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sqlglot.dialects.oracle

  1from __future__ import annotations
  2
  3import typing as t
  4
  5from sqlglot import exp, generator, parser, tokens, transforms
  6from sqlglot.dialects.dialect import (
  7    Dialect,
  8    NormalizationStrategy,
  9    build_formatted_time,
 10    no_ilike_sql,
 11    rename_func,
 12    to_number_with_nls_param,
 13    trim_sql,
 14)
 15from sqlglot.helper import seq_get
 16from sqlglot.parser import OPTIONS_TYPE
 17from sqlglot.tokens import TokenType
 18
 19if t.TYPE_CHECKING:
 20    from sqlglot._typing import E
 21
 22
 23def _build_timetostr_or_tochar(args: t.List) -> exp.TimeToStr | exp.ToChar:
 24    this = seq_get(args, 0)
 25
 26    if this and not this.type:
 27        from sqlglot.optimizer.annotate_types import annotate_types
 28
 29        annotate_types(this)
 30        if this.is_type(*exp.DataType.TEMPORAL_TYPES):
 31            return build_formatted_time(exp.TimeToStr, "oracle", default=True)(args)
 32
 33    return exp.ToChar.from_arg_list(args)
 34
 35
 36class Oracle(Dialect):
 37    ALIAS_POST_TABLESAMPLE = True
 38    LOCKING_READS_SUPPORTED = True
 39    TABLESAMPLE_SIZE_IS_PERCENT = True
 40    NULL_ORDERING = "nulls_are_large"
 41
 42    # See section 8: https://docs.oracle.com/cd/A97630_01/server.920/a96540/sql_elements9a.htm
 43    NORMALIZATION_STRATEGY = NormalizationStrategy.UPPERCASE
 44
 45    # https://docs.oracle.com/database/121/SQLRF/sql_elements004.htm#SQLRF00212
 46    # https://docs.python.org/3/library/datetime.html#strftime-and-strptime-format-codes
 47    TIME_MAPPING = {
 48        "AM": "%p",  # Meridian indicator with or without periods
 49        "A.M.": "%p",  # Meridian indicator with or without periods
 50        "PM": "%p",  # Meridian indicator with or without periods
 51        "P.M.": "%p",  # Meridian indicator with or without periods
 52        "D": "%u",  # Day of week (1-7)
 53        "DAY": "%A",  # name of day
 54        "DD": "%d",  # day of month (1-31)
 55        "DDD": "%j",  # day of year (1-366)
 56        "DY": "%a",  # abbreviated name of day
 57        "HH": "%I",  # Hour of day (1-12)
 58        "HH12": "%I",  # alias for HH
 59        "HH24": "%H",  # Hour of day (0-23)
 60        "IW": "%V",  # Calendar week of year (1-52 or 1-53), as defined by the ISO 8601 standard
 61        "MI": "%M",  # Minute (0-59)
 62        "MM": "%m",  # Month (01-12; January = 01)
 63        "MON": "%b",  # Abbreviated name of month
 64        "MONTH": "%B",  # Name of month
 65        "SS": "%S",  # Second (0-59)
 66        "WW": "%W",  # Week of year (1-53)
 67        "YY": "%y",  # 15
 68        "YYYY": "%Y",  # 2015
 69        "FF6": "%f",  # only 6 digits are supported in python formats
 70    }
 71
 72    class Tokenizer(tokens.Tokenizer):
 73        VAR_SINGLE_TOKENS = {"@", "$", "#"}
 74
 75        UNICODE_STRINGS = [
 76            (prefix + q, q)
 77            for q in t.cast(t.List[str], tokens.Tokenizer.QUOTES)
 78            for prefix in ("U", "u")
 79        ]
 80
 81        KEYWORDS = {
 82            **tokens.Tokenizer.KEYWORDS,
 83            "(+)": TokenType.JOIN_MARKER,
 84            "BINARY_DOUBLE": TokenType.DOUBLE,
 85            "BINARY_FLOAT": TokenType.FLOAT,
 86            "COLUMNS": TokenType.COLUMN,
 87            "MATCH_RECOGNIZE": TokenType.MATCH_RECOGNIZE,
 88            "MINUS": TokenType.EXCEPT,
 89            "NVARCHAR2": TokenType.NVARCHAR,
 90            "ORDER SIBLINGS BY": TokenType.ORDER_SIBLINGS_BY,
 91            "SAMPLE": TokenType.TABLE_SAMPLE,
 92            "START": TokenType.BEGIN,
 93            "SYSDATE": TokenType.CURRENT_TIMESTAMP,
 94            "TOP": TokenType.TOP,
 95            "VARCHAR2": TokenType.VARCHAR,
 96        }
 97
 98    class Parser(parser.Parser):
 99        ALTER_TABLE_ADD_REQUIRED_FOR_EACH_COLUMN = False
100        WINDOW_BEFORE_PAREN_TOKENS = {TokenType.OVER, TokenType.KEEP}
101        VALUES_FOLLOWED_BY_PAREN = False
102
103        FUNCTIONS = {
104            **parser.Parser.FUNCTIONS,
105            "SQUARE": lambda args: exp.Pow(this=seq_get(args, 0), expression=exp.Literal.number(2)),
106            "TO_CHAR": _build_timetostr_or_tochar,
107            "TO_TIMESTAMP": build_formatted_time(exp.StrToTime, "oracle"),
108            "TO_DATE": build_formatted_time(exp.StrToDate, "oracle"),
109        }
110
111        FUNCTION_PARSERS: t.Dict[str, t.Callable] = {
112            **parser.Parser.FUNCTION_PARSERS,
113            "JSON_ARRAY": lambda self: self._parse_json_array(
114                exp.JSONArray,
115                expressions=self._parse_csv(lambda: self._parse_format_json(self._parse_bitwise())),
116            ),
117            "JSON_ARRAYAGG": lambda self: self._parse_json_array(
118                exp.JSONArrayAgg,
119                this=self._parse_format_json(self._parse_bitwise()),
120                order=self._parse_order(),
121            ),
122            "XMLTABLE": lambda self: self._parse_xml_table(),
123        }
124
125        NO_PAREN_FUNCTION_PARSERS = {
126            **parser.Parser.NO_PAREN_FUNCTION_PARSERS,
127            "CONNECT_BY_ROOT": lambda self: self.expression(
128                exp.ConnectByRoot, this=self._parse_column()
129            ),
130        }
131
132        PROPERTY_PARSERS = {
133            **parser.Parser.PROPERTY_PARSERS,
134            "GLOBAL": lambda self: self._match_text_seq("TEMPORARY")
135            and self.expression(exp.TemporaryProperty, this="GLOBAL"),
136            "PRIVATE": lambda self: self._match_text_seq("TEMPORARY")
137            and self.expression(exp.TemporaryProperty, this="PRIVATE"),
138        }
139
140        QUERY_MODIFIER_PARSERS = {
141            **parser.Parser.QUERY_MODIFIER_PARSERS,
142            TokenType.ORDER_SIBLINGS_BY: lambda self: ("order", self._parse_order()),
143            TokenType.WITH: lambda self: ("options", [self._parse_query_restrictions()]),
144        }
145
146        TYPE_LITERAL_PARSERS = {
147            exp.DataType.Type.DATE: lambda self, this, _: self.expression(
148                exp.DateStrToDate, this=this
149            )
150        }
151
152        # SELECT UNIQUE .. is old-style Oracle syntax for SELECT DISTINCT ..
153        # Reference: https://stackoverflow.com/a/336455
154        DISTINCT_TOKENS = {TokenType.DISTINCT, TokenType.UNIQUE}
155
156        QUERY_RESTRICTIONS: OPTIONS_TYPE = {
157            "WITH": (
158                ("READ", "ONLY"),
159                ("CHECK", "OPTION"),
160            ),
161        }
162
163        def _parse_xml_table(self) -> exp.XMLTable:
164            this = self._parse_string()
165
166            passing = None
167            columns = None
168
169            if self._match_text_seq("PASSING"):
170                # The BY VALUE keywords are optional and are provided for semantic clarity
171                self._match_text_seq("BY", "VALUE")
172                passing = self._parse_csv(self._parse_column)
173
174            by_ref = self._match_text_seq("RETURNING", "SEQUENCE", "BY", "REF")
175
176            if self._match_text_seq("COLUMNS"):
177                columns = self._parse_csv(self._parse_field_def)
178
179            return self.expression(
180                exp.XMLTable, this=this, passing=passing, columns=columns, by_ref=by_ref
181            )
182
183        def _parse_json_array(self, expr_type: t.Type[E], **kwargs) -> E:
184            return self.expression(
185                expr_type,
186                null_handling=self._parse_on_handling("NULL", "NULL", "ABSENT"),
187                return_type=self._match_text_seq("RETURNING") and self._parse_type(),
188                strict=self._match_text_seq("STRICT"),
189                **kwargs,
190            )
191
192        def _parse_hint(self) -> t.Optional[exp.Hint]:
193            if self._match(TokenType.HINT):
194                start = self._curr
195                while self._curr and not self._match_pair(TokenType.STAR, TokenType.SLASH):
196                    self._advance()
197
198                if not self._curr:
199                    self.raise_error("Expected */ after HINT")
200
201                end = self._tokens[self._index - 3]
202                return exp.Hint(expressions=[self._find_sql(start, end)])
203
204            return None
205
206        def _parse_query_restrictions(self) -> t.Optional[exp.Expression]:
207            kind = self._parse_var_from_options(self.QUERY_RESTRICTIONS, raise_unmatched=False)
208
209            if not kind:
210                return None
211
212            return self.expression(
213                exp.QueryOption,
214                this=kind,
215                expression=self._match(TokenType.CONSTRAINT) and self._parse_field(),
216            )
217
218    class Generator(generator.Generator):
219        LOCKING_READS_SUPPORTED = True
220        JOIN_HINTS = False
221        TABLE_HINTS = False
222        DATA_TYPE_SPECIFIERS_ALLOWED = True
223        ALTER_TABLE_INCLUDE_COLUMN_KEYWORD = False
224        LIMIT_FETCH = "FETCH"
225        TABLESAMPLE_KEYWORDS = "SAMPLE"
226        LAST_DAY_SUPPORTS_DATE_PART = False
227        SUPPORTS_SELECT_INTO = True
228        TZ_TO_WITH_TIME_ZONE = True
229
230        TYPE_MAPPING = {
231            **generator.Generator.TYPE_MAPPING,
232            exp.DataType.Type.TINYINT: "NUMBER",
233            exp.DataType.Type.SMALLINT: "NUMBER",
234            exp.DataType.Type.INT: "NUMBER",
235            exp.DataType.Type.BIGINT: "NUMBER",
236            exp.DataType.Type.DECIMAL: "NUMBER",
237            exp.DataType.Type.DOUBLE: "DOUBLE PRECISION",
238            exp.DataType.Type.VARCHAR: "VARCHAR2",
239            exp.DataType.Type.NVARCHAR: "NVARCHAR2",
240            exp.DataType.Type.NCHAR: "NCHAR",
241            exp.DataType.Type.TEXT: "CLOB",
242            exp.DataType.Type.TIMETZ: "TIME",
243            exp.DataType.Type.TIMESTAMPTZ: "TIMESTAMP",
244            exp.DataType.Type.BINARY: "BLOB",
245            exp.DataType.Type.VARBINARY: "BLOB",
246            exp.DataType.Type.ROWVERSION: "BLOB",
247        }
248
249        TRANSFORMS = {
250            **generator.Generator.TRANSFORMS,
251            exp.ConnectByRoot: lambda self, e: f"CONNECT_BY_ROOT {self.sql(e, 'this')}",
252            exp.DateStrToDate: lambda self, e: self.func(
253                "TO_DATE", e.this, exp.Literal.string("YYYY-MM-DD")
254            ),
255            exp.Group: transforms.preprocess([transforms.unalias_group]),
256            exp.ILike: no_ilike_sql,
257            exp.Select: transforms.preprocess(
258                [
259                    transforms.eliminate_distinct_on,
260                    transforms.eliminate_qualify,
261                ]
262            ),
263            exp.StrToTime: lambda self, e: self.func("TO_TIMESTAMP", e.this, self.format_time(e)),
264            exp.StrToDate: lambda self, e: self.func("TO_DATE", e.this, self.format_time(e)),
265            exp.Subquery: lambda self, e: self.subquery_sql(e, sep=" "),
266            exp.Substring: rename_func("SUBSTR"),
267            exp.Table: lambda self, e: self.table_sql(e, sep=" "),
268            exp.TableSample: lambda self, e: self.tablesample_sql(e, sep=" "),
269            exp.TemporaryProperty: lambda _, e: f"{e.name or 'GLOBAL'} TEMPORARY",
270            exp.TimeToStr: lambda self, e: self.func("TO_CHAR", e.this, self.format_time(e)),
271            exp.ToChar: lambda self, e: self.function_fallback_sql(e),
272            exp.ToNumber: to_number_with_nls_param,
273            exp.Trim: trim_sql,
274            exp.UnixToTime: lambda self,
275            e: f"TO_DATE('1970-01-01', 'YYYY-MM-DD') + ({self.sql(e, 'this')} / 86400)",
276        }
277
278        PROPERTIES_LOCATION = {
279            **generator.Generator.PROPERTIES_LOCATION,
280            exp.VolatileProperty: exp.Properties.Location.UNSUPPORTED,
281        }
282
283        def currenttimestamp_sql(self, expression: exp.CurrentTimestamp) -> str:
284            this = expression.this
285            return self.func("CURRENT_TIMESTAMP", this) if this else "CURRENT_TIMESTAMP"
286
287        def offset_sql(self, expression: exp.Offset) -> str:
288            return f"{super().offset_sql(expression)} ROWS"
289
290        def xmltable_sql(self, expression: exp.XMLTable) -> str:
291            this = self.sql(expression, "this")
292            passing = self.expressions(expression, key="passing")
293            passing = f"{self.sep()}PASSING{self.seg(passing)}" if passing else ""
294            columns = self.expressions(expression, key="columns")
295            columns = f"{self.sep()}COLUMNS{self.seg(columns)}" if columns else ""
296            by_ref = (
297                f"{self.sep()}RETURNING SEQUENCE BY REF" if expression.args.get("by_ref") else ""
298            )
299            return f"XMLTABLE({self.sep('')}{self.indent(this + passing + by_ref + columns)}{self.seg(')', sep='')}"
300
301        def add_column_sql(self, expression: exp.AlterTable) -> str:
