sql
predict_sql
forin_sql
refresh_sql
operator_sql
toarray_sql
tsordstotime_sql
tsordstodate_sql
unixdate_sql
lastday_sql
arrayany_sql
generateseries_sql
struct_sql
partitionrange_sql
truncatetable_sql
convert_sql