302            actions = self.expressions(expression, key="actions", flat=True)
303            if len(expression.args.get("actions", [])) > 1:
304                return f"ADD ({actions})"
305            return f"ADD {actions}"
306
307        def queryoption_sql(self, expression: exp.QueryOption) -> str:
308            option = self.sql(expression, "this")
309            value = self.sql(expression, "expression")
310            value = f" CONSTRAINT {value}" if value else ""
311
312            return f"{option}{value}"
class Oracle(sqlglot.dialects.dialect.Dialect):
 37class Oracle(Dialect):
 38    ALIAS_POST_TABLESAMPLE = True
 39    LOCKING_READS_SUPPORTED = True
 40    TABLESAMPLE_SIZE_IS_PERCENT = True
 41    NULL_ORDERING = "nulls_are_large"
 42
 43    # See section 8: https://docs.oracle.com/cd/A97630_01/server.920/a96540/sql_elements9a.htm
 44    NORMALIZATION_STRATEGY = NormalizationStrategy.UPPERCASE
 45
 46    # https://docs.oracle.com/database/121/SQLRF/sql_elements004.htm#SQLRF00212
 47    # https://docs.python.org/3/library/datetime.html#strftime-and-strptime-format-codes
 48    TIME_MAPPING = {
 49        "AM": "%p",  # Meridian indicator with or without periods
 50        "A.M.": "%p",  # Meridian indicator with or without periods
 51        "PM": "%p",  # Meridian indicator with or without periods
 52        "P.M.": "%p",  # Meridian indicator with or without periods
 53        "D": "%u",  # Day of week (1-7)
 54        "DAY": "%A",  # name of day
 55        "DD": "%d",  # day of month (1-31)
 56        "DDD": "%j",  # day of year (1-366)
 57        "DY": "%a",  # abbreviated name of day
 58        "HH": "%I",  # Hour of day (1-12)
 59        "HH12": "%I",  # alias for HH
 60        "HH24": "%H",  # Hour of day (0-23)
 61        "IW": "%V",  # Calendar week of year (1-52 or 1-53), as defined by the ISO 8601 standard
 62        "MI": "%M",  # Minute (0-59)
 63        "MM": "%m",  # Month (01-12; January = 01)
 64        "MON": "%b",  # Abbreviated name of month
 65        "MONTH": "%B",  # Name of month
 66        "SS": "%S",  # Second (0-59)
 67        "WW": "%W",  # Week of year (1-53)
 68        "YY": "%y",  # 15
 69        "YYYY": "%Y",  # 2015
 70        "FF6": "%f",  # only 6 digits are supported in python formats
 71    }
 72
 73    class Tokenizer(tokens.Tokenizer):
 74        VAR_SINGLE_TOKENS = {"@", "$", "#"}
 75
 76        UNICODE_STRINGS = [
 77            (prefix + q, q)
 78            for q in t.cast(t.List[str], tokens.Tokenizer.QUOTES)
 79            for prefix in ("U", "u")
 80        ]
 81
 82        KEYWORDS = {
 83            **tokens.Tokenizer.KEYWORDS,
 84            "(+)": TokenType.JOIN_MARKER,
 85            "BINARY_DOUBLE": TokenType.DOUBLE,
 86            "BINARY_FLOAT": TokenType.FLOAT,
 87            "COLUMNS": TokenType.COLUMN,
 88            "MATCH_RECOGNIZE": TokenType.MATCH_RECOGNIZE,
 89            "MINUS": TokenType.EXCEPT,
 90            "NVARCHAR2": TokenType.NVARCHAR,
 91            "ORDER SIBLINGS BY": TokenType.ORDER_SIBLINGS_BY,
 92            "SAMPLE": TokenType.TABLE_SAMPLE,
 93            "START": TokenType.BEGIN,
 94            "SYSDATE": TokenType.CURRENT_TIMESTAMP,
 95            "TOP": TokenType.TOP,
 96            "VARCHAR2": TokenType.VARCHAR,
 97        }
 98
 99    class Parser(parser.Parser):
100        ALTER_TABLE_ADD_REQUIRED_FOR_EACH_COLUMN = False
101        WINDOW_BEFORE_PAREN_TOKENS = {TokenType.OVER, TokenType.KEEP}
102        VALUES_FOLLOWED_BY_PAREN = False
103
104        FUNCTIONS = {
105            **parser.Parser.FUNCTIONS,
106            "SQUARE": lambda args: exp.Pow(this=seq_get(args, 0), expression=exp.Literal.number(2)),
107            "TO_CHAR": _build_timetostr_or_tochar,
108            "TO_TIMESTAMP": build_formatted_time(exp.StrToTime, "oracle"),
109            "TO_DATE": build_formatted_time(exp.StrToDate, "oracle"),
110        }
111
112        FUNCTION_PARSERS: t.Dict[str, t.Callable] = {
113            **parser.Parser.FUNCTION_PARSERS,
114            "JSON_ARRAY": lambda self: self._parse_json_array(
115                exp.JSONArray,
116                expressions=self._parse_csv(lambda: self._parse_format_json(self._parse_bitwise())),
117            ),
118            "JSON_ARRAYAGG": lambda self: self._parse_json_array(
119                exp.JSONArrayAgg,
120                this=self._parse_format_json(self._parse_bitwise()),
121                order=self._parse_order(),
122            ),
123            "XMLTABLE": lambda self: self._parse_xml_table(),
124        }
125
126        NO_PAREN_FUNCTION_PARSERS = {
127            **parser.Parser.NO_PAREN_FUNCTION_PARSERS,
128            "CONNECT_BY_ROOT": lambda self: self.expression(
129                exp.ConnectByRoot, this=self._parse_column()
130            ),
131        }
132
133        PROPERTY_PARSERS = {
134            **parser.Parser.PROPERTY_PARSERS,
135            "GLOBAL": lambda self: self._match_text_seq("TEMPORARY")
136            and self.expression(exp.TemporaryProperty, this="GLOBAL"),
137            "PRIVATE": lambda self: self._match_text_seq("TEMPORARY")
138            and self.expression(exp.TemporaryProperty, this="PRIVATE"),
139        }
140
141        QUERY_MODIFIER_PARSERS = {
142            **parser.Parser.QUERY_MODIFIER_PARSERS,
143            TokenType.ORDER_SIBLINGS_BY: lambda self: ("order", self._parse_order()),
144            TokenType.WITH: lambda self: ("options", [self._parse_query_restrictions()]),
145        }
146
147        TYPE_LITERAL_PARSERS = {
148            exp.DataType.Type.DATE: lambda self, this, _: self.expression(
149                exp.DateStrToDate, this=this
150            )
151        }
152
153        # SELECT UNIQUE .. is old-style Oracle syntax for SELECT DISTINCT ..
154        # Reference: https://stackoverflow.com/a/336455
155        DISTINCT_TOKENS = {TokenType.DISTINCT, TokenType.UNIQUE}
156
157        QUERY_RESTRICTIONS: OPTIONS_TYPE = {
158            "WITH": (
159                ("READ", "ONLY"),
160                ("CHECK", "OPTION"),
161            ),
162        }
163
164        def _parse_xml_table(self) -> exp.XMLTable:
165            this = self._parse_string()
166
167            passing = None
168            columns = None
169
170            if self._match_text_seq("PASSING"):
171                # The BY VALUE keywords are optional and are provided for semantic clarity
172                self._match_text_seq("BY", "VALUE")
173                passing = self._parse_csv(self._parse_column)
174
175            by_ref = self._match_text_seq("RETURNING", "SEQUENCE", "BY", "REF")
176
177            if self._match_text_seq("COLUMNS"):
178                columns = self._parse_csv(self._parse_field_def)
179
180            return self.expression(
181                exp.XMLTable, this=this, passing=passing, columns=columns, by_ref=by_ref
182            )
183
184        def _parse_json_array(self, expr_type: t.Type[E], **kwargs) -> E:
185            return self.expression(
186                expr_type,
187                null_handling=self._parse_on_handling("NULL", "NULL", "ABSENT"),
188                return_type=self._match_text_seq("RETURNING") and self._parse_type(),
189                strict=self._match_text_seq("STRICT"),
190                **kwargs,
191            )
192
193        def _parse_hint(self) -> t.Optional[exp.Hint]:
194            if self._match(TokenType.HINT):
195                start = self._curr
196                while self._curr and not self._match_pair(TokenType.STAR, TokenType.SLASH):
197                    self._advance()
198
199                if not self._curr:
200                    self.raise_error("Expected */ after HINT")
201
202                end = self._tokens[self._index - 3]
203                return exp.Hint(expressions=[self._find_sql(start, end)])
204
205            return None
206
207        def _parse_query_restrictions(self) -> t.Optional[exp.Expression]:
208            kind = self._parse_var_from_options(self.QUERY_RESTRICTIONS, raise_unmatched=False)
209
210            if not kind:
211                return None
212
213            return self.expression(
214                exp.QueryOption,
215                this=kind,
216                expression=self._match(TokenType.CONSTRAINT) and self._parse_field(),
217            )
218
219    class Generator(generator.Generator):
220        LOCKING_READS_SUPPORTED = True
221        JOIN_HINTS = False
222        TABLE_HINTS = False
223        DATA_TYPE_SPECIFIERS_ALLOWED = True
224        ALTER_TABLE_INCLUDE_COLUMN_KEYWORD = False
225        LIMIT_FETCH = "FETCH"
226        TABLESAMPLE_KEYWORDS = "SAMPLE"
227        LAST_DAY_SUPPORTS_DATE_PART = False
228        SUPPORTS_SELECT_INTO = True
229        TZ_TO_WITH_TIME_ZONE = True
230
231        TYPE_MAPPING = {
232            **generator.Generator.TYPE_MAPPING,
233            exp.DataType.Type.TINYINT: "NUMBER",
234            exp.DataType.Type.SMALLINT: "NUMBER",
235            exp.DataType.Type.INT: "NUMBER",
236            exp.DataType.Type.BIGINT: "NUMBER",
237            exp.DataType.Type.DECIMAL: "NUMBER",
238            exp.DataType.Type.DOUBLE: "DOUBLE PRECISION",
239            exp.DataType.Type.VARCHAR: "VARCHAR2",
240            exp.DataType.Type.NVARCHAR: "NVARCHAR2",
241            exp.DataType.Type.NCHAR: "NCHAR",
242            exp.DataType.Type.TEXT: "CLOB",
243            exp.DataType.Type.TIMETZ: "TIME",
244            exp.DataType.Type.TIMESTAMPTZ: "TIMESTAMP",
245            exp.DataType.Type.BINARY: "BLOB",
246            exp.DataType.Type.VARBINARY: "BLOB",
247            exp.DataType.Type.ROWVERSION: "BLOB",
248        }
249
250        TRANSFORMS = {
251            **generator.Generator.TRANSFORMS,
252            exp.ConnectByRoot: lambda self, e: f"CONNECT_BY_ROOT {self.sql(e, 'this')}",
253            exp.DateStrToDate: lambda self, e: self.func(
254                "TO_DATE", e.this, exp.Literal.string("YYYY-MM-DD")
255            ),
256            exp.Group: transforms.preprocess([transforms.unalias_group]),
257            exp.ILike: no_ilike_sql,
258            exp.Select: transforms.preprocess(
259                [
260                    transforms.eliminate_distinct_on,
261                    transforms.eliminate_qualify,
262                ]
263            ),
264            exp.StrToTime: lambda self, e: self.func("TO_TIMESTAMP", e.this, self.format_time(e)),
265            exp.StrToDate: lambda self, e: self.func("TO_DATE", e.this, self.format_time(e)),
266            exp.Subquery: lambda self, e: self.subquery_sql(e, sep=" "),
267            exp.Substring: rename_func("SUBSTR"),
268            exp.Table: lambda self, e: self.table_sql(e, sep=" "),
269            exp.TableSample: lambda self, e: self.tablesample_sql(e, sep=" "),
270            exp.TemporaryProperty: lambda _, e: f"{e.name or 'GLOBAL'} TEMPORARY",
271            exp.TimeToStr: lambda self, e: self.func("TO_CHAR", e.this, self.format_time(e)),
272            exp.ToChar: lambda self, e: self.function_fallback_sql(e),
273            exp.ToNumber: to_number_with_nls_param,
274            exp.Trim: trim_sql,
275            exp.UnixToTime: lambda self,
276            e: f"TO_DATE('1970-01-01', 'YYYY-MM-DD') + ({self.sql(e, 'this')} / 86400)",
277        }
278
279        PROPERTIES_LOCATION = {
280            **generator.Generator.PROPERTIES_LOCATION,
281            exp.VolatileProperty: exp.Properties.Location.UNSUPPORTED,
282        }
283
284        def currenttimestamp_sql(self, expression: exp.CurrentTimestamp) -> str:
285            this = expression.this
286            return self.func("CURRENT_TIMESTAMP", this) if this else "CURRENT_TIMESTAMP"
287
288        def offset_sql(self, expression: exp.Offset) -> str:
289            return f"{super().offset_sql(expression)} ROWS"
290
291        def xmltable_sql(self, expression: exp.XMLTable) -> str:
292            this = self.sql(expression, "this")
293            passing = self.expressions(expression, key="passing")
294            passing = f"{self.sep()}PASSING{self.seg(passing)}" if passing else ""
295            columns = self.expressions(expression, key="columns")
296            columns = f"{self.sep()}COLUMNS{self.seg(columns)}" if columns else ""
297            by_ref = (
298                f"{self.sep()}RETURNING SEQUENCE BY REF" if expression.args.get("by_ref") else ""
299            )
300            return f"XMLTABLE({self.sep('')}{self.indent(this + passing + by_ref + columns)}{self.seg(')', sep='')}"
301
302        def add_column_sql(self, expression: exp.AlterTable) -> str:
303            actions = self.expressions(expression, key="actions", flat=True)
304            if len(expression.args.get("actions", [])) > 1:
305                return f"ADD ({actions})"
306            return f"ADD {actions}"
307
308        def queryoption_sql(self, expression: exp.QueryOption) -> str:
309            option = self.sql(expression, "this")
310            value = self.sql(expression, "expression")
311            value = f" CONSTRAINT {value}" if value else ""
312
313            return f"{option}{value}"
ALIAS_POST_TABLESAMPLE = True

Whether the table alias comes after tablesample.

LOCKING_READS_SUPPORTED = True
TABLESAMPLE_SIZE_IS_PERCENT = True

Whether a size in the table sample clause represents percentage.

NULL_ORDERING = 'nulls_are_large'

Default NULL ordering method to use if not explicitly set. Possible values: "nulls_are_small", "nulls_are_large", "nulls_are_last"

NORMALIZATION_STRATEGY = <NormalizationStrategy.UPPERCASE: 'UPPERCASE'>

Specifies the strategy according to which identifiers should be normalized.

TIME_MAPPING: Dict[str, str] = {'AM': '%p', 'A.M.': '%p', 'PM': '%p', 'P.M.': '%p', 'D': '%u', 'DAY': '%A', 'DD': '%d', 'DDD': '%j', 'DY': '%a', 'HH': '%I', 'HH12': '%I', 'HH24': '%H', 'IW': '%V', 'MI': '%M', 'MM': '%m', 'MON': '%b', 'MONTH': '%B', 'SS': '%S', 'WW': '%W', 'YY': '%y', 'YYYY': '%Y', 'FF6': '%f'}

Associates this dialect's time formats with their equivalent Python strftime formats.

SUPPORTS_COLUMN_JOIN_MARKS = True

Whether the old-style outer join (+) syntax is supported.

tokenizer_class = <class 'Oracle.Tokenizer'>
jsonpath_tokenizer_class = <class 'sqlglot.tokens.JSONPathTokenizer'>
parser_class = <class 'Oracle.Parser'>
generator_class = <class 'Oracle.Generator'>
TIME_TRIE: Dict = {'A': {'M': {0: True}, '.': {'M': {'.': {0: True}}}}, 'P': {'M': {0: True}, '.': {'M': {'.': {0: True}}}}, 'D': {0: True, 'A': {'Y': {0: True}}, 'D': {0: True, 'D': {0: True}}, 'Y': {0: True}}, 'H': {'H': {0: True, '1': {'2': {0: True}}, '2': {'4': {0: True}}}}, 'I': {'W': {0: True}}, 'M': {'I': {0: True}, 'M': {0: True}, 'O': {'N': {0: True, 'T': {'H': {0: True}}}}}, 'S': {'S': {0: True}}, 'W': {'W': {0: True}}, 'Y': {'Y': {0: True, 'Y': {'Y': {0: True}}}}, 'F': {'F': {'6': {0: True}}}}
FORMAT_TRIE: Dict = {'A': {'M': {0: True}, '.': {'M': {'.': {0: True}}}}, 'P': {'M': {0: True}, '.': {'M': {'.': {0: True}}}}, 'D': {0: True, 'A': {'Y': {0: True}}, 'D': {0: True, 'D': {0: True}}, 'Y': {0: True}}, 'H': {'H': {0: True, '1': {'2': {0: True}}, '2': {'4': {0: True}}}}, 'I': {'W': {0: True}}, 'M': {'I': {0: True}, 'M': {0: True}, 'O': {'N': {0: True, 'T': {'H': {0: True}}}}}, 'S': {'S': {0: True}}, 'W': {'W': {0: True}}, 'Y': {'Y': {0: True, 'Y': {'Y': {0: True}}}}, 'F': {'F': {'6': {0: True}}}}
INVERSE_TIME_MAPPING: Dict[str, str] = {'%p': 'P.M.', '%u': 'D', '%A': 'DAY', '%d': 'DD', '%j': 'DDD', '%a': 'DY', '%I': 'HH12', '%H': 'HH24', '%V': 'IW', '%M': 'MI', '%m': 'MM', '%b': 'MON', '%B': 'MONTH', '%S': 'SS', '%W': 'WW', '%y': 'YY', '%Y': 'YYYY', '%f': 'FF6'}
INVERSE_TIME_TRIE: Dict = {'%': {'p': {0: True}, 'u': {0: True}, 'A': {0: True}, 'd': {0: True}, 'j': {0: True}, 'a': {0: True}, 'I': {0: True}, 'H': {0: True}, 'V': {0: True}, 'M': {0: True}, 'm': {0: True}, 'b': {0: True}, 'B': {0: True}, 'S': {0: True}, 'W': {0: True}, 'y': {0: True}, 'Y': {0: True}, 'f': {0: True}}}
ESCAPED_SEQUENCES: Dict[str, str] = {}
QUOTE_START = "'"
QUOTE_END = "'"
IDENTIFIER_START = '"'
IDENTIFIER_END = '"'
BIT_START: Optional[str] = None
BIT_END: Optional[str] = None
HEX_START: Optional[str] = None
HEX_END: Optional[str] = None
BYTE_START: Optional[str] = None
BYTE_END: Optional[str] = None
UNICODE_START: Optional[str] = "U'"
UNICODE_END: Optional[str] = "'"
class Oracle.Tokenizer(sqlglot.tokens.Tokenizer):
73    class Tokenizer(tokens.Tokenizer):
74        VAR_SINGLE_TOKENS = {"@", "$", "#"}
75
76        UNICODE_STRINGS = [
77            (prefix + q, q)
78            for q in t.cast(t.List[str], tokens.Tokenizer.QUOTES)
79            for prefix in ("U", "u")
80        ]
81
82        KEYWORDS = {
83            **tokens.Tokenizer.KEYWORDS,
84            "(+)": TokenType.JOIN_MARKER,
85            "BINARY_DOUBLE": TokenType.DOUBLE,
86            "BINARY_FLOAT": TokenType.FLOAT,
87            "COLUMNS": TokenType.COLUMN,
88            "MATCH_RECOGNIZE": TokenType.MATCH_RECOGNIZE,
89            "MINUS": TokenType.EXCEPT,
90            "NVARCHAR2": TokenType.NVARCHAR,
91            "ORDER SIBLINGS BY": TokenType.ORDER_SIBLINGS_BY,
92            "SAMPLE": TokenType.TABLE_SAMPLE,
93            "START": TokenType.BEGIN,
94            "SYSDATE": TokenType.CURRENT_TIMESTAMP,
95            "TOP": TokenType.TOP,
96            "VARCHAR2": TokenType.VARCHAR,
97        }
VAR_SINGLE_TOKENS = {'#', '@', '$'}
UNICODE_STRINGS = [("U'", "'"), ("u'", "'")]
KEYWORDS = {'{%': <TokenType.BLOCK_START: 'BLOCK_START'>, '{%+': <TokenType.BLOCK_START: 'BLOCK_START'>, '{%-': <TokenType.BLOCK_START: 'BLOCK_START'>, '%}': <TokenType.BLOCK_END: 'BLOCK_END'>, '+%}': <TokenType.BLOCK_END: 'BLOCK_END'>, '-%}': <TokenType.BLOCK_END: 'BLOCK_END'>, '{{+': <TokenType.BLOCK_START: 'BLOCK_START'>, '{{-': <TokenType.BLOCK_START: 'BLOCK_START'>, '+}}': <TokenType.BLOCK_END: 'BLOCK_END'>, '-}}': <TokenType.BLOCK_END: 'BLOCK_END'>, '/*+': <TokenType.HINT: 'HINT'>, '==': <TokenType.EQ: 'EQ'>, '::': <TokenType.DCOLON: 'DCOLON'>, '||': <TokenType.DPIPE: 'DPIPE'>, '>=': <TokenType.GTE: 'GTE'>, '<=': <TokenType.LTE: 'LTE'>, '<>': <TokenType.NEQ: 'NEQ'>, '!=': <TokenType.NEQ: 'NEQ'>, ':=': <TokenType.COLON_EQ: 'COLON_EQ'>, '<=>': <TokenType.NULLSAFE_EQ: 'NULLSAFE_EQ'>, '->': <TokenType.ARROW: 'ARROW'>, '->>': <TokenType.DARROW: 'DARROW'>, '=>': <TokenType.FARROW: 'FARROW'>, '#>': <TokenType.HASH_ARROW: 'HASH_ARROW'>, '#>>': <TokenType.DHASH_ARROW: 'DHASH_ARROW'>, '<->': <TokenType.LR_ARROW: 'LR_ARROW'>, '&&': <TokenType.DAMP: 'DAMP'>, '??': <TokenType.DQMARK: 'DQMARK'>, 'ALL': <TokenType.ALL: 'ALL'>, 'ALWAYS': <TokenType.ALWAYS: 'ALWAYS'>, 'AND': <TokenType.AND: 'AND'>, 'ANTI': <TokenType.ANTI: 'ANTI'>, 'ANY': <TokenType.ANY: 'ANY'>, 'ASC': <TokenType.ASC: 'ASC'>, 'AS': <TokenType.ALIAS: 'ALIAS'>, 'ASOF': <TokenType.ASOF: 'ASOF'>, 'AUTOINCREMENT': <TokenType.AUTO_INCREMENT: 'AUTO_INCREMENT'>, 'AUTO_INCREMENT': <TokenType.AUTO_INCREMENT: 'AUTO_INCREMENT'>, 'BEGIN': <TokenType.BEGIN: 'BEGIN'>, 'BETWEEN': <TokenType.BETWEEN: 'BETWEEN'>, 'CACHE': <TokenType.CACHE: 'CACHE'>, 'UNCACHE': <TokenType.UNCACHE: 'UNCACHE'>, 'CASE': <TokenType.CASE: 'CASE'>, 'CHARACTER SET': <TokenType.CHARACTER_SET: 'CHARACTER_SET'>, 'CLUSTER BY': <TokenType.CLUSTER_BY: 'CLUSTER_BY'>, 'COLLATE': <TokenType.COLLATE: 'COLLATE'>, 'COLUMN': <TokenType.COLUMN: 'COLUMN'>, 'COMMIT': <TokenType.COMMIT: 'COMMIT'>, 'CONNECT BY': <TokenType.CONNECT_BY: 'CONNECT_BY'>, 'CONSTRAINT': <TokenType.CONSTRAINT: 'CONSTRAINT'>, 'COPY': <TokenType.COPY: 'COPY'>, 'CREATE': <TokenType.CREATE: 'CREATE'>, 'CROSS': <TokenType.CROSS: 'CROSS'>, 'CUBE': <TokenType.CUBE: 'CUBE'>, 'CURRENT_DATE': <TokenType.CURRENT_DATE: 'CURRENT_DATE'>, 'CURRENT_TIME': <TokenType.CURRENT_TIME: 'CURRENT_TIME'>, 'CURRENT_TIMESTAMP': <TokenType.CURRENT_TIMESTAMP: 'CURRENT_TIMESTAMP'>, 'CURRENT_USER': <TokenType.CURRENT_USER: 'CURRENT_USER'>, 'DATABASE': <TokenType.DATABASE: 'DATABASE'>, 'DEFAULT': <TokenType.DEFAULT: 'DEFAULT'>, 'DELETE': <TokenType.DELETE: 'DELETE'>, 'DESC': <TokenType.DESC: 'DESC'>, 'DESCRIBE': <TokenType.DESCRIBE: 'DESCRIBE'>, 'DISTINCT': <TokenType.DISTINCT: 'DISTINCT'>, 'DISTRIBUTE BY': <TokenType.DISTRIBUTE_BY: 'DISTRIBUTE_BY'>, 'DIV': <TokenType.DIV: 'DIV'>, 'DROP': <TokenType.DROP: 'DROP'>, 'ELSE': <TokenType.ELSE: 'ELSE'>, 'END': <TokenType.END: 'END'>, 'ENUM': <TokenType.ENUM: 'ENUM'>, 'ESCAPE': <TokenType.ESCAPE: 'ESCAPE'>, 'EXCEPT': <TokenType.EXCEPT: 'EXCEPT'>, 'EXECUTE': <TokenType.EXECUTE: 'EXECUTE'>, 'EXISTS': <TokenType.EXISTS: 'EXISTS'>, 'FALSE': <TokenType.FALSE: 'FALSE'>, 'FETCH': <TokenType.FETCH: 'FETCH'>, 'FILTER': <TokenType.FILTER: 'FILTER'>, 'FIRST': <TokenType.FIRST: 'FIRST'>, 'FULL': <TokenType.FULL: 'FULL'>, 'FUNCTION': <TokenType.FUNCTION: 'FUNCTION'>, 'FOR': <TokenType.FOR: 'FOR'>, 'FOREIGN KEY': <TokenType.FOREIGN_KEY: 'FOREIGN_KEY'>, 'FORMAT': <TokenType.FORMAT: 'FORMAT'>, 'FROM': <TokenType.FROM: 'FROM'>, 'GEOGRAPHY': <TokenType.GEOGRAPHY: 'GEOGRAPHY'>, 'GEOMETRY': <TokenType.GEOMETRY: 'GEOMETRY'>, 'GLOB': <TokenType.GLOB: 'GLOB'>, 'GROUP BY': <TokenType.GROUP_BY: 'GROUP_BY'>, 'GROUPING SETS': <TokenType.GROUPING_SETS: 'GROUPING_SETS'>, 'HAVING': <TokenType.HAVING: 'HAVING'>, 'ILIKE': <TokenType.ILIKE: 'ILIKE'>, 'IN': <TokenType.IN: 'IN'>, 'INDEX': <TokenType.INDEX: 'INDEX'>, 'INET': <TokenType.INET: 'INET'>, 'INNER': <TokenType.INNER: 'INNER'>, 'INSERT': <TokenType.INSERT: 'INSERT'>, 'INTERVAL': <TokenType.INTERVAL: 'INTERVAL'>, 'INTERSECT': <TokenType.INTERSECT: 'INTERSECT'>, 'INTO': <TokenType.INTO: 'INTO'>, 'IS': <TokenType.IS: 'IS'>, 'ISNULL': <TokenType.ISNULL: 'ISNULL'>, 'JOIN': <TokenType.JOIN: 'JOIN'>, 'KEEP': <TokenType.KEEP: 'KEEP'>, 'KILL': <TokenType.KILL: 'KILL'>, 'LATERAL': <TokenType.LATERAL: 'LATERAL'>, 'LEFT': <TokenType.LEFT: 'LEFT'>, 'LIKE': <TokenType.LIKE: 'LIKE'>, 'LIMIT': <TokenType.LIMIT: 'LIMIT'>, 'LOAD': <TokenType.LOAD: 'LOAD'>, 'LOCK': <TokenType.LOCK: 'LOCK'>, 'MERGE': <TokenType.MERGE: 'MERGE'>, 'NATURAL': <TokenType.NATURAL: 'NATURAL'>, 'NEXT': <TokenType.NEXT: 'NEXT'>, 'NOT': <TokenType.NOT: 'NOT'>, 'NOTNULL': <TokenType.NOTNULL: 'NOTNULL'>, 'NULL': <TokenType.NULL: 'NULL'>, 'OBJECT': <TokenType.OBJECT: 'OBJECT'>, 'OFFSET': <TokenType.OFFSET: 'OFFSET'>, 'ON': <TokenType.ON: 'ON'>, 'OR': <TokenType.OR: 'OR'>, 'XOR': <TokenType.XOR: 'XOR'>, 'ORDER BY': <TokenType.ORDER_BY: 'ORDER_BY'>, 'ORDINALITY': <TokenType.ORDINALITY: 'ORDINALITY'>, 'OUTER': <TokenType.OUTER: 'OUTER'>, 'OVER': <TokenType.OVER: 'OVER'>, 'OVERLAPS': <TokenType.OVERLAPS: 'OVERLAPS'>, 'OVERWRITE': <TokenType.OVERWRITE: 'OVERWRITE'>, 'PARTITION': <TokenType.PARTITION: 'PARTITION'>, 'PARTITION BY': <TokenType.PARTITION_BY: 'PARTITION_BY'>, 'PARTITIONED BY': <TokenType.PARTITION_BY: 'PARTITION_BY'>, 'PARTITIONED_BY': <TokenType.PARTITION_BY: 'PARTITION_BY'>, 'PERCENT': <TokenType.PERCENT: 'PERCENT'>, 'PIVOT': <TokenType.PIVOT: 'PIVOT'>, 'PRAGMA': <TokenType.PRAGMA: 'PRAGMA'>, 'PRIMARY KEY': <TokenType.PRIMARY_KEY: 'PRIMARY_KEY'>, 'PROCEDURE': <TokenType.PROCEDURE: 'PROCEDURE'>, 'QUALIFY': <TokenType.QUALIFY: 'QUALIFY'>, 'RANGE': <TokenType.RANGE: 'RANGE'>, 'RECURSIVE': <TokenType.RECURSIVE: 'RECURSIVE'>, 'REGEXP': <TokenType.RLIKE: 'RLIKE'>, 'REPLACE': <TokenType.REPLACE: 'REPLACE'>, 'RETURNING': <TokenType.RETURNING: 'RETURNING'>, 'REFERENCES': <TokenType.REFERENCES: 'REFERENCES'>, 'RIGHT': <TokenType.RIGHT: 'RIGHT'>, 'RLIKE': <TokenType.RLIKE: 'RLIKE'>, 'ROLLBACK': <TokenType.ROLLBACK: 'ROLLBACK'>, 'ROLLUP': <TokenType.ROLLUP: 'ROLLUP'>, 'ROW': <TokenType.ROW: 'ROW'>, 'ROWS': <TokenType.ROWS: 'ROWS'>, 'SCHEMA': <TokenType.SCHEMA: 'SCHEMA'>, 'SELECT': <TokenType.SELECT: 'SELECT'>, 'SEMI': <TokenType.SEMI: 'SEMI'>, 'SET': <TokenType.SET: 'SET'>, 'SETTINGS': <TokenType.SETTINGS: 'SETTINGS'>, 'SHOW': <TokenType.SHOW: 'SHOW'>, 'SIMILAR TO': <TokenType.SIMILAR_TO: 'SIMILAR_TO'>, 'SOME': <TokenType.SOME: 'SOME'>, 'SORT BY': <TokenType.SORT_BY: 'SORT_BY'>, 'START WITH': <TokenType.START_WITH: 'START_WITH'>, 'STRAIGHT_JOIN': <TokenType.STRAIGHT_JOIN: 'STRAIGHT_JOIN'>, 'TABLE': <TokenType.TABLE: 'TABLE'>, 'TABLESAMPLE': <TokenType.TABLE_SAMPLE: 'TABLE_SAMPLE'>, 'TEMP': <TokenType.TEMPORARY: 'TEMPORARY'>, 'TEMPORARY': <TokenType.TEMPORARY: 'TEMPORARY'>, 'THEN': <TokenType.THEN: 'THEN'>, 'TRUE': <TokenType.TRUE: 'TRUE'>, 'TRUNCATE': <TokenType.TRUNCATE: 'TRUNCATE'>, 'UNION': <TokenType.UNION: 'UNION'>, 'UNKNOWN': <TokenType.UNKNOWN: 'UNKNOWN'>, 'UNNEST': <TokenType.UNNEST: 'UNNEST'>, 'UNPIVOT': <TokenType.UNPIVOT: 'UNPIVOT'>, 'UPDATE': <TokenType.UPDATE: 'UPDATE'>, 'USE': <TokenType.USE: 'USE'>, 'USING': <TokenType.USING: 'USING'>, 'UUID': <TokenType.UUID: 'UUID'>, 'VALUES': <TokenType.VALUES: 'VALUES'>, 'VIEW': <TokenType.VIEW: 'VIEW'>, 'VOLATILE': <TokenType.VOLATILE: 'VOLATILE'>, 'WHEN': <TokenType.WHEN: 'WHEN'>, 'WHERE': <TokenType.WHERE: 'WHERE'>, 'WINDOW': <TokenType.WINDOW: 'WINDOW'>, 'WITH': <TokenType.WITH: 'WITH'>, 'APPLY': <TokenType.APPLY: 'APPLY'>, 'ARRAY': <TokenType.ARRAY: 'ARRAY'>, 'BIT': <TokenType.BIT: 'BIT'>, 'BOOL': <TokenType.BOOLEAN: 'BOOLEAN'>, 'BOOLEAN': <TokenType.BOOLEAN: 'BOOLEAN'>, 'BYTE': <TokenType.TINYINT: 'TINYINT'>, 'MEDIUMINT': <TokenType.MEDIUMINT: 'MEDIUMINT'>, 'INT1': <TokenType.TINYINT: 'TINYINT'>, 'TINYINT': <TokenType.TINYINT: 'TINYINT'>, 'INT16': <TokenType.SMALLINT: 'SMALLINT'>, 'SHORT': <TokenType.SMALLINT: 'SMALLINT'>, 'SMALLINT': <TokenType.SMALLINT: 'SMALLINT'>, 'INT128': <TokenType.INT128: 'INT128'>, 'HUGEINT': <TokenType.INT128: 'INT128'>, 'INT2': <TokenType.SMALLINT: 'SMALLINT'>, 'INTEGER': <TokenType.INT: 'INT'>, 'INT': <TokenType.INT: 'INT'>, 'INT4': <TokenType.INT: 'INT'>, 'INT32': <TokenType.INT: 'INT'>, 'INT64': <TokenType.BIGINT: 'BIGINT'>, 'LONG': <TokenType.BIGINT: 'BIGINT'>, 'BIGINT': <TokenType.BIGINT: 'BIGINT'>, 'INT8': <TokenType.TINYINT: 'TINYINT'>, 'UINT': <TokenType.UINT: 'UINT'>, 'DEC': <TokenType.DECIMAL: 'DECIMAL'>, 'DECIMAL': <TokenType.DECIMAL: 'DECIMAL'>, 'BIGDECIMAL': <TokenType.BIGDECIMAL: 'BIGDECIMAL'>, 'BIGNUMERIC': <TokenType.BIGDECIMAL: 'BIGDECIMAL'>, 'LIST': <TokenType.LIST: 'LIST'>, 'MAP': <TokenType.MAP: 'MAP'>, 'NULLABLE': <TokenType.NULLABLE: 'NULLABLE'>, 'NUMBER': <TokenType.DECIMAL: 'DECIMAL'>, 'NUMERIC': <TokenType.DECIMAL: 'DECIMAL'>, 'FIXED': <TokenType.DECIMAL: 'DECIMAL'>, 'REAL': <TokenType.FLOAT: 'FLOAT'>, 'FLOAT': <TokenType.FLOAT: 'FLOAT'>, 'FLOAT4': <TokenType.FLOAT: 'FLOAT'>, 'FLOAT8': <TokenType.DOUBLE: 'DOUBLE'>, 'DOUBLE': <TokenType.DOUBLE: 'DOUBLE'>, 'DOUBLE PRECISION': <TokenType.DOUBLE: 'DOUBLE'>, 'JSON': <TokenType.JSON: 'JSON'>, 'JSONB': <TokenType.JSONB: 'JSONB'>, 'CHAR': <TokenType.CHAR: 'CHAR'>, 'CHARACTER': <TokenType.CHAR: 'CHAR'>, 'NCHAR': <TokenType.NCHAR: 'NCHAR'>, 'VARCHAR': <TokenType.VARCHAR: 'VARCHAR'>, 'VARCHAR2': <TokenType.VARCHAR: 'VARCHAR'>, 'NVARCHAR': <TokenType.NVARCHAR: 'NVARCHAR'>, 'NVARCHAR2': <TokenType.NVARCHAR: 'NVARCHAR'>, 'BPCHAR': <TokenType.BPCHAR: 'BPCHAR'>, 'STR': <TokenType.TEXT: 'TEXT'>, 'STRING': <TokenType.TEXT: 'TEXT'>, 'TEXT': <TokenType.TEXT: 'TEXT'>, 'LONGTEXT': <TokenType.LONGTEXT: 'LONGTEXT'>, 'MEDIUMTEXT': <TokenType.MEDIUMTEXT: 'MEDIUMTEXT'>, 'TINYTEXT': <TokenType.TINYTEXT: 'TINYTEXT'>, 'CLOB': <TokenType.TEXT: 'TEXT'>, 'LONGVARCHAR': <TokenType.TEXT: 'TEXT'>, 'BINARY': <TokenType.BINARY: 'BINARY'>, 'BLOB': <TokenType.VARBINARY: 'VARBINARY'>, 'LONGBLOB': <TokenType.LONGBLOB: 'LONGBLOB'>, 'MEDIUMBLOB': <TokenType.MEDIUMBLOB: 'MEDIUMBLOB'>, 'TINYBLOB': <TokenType.TINYBLOB: 'TINYBLOB'>, 'BYTEA': <TokenType.VARBINARY: 'VARBINARY'>, 'VARBINARY': <TokenType.VARBINARY: 'VARBINARY'>, 'TIME': <TokenType.TIME: 'TIME'>, 'TIMETZ': <TokenType.TIMETZ: 'TIMETZ'>, 'TIMESTAMP': <TokenType.TIMESTAMP: 'TIMESTAMP'>, 'TIMESTAMPTZ': <TokenType.TIMESTAMPTZ: 'TIMESTAMPTZ'>, 'TIMESTAMPLTZ': <TokenType.TIMESTAMPLTZ: 'TIMESTAMPLTZ'>, 'TIMESTAMP_LTZ': <TokenType.TIMESTAMPLTZ: 'TIMESTAMPLTZ'>, 'TIMESTAMPNTZ': <TokenType.TIMESTAMPNTZ: 'TIMESTAMPNTZ'>, 'TIMESTAMP_NTZ': <TokenType.TIMESTAMPNTZ: 'TIMESTAMPNTZ'>, 'DATE': <TokenType.DATE: 'DATE'>, 'DATETIME': <TokenType.DATETIME: 'DATETIME'>, 'INT4RANGE': <TokenType.INT4RANGE: 'INT4RANGE'>, 'INT4MULTIRANGE': <TokenType.INT4MULTIRANGE: 'INT4MULTIRANGE'>, 'INT8RANGE': <TokenType.INT8RANGE: 'INT8RANGE'>, 'INT8MULTIRANGE': <TokenType.INT8MULTIRANGE: 'INT8MULTIRANGE'>, 'NUMRANGE': <TokenType.NUMRANGE: 'NUMRANGE'>, 'NUMMULTIRANGE': <TokenType.NUMMULTIRANGE: 'NUMMULTIRANGE'>, 'TSRANGE': <TokenType.TSRANGE: 'TSRANGE'>, 'TSMULTIRANGE': <TokenType.TSMULTIRANGE: 'TSMULTIRANGE'>, 'TSTZRANGE': <TokenType.TSTZRANGE: 'TSTZRANGE'>, 'TSTZMULTIRANGE': <TokenType.TSTZMULTIRANGE: 'TSTZMULTIRANGE'>, 'DATERANGE': <TokenType.DATERANGE: 'DATERANGE'>, 'DATEMULTIRANGE': <TokenType.DATEMULTIRANGE: 'DATEMULTIRANGE'>, 'UNIQUE': <TokenType.UNIQUE: 'UNIQUE'>, 'STRUCT': <TokenType.STRUCT: 'STRUCT'>, 'SEQUENCE': <TokenType.SEQUENCE: 'SEQUENCE'>, 'VARIANT': <TokenType.VARIANT: 'VARIANT'>, 'ALTER': <TokenType.ALTER: 'ALTER'>, 'ANALYZE': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'CALL': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'COMMENT': <TokenType.COMMENT: 'COMMENT'>, 'EXPLAIN': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'GRANT': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'OPTIMIZE': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'PREPARE': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'VACUUM': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'USER-DEFINED': <TokenType.USERDEFINED: 'USERDEFINED'>, 'FOR VERSION': <TokenType.VERSION_SNAPSHOT: 'VERSION_SNAPSHOT'>, 'FOR TIMESTAMP': <TokenType.TIMESTAMP_SNAPSHOT: 'TIMESTAMP_SNAPSHOT'>, '(+)': <TokenType.JOIN_MARKER: 'JOIN_MARKER'>, 'BINARY_DOUBLE': <TokenType.DOUBLE: 'DOUBLE'>, 'BINARY_FLOAT': <TokenType.FLOAT: 'FLOAT'>, 'COLUMNS': <TokenType.COLUMN: 'COLUMN'>, 'MATCH_RECOGNIZE': <TokenType.MATCH_RECOGNIZE: 'MATCH_RECOGNIZE'>, 'MINUS': <TokenType.EXCEPT: 'EXCEPT'>, 'ORDER SIBLINGS BY': <TokenType.ORDER_SIBLINGS_BY: 'ORDER_SIBLINGS_BY'>, 'SAMPLE': <TokenType.TABLE_SAMPLE: 'TABLE_SAMPLE'>, 'START': <TokenType.BEGIN: 'BEGIN'>, 'SYSDATE': <TokenType.CURRENT_TIMESTAMP: 'CURRENT_TIMESTAMP'>, 'TOP': <TokenType.TOP: 'TOP'>}
class Oracle.Parser(sqlglot.parser.Parser):
 99    class Parser(parser.Parser):
100        ALTER_TABLE_ADD_REQUIRED_FOR_EACH_COLUMN = False
101        WINDOW_BEFORE_PAREN_TOKENS = {TokenType.OVER, TokenType.KEEP}
102        VALUES_FOLLOWED_BY_PAREN = False
103
104        FUNCTIONS = {
105            **parser.Parser.FUNCTIONS,
106            "SQUARE": lambda args: exp.Pow(this=seq_get(args, 0), expression=exp.Literal.number(2)),
107            "TO_CHAR": _build_timetostr_or_tochar,
108            "TO_TIMESTAMP": build_formatted_time(exp.StrToTime, "oracle"),
109            "TO_DATE": build_formatted_time(exp.StrToDate, "oracle"),
110        }
111
112        FUNCTION_PARSERS: t.Dict[str, t.Callable] = {
113            **parser.Parser.FUNCTION_PARSERS,
114            "JSON_ARRAY": lambda self: self._parse_json_array(
115                exp.JSONArray,
116                expressions=self._parse_csv(lambda: self._parse_format_json(self._parse_bitwise())),
117            ),
118            "JSON_ARRAYAGG": lambda self: self._parse_json_array(
119                exp.JSONArrayAgg,
120                this=self._parse_format_json(self._parse_bitwise()),
121                order=self._parse_order(),
122            ),
123            "XMLTABLE": lambda self: self._parse_xml_table(),
124        }
125
126        NO_PAREN_FUNCTION_PARSERS = {
127            **parser.Parser.NO_PAREN_FUNCTION_PARSERS,
128            "CONNECT_BY_ROOT": lambda self: self.expression(
129                exp.ConnectByRoot, this=self._parse_column()
130            ),
131        }
132
133        PROPERTY_PARSERS = {
134            **parser.Parser.PROPERTY_PARSERS,
135            "GLOBAL": lambda self: self._match_text_seq("TEMPORARY")
136            and self.expression(exp.TemporaryProperty, this="GLOBAL"),
137            "PRIVATE": lambda self: self._match_text_seq("TEMPORARY")
138            and self.expression(exp.TemporaryProperty, this="PRIVATE"),
139        }
140
141        QUERY_MODIFIER_PARSERS = {
142            **parser.Parser.QUERY_MODIFIER_PARSERS,
143            TokenType.ORDER_SIBLINGS_BY: lambda self: ("order", self._parse_order()),
144            TokenType.WITH: lambda self: ("options", [self._parse_query_restrictions()]),
145        }
146
147        TYPE_LITERAL_PARSERS = {
148            exp.DataType.Type.DATE: lambda self, this, _: self.expression(
149                exp.DateStrToDate, this=this
150            )
151        }
152
153        # SELECT UNIQUE .. is old-style Oracle syntax for SELECT DISTINCT ..
154        # Reference: https://stackoverflow.com/a/336455
155        DISTINCT_TOKENS = {TokenType.DISTINCT, TokenType.UNIQUE}
156
157        QUERY_RESTRICTIONS: OPTIONS_TYPE = {
158            "WITH": (
159                ("READ", "ONLY"),
160                ("CHECK", "OPTION"),
161            ),
162        }
163
164        def _parse_xml_table(self) -> exp.XMLTable:
165            this = self._parse_string()
166
167            passing = None
168            columns = None
169
170            if self._match_text_seq("PASSING"):
171                # The BY VALUE keywords are optional and are provided for semantic clarity
172                self._match_text_seq("BY", "VALUE")
173                passing = self._parse_csv(self._parse_column)
174
175            by_ref = self._match_text_seq("RETURNING", "SEQUENCE", "BY", "REF")
176
177            if self._match_text_seq("COLUMNS"):
178                columns = self._parse_csv(self._parse_field_def)
179
180            return self.expression(
181                exp.XMLTable, this=this, passing=passing, columns=columns, by_ref=by_ref
182            )
183
184        def _parse_json_array(self, expr_type: t.Type[E], **kwargs) -> E:
185            return self.expression(
186                expr_type,
187                null_handling=self._parse_on_handling("NULL", "NULL", "ABSENT"),
188                return_type=self._match_text_seq("RETURNING") and self._parse_type(),
189                strict=self._match_text_seq("STRICT"),
190                **kwargs,
191            )
192
193        def _parse_hint(self) -> t.Optional[exp.Hint]:
194            if self._match(TokenType.HINT):
195                start = self._curr
196                while self._curr and not self._match_pair(TokenType.STAR, TokenType.SLASH):
197                    self._advance()
198
199                if not self._curr:
200                    self.raise_error("Expected */ after HINT")
201
202                end = self._tokens[self._index - 3]
203                return exp.Hint(expressions=[self._find_sql(start, end)])
204
205            return None
206
207        def _parse_query_restrictions(self) -> t.Optional[exp.Expression]:
208            kind = self._parse_var_from_options(self.QUERY_RESTRICTIONS, raise_unmatched=False)
209
210            if not kind:
211                return None
212
213            return self.expression(
214                exp.QueryOption,
215                this=kind,
216                expression=self._match(TokenType.CONSTRAINT) and self._parse_field(),
217            )

Parser consumes a list of tokens produced by the Tokenizer and produces a parsed syntax tree.

Arguments:
  • error_level: The desired error level. Default: ErrorLevel.IMMEDIATE
  • error_message_context: The amount of context to capture from a query string when displaying the error message (in number of characters). Default: 100
  • max_errors: Maximum number of error messages to include in a raised ParseError. This is only relevant if error_level is ErrorLevel.RAISE. Default: 3
ALTER_TABLE_ADD_REQUIRED_FOR_EACH_COLUMN = False
WINDOW_BEFORE_PAREN_TOKENS = {<TokenType.KEEP: 'KEEP'>, <TokenType.OVER: 'OVER'>}
VALUES_FOLLOWED_BY_PAREN = False
FUNCTIONS = {'ABS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Abs'>>, 'ADD_MONTHS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.AddMonths'>>, 'ANONYMOUS_AGG_FUNC': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.AnonymousAggFunc'>>, 'ANY_VALUE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.AnyValue'>>, 'APPROX_DISTINCT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ApproxDistinct'>>, 'APPROX_COUNT_DISTINCT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ApproxDistinct'>>, 'APPROX_QUANTILE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ApproxQuantile'>>, 'APPROX_TOP_K': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ApproxTopK'>>, 'ARG_MAX': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArgMax'>>, 'ARGMAX': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArgMax'>>, 'MAX_BY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArgMax'>>, 'ARG_MIN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArgMin'>>, 'ARGMIN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArgMin'>>, 'MIN_BY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArgMin'>>, 'ARRAY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Array'>>, 'ARRAY_AGG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayAgg'>>, 'ARRAY_ALL': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayAll'>>, 'ARRAY_ANY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayAny'>>, 'ARRAY_CONCAT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayConcat'>>, 'ARRAY_CAT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayConcat'>>, 'ARRAY_CONSTRUCT_COMPACT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayConstructCompact'>>, 'ARRAY_CONTAINS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayContains'>>, 'ARRAY_HAS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayContains'>>, 'ARRAY_CONTAINS_ALL': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayContainsAll'>>, 'ARRAY_HAS_ALL': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayContainsAll'>>, 'FILTER': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayFilter'>>, 'ARRAY_FILTER': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayFilter'>>, 'ARRAY_OVERLAPS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayOverlaps'>>, 'ARRAY_SIZE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArraySize'>>, 'ARRAY_LENGTH': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArraySize'>>, 'ARRAY_SORT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArraySort'>>, 'ARRAY_SUM': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArraySum'>>, 'ARRAY_TO_STRING': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayToString'>>, 'ARRAY_JOIN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayToString'>>, 'ARRAY_UNION_AGG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayUnionAgg'>>, 'ARRAY_UNIQUE_AGG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayUniqueAgg'>>, 'AVG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Avg'>>, 'CASE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Case'>>, 'CAST': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Cast'>>, 'CAST_TO_STR_TYPE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CastToStrType'>>, 'CBRT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Cbrt'>>, 'CEIL': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Ceil'>>, 'CEILING': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Ceil'>>, 'CHR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Chr'>>, 'CHAR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Chr'>>, 'COALESCE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Coalesce'>>, 'IFNULL': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Coalesce'>>, 'NVL': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Coalesce'>>, 'COLLATE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Collate'>>, 'COMBINED_AGG_FUNC': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CombinedAggFunc'>>, 'COMBINED_PARAMETERIZED_AGG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CombinedParameterizedAgg'>>, 'CONCAT': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'CONCAT_WS': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'CONNECT_BY_ROOT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ConnectByRoot'>>, 'CONVERT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Convert'>>, 'CORR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Corr'>>, 'COUNT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Count'>>, 'COUNT_IF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CountIf'>>, 'COUNTIF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CountIf'>>, 'COVAR_POP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CovarPop'>>, 'COVAR_SAMP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CovarSamp'>>, 'CURRENT_DATE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CurrentDate'>>, 'CURRENT_DATETIME': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CurrentDatetime'>>, 'CURRENT_TIME': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CurrentTime'>>, 'CURRENT_TIMESTAMP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CurrentTimestamp'>>, 'CURRENT_USER': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CurrentUser'>>, 'DATE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Date'>>, 'DATE_ADD': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateAdd'>>, 'DATEDIFF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateDiff'>>, 'DATE_DIFF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateDiff'>>, 'DATE_FROM_PARTS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateFromParts'>>, 'DATEFROMPARTS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateFromParts'>>, 'DATE_STR_TO_DATE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateStrToDate'>>, 'DATE_SUB': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateSub'>>, 'DATE_TO_DATE_STR': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'DATE_TO_DI': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateToDi'>>, 'DATE_TRUNC': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateTrunc'>>, 'DATETIME': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Datetime'>>, 'DATETIME_ADD': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DatetimeAdd'>>, 'DATETIME_DIFF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DatetimeDiff'>>, 'DATETIME_SUB': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DatetimeSub'>>, 'DATETIME_TRUNC': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DatetimeTrunc'>>, 'DAY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Day'>>, 'DAY_OF_MONTH': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DayOfMonth'>>, 'DAYOFMONTH': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DayOfMonth'>>, 'DAY_OF_WEEK': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DayOfWeek'>>, 'DAYOFWEEK': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DayOfWeek'>>, 'DAY_OF_YEAR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DayOfYear'>>, 'DAYOFYEAR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DayOfYear'>>, 'DECODE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Decode'>>, 'DI_TO_DATE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DiToDate'>>, 'ENCODE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Encode'>>, 'EXP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Exp'>>, 'EXPLODE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Explode'>>, 'EXPLODE_OUTER': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ExplodeOuter'>>, 'EXTRACT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Extract'>>, 'FIRST': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.First'>>, 'FIRST_VALUE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.FirstValue'>>, 'FLATTEN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Flatten'>>, 'FLOOR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Floor'>>, 'FROM_BASE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.FromBase'>>, 'FROM_BASE64': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.FromBase64'>>, 'GAP_FILL': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.GapFill'>>, 'GENERATE_DATE_ARRAY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.GenerateDateArray'>>, 'GENERATE_SERIES': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.GenerateSeries'>>, 'GREATEST': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Greatest'>>, 'GROUP_CONCAT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.GroupConcat'>>, 'HEX': <function build_hex>, 'HLL': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Hll'>>, 'IF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.If'>>, 'IIF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.If'>>, 'INITCAP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Initcap'>>, 'IS_INF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.IsInf'>>, 'ISINF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.IsInf'>>, 'IS_NAN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.IsNan'>>, 'ISNAN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.IsNan'>>, 'J_S_O_N_ARRAY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONArray'>>, 'J_S_O_N_ARRAY_AGG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONArrayAgg'>>, 'JSON_ARRAY_CONTAINS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONArrayContains'>>, 'JSONB_CONTAINS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONBContains'>>, 'JSONB_EXTRACT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONBExtract'>>, 'JSONB_EXTRACT_SCALAR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONBExtractScalar'>>, 'JSON_EXTRACT': <function build_extract_json_with_path.<locals>._builder>, 'JSON_EXTRACT_SCALAR': <function build_extract_json_with_path.<locals>._builder>, 'JSON_FORMAT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONFormat'>>, 'J_S_O_N_OBJECT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONObject'>>, 'J_S_O_N_OBJECT_AGG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONObjectAgg'>>, 'J_S_O_N_TABLE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONTable'>>, 'LAG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Lag'>>, 'LAST': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Last'>>, 'LAST_DAY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LastDay'>>, 'LAST_DAY_OF_MONTH': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LastDay'>>, 'LAST_VALUE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LastValue'>>, 'LEAD': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Lead'>>, 'LEAST': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Least'>>, 'LEFT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Left'>>, 'LENGTH': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Length'>>, 'LEN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Length'>>, 'LEVENSHTEIN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Levenshtein'>>, 'LIST': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.List'>>, 'LN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Ln'>>, 'LOG': <function build_logarithm>, 'LOGICAL_AND': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LogicalAnd'>>, 'BOOL_AND': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LogicalAnd'>>, 'BOOLAND_AGG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LogicalAnd'>>, 'LOGICAL_OR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LogicalOr'>>, 'BOOL_OR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LogicalOr'>>, 'BOOLOR_AGG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LogicalOr'>>, 'LOWER': <function build_lower>, 'LCASE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Lower'>>, 'LOWER_HEX': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LowerHex'>>, 'MD5': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.MD5'>>, 'MD5_DIGEST': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.MD5Digest'>>, 'MAP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Map'>>, 'MAP_FROM_ENTRIES': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.MapFromEntries'>>, 'MATCH_AGAINST': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.MatchAgainst'>>, 'MAX': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Max'>>, 'MIN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Min'>>, 'MONTH': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Month'>>, 'MONTHS_BETWEEN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.MonthsBetween'>>, 'NEXT_VALUE_FOR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.NextValueFor'>>, 'NTH_VALUE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.NthValue'>>, 'NULLIF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Nullif'>>, 'NUMBER_TO_STR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.NumberToStr'>>, 'NVL2': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Nvl2'>>, 'OPEN_J_S_O_N': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.OpenJSON'>>, 'PARAMETERIZED_AGG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ParameterizedAgg'>>, 'PARSE_JSON': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ParseJSON'>>, 'JSON_PARSE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ParseJSON'>>, 'PERCENTILE_CONT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.PercentileCont'>>, 'PERCENTILE_DISC': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.PercentileDisc'>>, 'POSEXPLODE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Posexplode'>>, 'POSEXPLODE_OUTER': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.PosexplodeOuter'>>, 'POWER': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Pow'>>, 'POW': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Pow'>>, 'PREDICT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Predict'>>, 'QUANTILE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Quantile'>>, 'QUARTER': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Quarter'>>, 'RAND': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Rand'>>, 'RANDOM': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Rand'>>, 'RANDN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Randn'>>, 'RANGE_N': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RangeN'>>, 'READ_CSV': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ReadCSV'>>, 'REDUCE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Reduce'>>, 'REGEXP_EXTRACT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RegexpExtract'>>, 'REGEXP_I_LIKE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RegexpILike'>>, 'REGEXP_LIKE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RegexpLike'>>, 'REGEXP_REPLACE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RegexpReplace'>>, 'REGEXP_SPLIT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RegexpSplit'>>, 'REPEAT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Repeat'>>, 'RIGHT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Right'>>, 'ROUND': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Round'>>, 'ROW_NUMBER': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RowNumber'>>, 'SHA': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SHA'>>, 'SHA1': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SHA'>>, 'SHA2': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SHA2'>>, 'SAFE_DIVIDE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SafeDivide'>>, 'SIGN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Sign'>>, 'SIGNUM': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Sign'>>, 'SORT_ARRAY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SortArray'>>, 'SPLIT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Split'>>, 'SQRT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Sqrt'>>, 'STANDARD_HASH': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StandardHash'>>, 'STAR_MAP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StarMap'>>, 'STARTS_WITH': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StartsWith'>>, 'STARTSWITH': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StartsWith'>>, 'STDDEV': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Stddev'>>, 'STDDEV_POP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StddevPop'>>, 'STDDEV_SAMP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StddevSamp'>>, 'STR_POSITION': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StrPosition'>>, 'STR_TO_DATE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StrToDate'>>, 'STR_TO_MAP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StrToMap'>>, 'STR_TO_TIME': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StrToTime'>>, 'STR_TO_UNIX': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StrToUnix'>>, 'STRING_TO_ARRAY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StringToArray'>>, 'SPLIT_BY_STRING': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StringToArray'>>, 'STRUCT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Struct'>>, 'STRUCT_EXTRACT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StructExtract'>>, 'STUFF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Stuff'>>, 'INSERT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Stuff'>>, 'SUBSTRING': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Substring'>>, 'SUM': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Sum'>>, 'TIME': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Time'>>, 'TIME_ADD': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeAdd'>>, 'TIME_DIFF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeDiff'>>, 'TIME_FROM_PARTS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeFromParts'>>, 'TIMEFROMPARTS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeFromParts'>>, 'TIME_STR_TO_DATE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeStrToDate'>>, 'TIME_STR_TO_TIME': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeStrToTime'>>, 'TIME_STR_TO_UNIX': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeStrToUnix'>>, 'TIME_SUB': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeSub'>>, 'TIME_TO_STR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeToStr'>>, 'TIME_TO_TIME_STR': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'TIME_TO_UNIX': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeToUnix'>>, 'TIME_TRUNC': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeTrunc'>>, 'TIMESTAMP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Timestamp'>>, 'TIMESTAMP_ADD': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimestampAdd'>>, 'TIMESTAMPDIFF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimestampDiff'>>, 'TIMESTAMP_DIFF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimestampDiff'>>, 'TIMESTAMP_FROM_PARTS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimestampFromParts'>>, 'TIMESTAMPFROMPARTS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimestampFromParts'>>, 'TIMESTAMP_SUB': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimestampSub'>>, 'TIMESTAMP_TRUNC': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimestampTrunc'>>, 'TO_ARRAY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ToArray'>>, 'TO_BASE64': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ToBase64'>>, 'TO_CHAR': <function _build_timetostr_or_tochar>, 'TO_DAYS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ToDays'>>, 'TO_MAP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ToMap'>>, 'TO_NUMBER': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ToNumber'>>, 'TRANSFORM': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Transform'>>, 'TRIM': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Trim'>>, 'TRY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Try'>>, 'TRY_CAST': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TryCast'>>, 'TS_OR_DI_TO_DI': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TsOrDiToDi'>>, 'TS_OR_DS_ADD': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TsOrDsAdd'>>, 'TS_OR_DS_DIFF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TsOrDsDiff'>>, 'TS_OR_DS_TO_DATE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TsOrDsToDate'>>, 'TS_OR_DS_TO_DATE_STR': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'TS_OR_DS_TO_TIME': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TsOrDsToTime'>>, 'TS_OR_DS_TO_TIMESTAMP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TsOrDsToTimestamp'>>, 'UNHEX': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Unhex'>>, 'UNIX_DATE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.UnixDate'>>, 'UNIX_TO_STR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.UnixToStr'>>, 'UNIX_TO_TIME': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.UnixToTime'>>, 'UNIX_TO_TIME_STR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.UnixToTimeStr'>>, 'UNNEST': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'UPPER': <function build_upper>, 'UCASE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Upper'>>, 'VAR_MAP': <function build_var_map>, 'VARIANCE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Variance'>>, 'VARIANCE_SAMP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Variance'>>, 'VAR_SAMP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Variance'>>, 'VARIANCE_POP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.VariancePop'>>, 'VAR_POP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.VariancePop'>>, 'WEEK': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Week'>>, 'WEEK_OF_YEAR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.WeekOfYear'>>, 'WEEKOFYEAR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.WeekOfYear'>>, 'WHEN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.When'>>, 'X_M_L_TABLE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.XMLTable'>>, 'XOR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Xor'>>, 'YEAR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Year'>>, 'GLOB': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'JSON_EXTRACT_PATH_TEXT': <function build_extract_json_with_path.<locals>._builder>, 'LIKE': <function build_like>, 'LOG2': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'LOG10': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'MOD': <function build_mod>, 'TO_HEX': <function build_hex>, 'SQUARE': <function Oracle.Parser.<lambda>>, 'TO_TIMESTAMP': <function build_formatted_time.<locals>._builder>, 'TO_DATE': <function build_formatted_time.<locals>._builder>}
FUNCTION_PARSERS: Dict[str, Callable] = {'CAST': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'CONVERT': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'DECODE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'EXTRACT': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'GAP_FILL': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'JSON_OBJECT': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'JSON_OBJECTAGG': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'JSON_TABLE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'MATCH': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'OPENJSON': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'POSITION': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'PREDICT': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'SAFE_CAST': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'STRING_AGG': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'SUBSTRING': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'TRIM': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'TRY_CAST': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'TRY_CONVERT': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'JSON_ARRAY': <function Oracle.Parser.<lambda>>, 'JSON_ARRAYAGG': <function Oracle.Parser.<lambda>>, 'XMLTABLE': <function Oracle.Parser.<lambda>>}
NO_PAREN_FUNCTION_PARSERS = {'ANY': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'CASE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'IF': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'NEXT': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'CONNECT_BY_ROOT': <function Oracle.Parser.<lambda>>}
PROPERTY_PARSERS = {'ALLOWED_VALUES': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'ALGORITHM': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'AUTO': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'AUTO_INCREMENT': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'BACKUP': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'BLOCKCOMPRESSION': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'CHARSET': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'CHARACTER SET': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'CHECKSUM': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'CLUSTER BY': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'CLUSTERED': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'COLLATE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'COMMENT': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'CONTAINS': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'COPY': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'DATABLOCKSIZE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'DATA_DELETION': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'DEFINER': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'DETERMINISTIC': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'DISTKEY': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'DISTSTYLE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'ENGINE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'EXECUTE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'EXTERNAL': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'FALLBACK': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'FORMAT': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'FREESPACE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'GLOBAL': <function Oracle.Parser.<lambda>>, 'HEAP': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'ICEBERG': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'IMMUTABLE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'INHERITS': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'INPUT': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'JOURNAL': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'LANGUAGE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'LAYOUT': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'LIFETIME': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'LIKE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'LOCATION': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'LOCK': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'LOCKING': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'LOG': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'MATERIALIZED': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'MERGEBLOCKRATIO': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'MODIFIES': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'MULTISET': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'NO': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'ON': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'ORDER BY': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'OUTPUT': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'PARTITION': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'PARTITION BY': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'PARTITIONED BY': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'PARTITIONED_BY': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'PRIMARY KEY': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'RANGE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'READS': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'REMOTE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'RETURNS': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'STRICT': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'ROW': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'ROW_FORMAT': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'SAMPLE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'SECURE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'SET': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'SETTINGS': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'SHARING': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'SORTKEY': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'SOURCE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'STABLE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'STORED': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'SYSTEM_VERSIONING': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'TBLPROPERTIES': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'TEMP': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'TEMPORARY': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'TO': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'TRANSIENT': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'TRANSFORM': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'TTL': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'USING': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'UNLOGGED': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'VOLATILE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'WITH': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'PRIVATE': <function Oracle.Parser.<lambda>>}
QUERY_MODIFIER_PARSERS = {<TokenType.MATCH_RECOGNIZE: 'MATCH_RECOGNIZE'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.PREWHERE: 'PREWHERE'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.WHERE: 'WHERE'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.GROUP_BY: 'GROUP_BY'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.HAVING: 'HAVING'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.QUALIFY: 'QUALIFY'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.WINDOW: 'WINDOW'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.ORDER_BY: 'ORDER_BY'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.LIMIT: 'LIMIT'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.FETCH: 'FETCH'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.OFFSET: 'OFFSET'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.FOR: 'FOR'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.LOCK: 'LOCK'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.TABLE_SAMPLE: 'TABLE_SAMPLE'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.USING: 'USING'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.CLUSTER_BY: 'CLUSTER_BY'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.DISTRIBUTE_BY: 'DISTRIBUTE_BY'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.SORT_BY: 'SORT_BY'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.CONNECT_BY: 'CONNECT_BY'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.START_WITH: 'START_WITH'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.ORDER_SIBLINGS_BY: 'ORDER_SIBLINGS_BY'>: <function Oracle.Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.WITH: 'WITH'>: <function Oracle.Parser.<lambda>>}
TYPE_LITERAL_PARSERS = {<Type.DATE: 'DATE'>: <function Oracle.Parser.<lambda>>}
DISTINCT_TOKENS = {<TokenType.UNIQUE: 'UNIQUE'>, <TokenType.DISTINCT: 'DISTINCT'>}
QUERY_RESTRICTIONS: Dict[str, Sequence[Union[Sequence[str], str]]] = {'WITH': (('READ', 'ONLY'), ('CHECK', 'OPTION'))}
ID_VAR_TOKENS = {<TokenType.SERIAL: 'SERIAL'>, <TokenType.TSMULTIRANGE: 'TSMULTIRANGE'>, <TokenType.MAP: 'MAP'>, <TokenType.GEOGRAPHY: 'GEOGRAPHY'>, <TokenType.COMMIT: 'COMMIT'>, <TokenType.NESTED: 'NESTED'>, <TokenType.CURRENT_USER: 'CURRENT_USER'>, <TokenType.DICTIONARY: 'DICTIONARY'>, <TokenType.SMALLINT: 'SMALLINT'>, <TokenType.TABLE: 'TABLE'>, <TokenType.LOAD: 'LOAD'>, <TokenType.EXISTS: 'EXISTS'>, <TokenType.ESCAPE: 'ESCAPE'>, <TokenType.TDIGEST: 'TDIGEST'>, <TokenType.SIMPLEAGGREGATEFUNCTION: 'SIMPLEAGGREGATEFUNCTION'>, <TokenType.DECIMAL: 'DECIMAL'>, <TokenType.INT4MULTIRANGE: 'INT4MULTIRANGE'>, <TokenType.BIT: 'BIT'>, <TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER: 'OBJECT_IDENTIFIER'>, <TokenType.DATE32: 'DATE32'>, <TokenType.CURRENT_TIME: 'CURRENT_TIME'>, <TokenType.TIME: 'TIME'>, <TokenType.CURRENT_TIMESTAMP: 'CURRENT_TIMESTAMP'>, <TokenType.SMALLSERIAL: 'SMALLSERIAL'>, <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, <TokenType.TINYBLOB: 'TINYBLOB'>, <TokenType.SUPER: 'SUPER'>, <TokenType.PERCENT: 'PERCENT'>, <TokenType.USMALLINT: 'USMALLINT'>, <TokenType.TRUNCATE: 'TRUNCATE'>, <TokenType.NCHAR: 'NCHAR'>, <TokenType.HLLSKETCH: 'HLLSKETCH'>, <TokenType.CONSTRAINT: 'CONSTRAINT'>, <TokenType.CACHE: 'CACHE'>, <TokenType.BIGSERIAL: 'BIGSERIAL'>, <TokenType.OFFSET: 'OFFSET'>, <TokenType.VIEW: 'VIEW'>, <TokenType.FALSE: 'FALSE'>, <TokenType.WINDOW: 'WINDOW'>, <TokenType.FIRST: 'FIRST'>, <TokenType.JSONB: 'JSONB'>, <TokenType.NULL: 'NULL'>, <TokenType.UINT: 'UINT'>, <TokenType.INET: 'INET'>, <TokenType.UNIQUE: 'UNIQUE'>, <TokenType.SCHEMA: 'SCHEMA'>, <TokenType.DESCRIBE: 'DESCRIBE'>, <TokenType.FILTER: 'FILTER'>, <TokenType.NULLABLE: 'NULLABLE'>, <TokenType.DATETIME: 'DATETIME'>, <TokenType.VARIANT: 'VARIANT'>, <TokenType.USE: 'USE'>, <TokenType.FIXEDSTRING: 'FIXEDSTRING'>, <TokenType.INT: 'INT'>, <TokenType.IPV6: 'IPV6'>, <TokenType.FLOAT: 'FLOAT'>, <TokenType.STORAGE_INTEGRATION: 'STORAGE_INTEGRATION'>, <TokenType.CASE: 'CASE'>, <TokenType.INT8RANGE: 'INT8RANGE'>, <TokenType.DESC: 'DESC'>, <TokenType.CURRENT_DATETIME: 'CURRENT_DATETIME'>, <TokenType.BEGIN: 'BEGIN'>, <TokenType.INT8MULTIRANGE: 'INT8MULTIRANGE'>, <TokenType.KILL: 'KILL'>, <TokenType.TSRANGE: 'TSRANGE'>, <TokenType.IPPREFIX: 'IPPREFIX'>, <TokenType.TINYINT: 'TINYINT'>, <TokenType.STRUCT: 'STRUCT'>, <TokenType.OPERATOR: 'OPERATOR'>, <TokenType.FINAL: 'FINAL'>, <TokenType.REPLACE: 'REPLACE'>, <TokenType.ENUM8: 'ENUM8'>, <TokenType.INT4RANGE: 'INT4RANGE'>, <TokenType.BOOLEAN: 'BOOLEAN'>, <TokenType.DELETE: 'DELETE'>, <TokenType.VAR: 'VAR'>, <TokenType.NVARCHAR: 'NVARCHAR'>, <TokenType.TEXT: 'TEXT'>, <TokenType.TIMESTAMP_NS: 'TIMESTAMP_NS'>, <TokenType.UPDATE: 'UPDATE'>, <TokenType.BIGDECIMAL: 'BIGDECIMAL'>, <TokenType.ROW: 'ROW'>, <TokenType.NAME: 'NAME'>, <TokenType.UINT128: 'UINT128'>, <TokenType.UNIQUEIDENTIFIER: 'UNIQUEIDENTIFIER'>, <TokenType.TRUE: 'TRUE'>, <TokenType.PRAGMA: 'PRAGMA'>, <TokenType.WAREHOUSE: 'WAREHOUSE'>, <TokenType.NUMMULTIRANGE: 'NUMMULTIRANGE'>, <TokenType.JSON: 'JSON'>, <TokenType.OVERLAPS: 'OVERLAPS'>, <TokenType.ALL: 'ALL'>, <TokenType.TIMETZ: 'TIMETZ'>, <TokenType.MEDIUMTEXT: 'MEDIUMTEXT'>, <TokenType.UDECIMAL: 'UDECIMAL'>, <TokenType.ROWS: 'ROWS'>, <TokenType.XML: 'XML'>, <TokenType.UBIGINT: 'UBIGINT'>, <TokenType.PSEUDO_TYPE: 'PSEUDO_TYPE'>, <TokenType.NEXT: 'NEXT'>, <TokenType.UNKNOWN: 'UNKNOWN'>, <TokenType.ROWVERSION: 'ROWVERSION'>, <TokenType.ANY: 'ANY'>, <TokenType.MONEY: 'MONEY'>, <TokenType.TIMESTAMP_MS: 'TIMESTAMP_MS'>, <TokenType.OVERWRITE: 'OVERWRITE'>, <TokenType.OBJECT: 'OBJECT'>, <TokenType.LONGTEXT: 'LONGTEXT'>, <TokenType.UINT256: 'UINT256'>, <TokenType.REFRESH: 'REFRESH'>, <TokenType.LIST: 'LIST'>, <TokenType.STREAMLIT: 'STREAMLIT'>, <TokenType.VARCHAR: 'VARCHAR'>, <TokenType.DATE: 'DATE'>, <TokenType.INT256: 'INT256'>, <TokenType.PIVOT: 'PIVOT'>, <TokenType.TIMESTAMPTZ: 'TIMESTAMPTZ'>, <TokenType.TOP: 'TOP'>, <TokenType.LOWCARDINALITY: 'LOWCARDINALITY'>, <TokenType.CURRENT_DATE: 'CURRENT_DATE'>, <TokenType.SEQUENCE: 'SEQUENCE'>, <TokenType.PROCEDURE: 'PROCEDURE'>, <TokenType.FOREIGN_KEY: 'FOREIGN_KEY'>, <TokenType.ENUM: 'ENUM'>, <TokenType.IDENTIFIER: 'IDENTIFIER'>, <TokenType.FULL: 'FULL'>, <TokenType.MEDIUMINT: 'MEDIUMINT'>, <TokenType.IPADDRESS: 'IPADDRESS'>, <TokenType.ANTI: 'ANTI'>, <TokenType.COPY: 'COPY'>, <TokenType.DATEMULTIRANGE: 'DATEMULTIRANGE'>, <TokenType.VARBINARY: 'VARBINARY'>, <TokenType.YEAR: 'YEAR'>, <TokenType.TSTZRANGE: 'TSTZRANGE'>, <TokenType.DIV: 'DIV'>, <TokenType.FUNCTION: 'FUNCTION'>, <TokenType.COLLATE: 'COLLATE'>, <TokenType.ENUM16: 'ENUM16'>, <TokenType.RANGE: 'RANGE'>, <TokenType.INT128: 'INT128'>, <TokenType.UTINYINT: 'UTINYINT'>, <TokenType.AUTO_INCREMENT: 'AUTO_INCREMENT'>, <TokenType.ASC: 'ASC'>, <TokenType.ROLLUP: 'ROLLUP'>, <TokenType.DATERANGE: 'DATERANGE'>, <TokenType.EXECUTE: 'EXECUTE'>, <TokenType.ASOF: 'ASOF'>, <TokenType.DATABASE: 'DATABASE'>, <TokenType.REFERENCES: 'REFERENCES'>, <TokenType.TSTZMULTIRANGE: 'TSTZMULTIRANGE'>, <TokenType.TIMESTAMPNTZ: 'TIMESTAMPNTZ'>, <TokenType.UNNEST: 'UNNEST'>, <TokenType.DOUBLE: 'DOUBLE'>, <TokenType.TINYTEXT: 'TINYTEXT'>, <TokenType.MERGE: 'MERGE'>, <TokenType.TIMESTAMP_S: 'TIMESTAMP_S'>, <TokenType.USERDEFINED: 'USERDEFINED'>, <TokenType.SEMI: 'SEMI'>, <TokenType.IMAGE: 'IMAGE'>, <TokenType.RIGHT: 'RIGHT'>, <TokenType.COMMENT: 'COMMENT'>, <TokenType.KEEP: 'KEEP'>, <TokenType.HSTORE: 'HSTORE'>, <TokenType.AGGREGATEFUNCTION: 'AGGREGATEFUNCTION'>, <TokenType.NATURAL: 'NATURAL'>, <TokenType.TAG: 'TAG'>, <TokenType.SOME: 'SOME'>, <TokenType.LONGBLOB: 'LONGBLOB'>, <TokenType.MODEL: 'MODEL'>, <TokenType.GEOMETRY: 'GEOMETRY'>, <TokenType.BIGINT: 'BIGINT'>, <TokenType.TIMESTAMP: 'TIMESTAMP'>, <TokenType.SMALLMONEY: 'SMALLMONEY'>, <TokenType.IPV4: 'IPV4'>, <TokenType.RECURSIVE: 'RECURSIVE'>, <TokenType.PARTITION: 'PARTITION'>, <TokenType.APPLY: 'APPLY'>, <TokenType.BINARY: 'BINARY'>, <TokenType.ISNULL: 'ISNULL'>, <TokenType.SHOW: 'SHOW'>, <TokenType.UNPIVOT: 'UNPIVOT'>, <TokenType.SET: 'SET'>, <TokenType.STRAIGHT_JOIN: 'STRAIGHT_JOIN'>, <TokenType.BPCHAR: 'BPCHAR'>, <TokenType.NUMRANGE: 'NUMRANGE'>, <TokenType.MEDIUMBLOB: 'MEDIUMBLOB'>, <TokenType.COLUMN: 'COLUMN'>, <TokenType.END: 'END'>, <TokenType.CHAR: 'CHAR'>, <TokenType.FORMAT: 'FORMAT'>, <TokenType.LEFT: 'LEFT'>, <TokenType.ORDINALITY: 'ORDINALITY'>, <TokenType.INDEX: 'INDEX'>, <TokenType.INTERVAL: 'INTERVAL'>, <TokenType.ARRAY: 'ARRAY'>, <TokenType.UUID: 'UUID'>, <TokenType.DEFAULT: 'DEFAULT'>, <TokenType.TIMESTAMPLTZ: 'TIMESTAMPLTZ'>, <TokenType.DATETIME64: 'DATETIME64'>, <TokenType.IS: 'IS'>, <TokenType.TEMPORARY: 'TEMPORARY'>, <TokenType.VOLATILE: 'VOLATILE'>, <TokenType.SETTINGS: 'SETTINGS'>, <TokenType.UMEDIUMINT: 'UMEDIUMINT'>}
TABLE_ALIAS_TOKENS = {<TokenType.SERIAL: 'SERIAL'>, <TokenType.TSMULTIRANGE: 'TSMULTIRANGE'>, <TokenType.MAP: 'MAP'>, <TokenType.GEOGRAPHY: 'GEOGRAPHY'>, <TokenType.COMMIT: 'COMMIT'>, <TokenType.NESTED: 'NESTED'>, <TokenType.CURRENT_USER: 'CURRENT_USER'>, <TokenType.DICTIONARY: 'DICTIONARY'>, <TokenType.SMALLINT: 'SMALLINT'>, <TokenType.TABLE: 'TABLE'>, <TokenType.LOAD: 'LOAD'>, <TokenType.EXISTS: 'EXISTS'>, <TokenType.ESCAPE: 'ESCAPE'>, <TokenType.TDIGEST: 'TDIGEST'>, <TokenType.SIMPLEAGGREGATEFUNCTION: 'SIMPLEAGGREGATEFUNCTION'>, <TokenType.DECIMAL: 'DECIMAL'>, <TokenType.INT4MULTIRANGE: 'INT4MULTIRANGE'>, <TokenType.BIT: 'BIT'>, <TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER: 'OBJECT_IDENTIFIER'>, <TokenType.DATE32: 'DATE32'>, <TokenType.CURRENT_TIME: 'CURRENT_TIME'>, <TokenType.TIME: 'TIME'>, <TokenType.CURRENT_TIMESTAMP: 'CURRENT_TIMESTAMP'>, <TokenType.SMALLSERIAL: 'SMALLSERIAL'>, <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, <TokenType.TINYBLOB: 'TINYBLOB'>, <TokenType.SUPER: 'SUPER'>, <TokenType.PERCENT: 'PERCENT'>, <TokenType.USMALLINT: 'USMALLINT'>, <TokenType.TRUNCATE: 'TRUNCATE'>, <TokenType.NCHAR: 'NCHAR'>, <TokenType.HLLSKETCH: 'HLLSKETCH'>, <TokenType.CONSTRAINT: 'CONSTRAINT'>, <TokenType.CACHE: 'CACHE'>, <TokenType.BIGSERIAL: 'BIGSERIAL'>, <TokenType.VIEW: 'VIEW'>, <TokenType.FALSE: 'FALSE'>, <TokenType.JSONB: 'JSONB'>, <TokenType.FIRST: 'FIRST'>, <TokenType.NULL: 'NULL'>, <TokenType.UINT: 'UINT'>, <TokenType.INET: 'INET'>, <TokenType.UNIQUE: 'UNIQUE'>, <TokenType.SCHEMA: 'SCHEMA'>, <TokenType.DESCRIBE: 'DESCRIBE'>, <TokenType.FILTER: 'FILTER'>, <TokenType.NULLABLE: 'NULLABLE'>, <TokenType.DATETIME: 'DATETIME'>, <TokenType.VARIANT: 'VARIANT'>, <TokenType.USE: 'USE'>, <TokenType.FIXEDSTRING: 'FIXEDSTRING'>, <TokenType.INT: 'INT'>, <TokenType.IPV6: 'IPV6'>, <TokenType.FLOAT: 'FLOAT'>, <TokenType.STORAGE_INTEGRATION: 'STORAGE_INTEGRATION'>, <TokenType.CASE: 'CASE'>, <TokenType.INT8RANGE: 'INT8RANGE'>, <TokenType.DESC: 'DESC'>, <TokenType.CURRENT_DATETIME: 'CURRENT_DATETIME'>, <TokenType.BEGIN: 'BEGIN'>, <TokenType.INT8MULTIRANGE: 'INT8MULTIRANGE'>, <TokenType.KILL: 'KILL'>, <TokenType.TSRANGE: 'TSRANGE'>, <TokenType.IPPREFIX: 'IPPREFIX'>, <TokenType.TINYINT: 'TINYINT'>, <TokenType.STRUCT: 'STRUCT'>, <TokenType.OPERATOR: 'OPERATOR'>, <TokenType.FINAL: 'FINAL'>, <TokenType.REPLACE: 'REPLACE'>, <TokenType.ENUM8: 'ENUM8'>, <TokenType.INT4RANGE: 'INT4RANGE'>, <TokenType.BOOLEAN: 'BOOLEAN'>, <TokenType.DELETE: 'DELETE'>, <TokenType.VAR: 'VAR'>, <TokenType.NVARCHAR: 'NVARCHAR'>, <TokenType.TEXT: 'TEXT'>, <TokenType.TIMESTAMP_NS: 'TIMESTAMP_NS'>, <TokenType.UPDATE: 'UPDATE'>, <TokenType.BIGDECIMAL: 'BIGDECIMAL'>, <TokenType.ROW: 'ROW'>, <TokenType.NAME: 'NAME'>, <TokenType.UINT128: 'UINT128'>, <TokenType.UNIQUEIDENTIFIER: 'UNIQUEIDENTIFIER'>, <TokenType.TRUE: 'TRUE'>, <TokenType.PRAGMA: 'PRAGMA'>, <TokenType.WAREHOUSE: 'WAREHOUSE'>, <TokenType.NUMMULTIRANGE: 'NUMMULTIRANGE'>, <TokenType.JSON: 'JSON'>, <TokenType.OVERLAPS: 'OVERLAPS'>, <TokenType.ALL: 'ALL'>, <TokenType.TIMETZ: 'TIMETZ'>, <TokenType.MEDIUMTEXT: 'MEDIUMTEXT'>, <TokenType.UDECIMAL: 'UDECIMAL'>, <TokenType.ROWS: 'ROWS'>, <TokenType.XML: 'XML'>, <TokenType.UBIGINT: 'UBIGINT'>, <TokenType.PSEUDO_TYPE: 'PSEUDO_TYPE'>, <TokenType.NEXT: 'NEXT'>, <TokenType.UNKNOWN: 'UNKNOWN'>, <TokenType.ROWVERSION: 'ROWVERSION'>, <TokenType.ANY: 'ANY'>, <TokenType.MONEY: 'MONEY'>, <TokenType.TIMESTAMP_MS: 'TIMESTAMP_MS'>, <TokenType.OVERWRITE: 'OVERWRITE'>, <TokenType.OBJECT: 'OBJECT'>, <TokenType.LONGTEXT: 'LONGTEXT'>, <TokenType.UINT256: 'UINT256'>, <TokenType.REFRESH: 'REFRESH'>, <TokenType.LIST: 'LIST'>, <TokenType.STREAMLIT: 'STREAMLIT'>, <TokenType.VARCHAR: 'VARCHAR'>, <TokenType.INT256: 'INT256'>, <TokenType.PIVOT: 'PIVOT'>, <TokenType.TIMESTAMPTZ: 'TIMESTAMPTZ'>, <TokenType.TOP: 'TOP'>, <TokenType.LOWCARDINALITY: 'LOWCARDINALITY'>, <TokenType.CURRENT_DATE: 'CURRENT_DATE'>, <TokenType.SEQUENCE: 'SEQUENCE'>, <TokenType.PROCEDURE: 'PROCEDURE'>, <TokenType.FOREIGN_KEY: 'FOREIGN_KEY'>, <TokenType.ENUM: 'ENUM'>, <TokenType.IDENTIFIER: 'IDENTIFIER'>, <TokenType.MEDIUMINT: 'MEDIUMINT'>, <TokenType.IPADDRESS: 'IPADDRESS'>, <TokenType.COPY: 'COPY'>, <TokenType.DATEMULTIRANGE: 'DATEMULTIRANGE'>, <TokenType.VARBINARY: 'VARBINARY'>, <TokenType.YEAR: 'YEAR'>, <TokenType.TSTZRANGE: 'TSTZRANGE'>, <TokenType.DIV: 'DIV'>, <TokenType.FUNCTION: 'FUNCTION'>, <TokenType.COLLATE: 'COLLATE'>, <TokenType.ENUM16: 'ENUM16'>, <TokenType.RANGE: 'RANGE'>, <TokenType.INT128: 'INT128'>, <TokenType.UTINYINT: 'UTINYINT'>, <TokenType.AUTO_INCREMENT: 'AUTO_INCREMENT'>, <TokenType.ASC: 'ASC'>, <TokenType.ROLLUP: 'ROLLUP'>, <TokenType.DATERANGE: 'DATERANGE'>, <TokenType.EXECUTE: 'EXECUTE'>, <TokenType.DATABASE: 'DATABASE'>, <TokenType.REFERENCES: 'REFERENCES'>, <TokenType.TSTZMULTIRANGE: 'TSTZMULTIRANGE'>, <TokenType.TIMESTAMPNTZ: 'TIMESTAMPNTZ'>, <TokenType.UNNEST: 'UNNEST'>, <TokenType.DOUBLE: 'DOUBLE'>, <TokenType.TINYTEXT: 'TINYTEXT'>, <TokenType.MERGE: 'MERGE'>, <TokenType.TIMESTAMP_S: 'TIMESTAMP_S'>, <TokenType.USERDEFINED: 'USERDEFINED'>, <TokenType.IMAGE: 'IMAGE'>, <TokenType.COMMENT: 'COMMENT'>, <TokenType.KEEP: 'KEEP'>, <TokenType.HSTORE: 'HSTORE'>, <TokenType.AGGREGATEFUNCTION: 'AGGREGATEFUNCTION'>, <TokenType.TAG: 'TAG'>, <TokenType.SOME: 'SOME'>, <TokenType.LONGBLOB: 'LONGBLOB'>, <TokenType.MODEL: 'MODEL'>, <TokenType.GEOMETRY: 'GEOMETRY'>, <TokenType.BIGINT: 'BIGINT'>, <TokenType.TIMESTAMP: 'TIMESTAMP'>, <TokenType.SMALLMONEY: 'SMALLMONEY'>, <TokenType.IPV4: 'IPV4'>, <TokenType.RECURSIVE: 'RECURSIVE'>, <TokenType.PARTITION: 'PARTITION'>, <TokenType.BINARY: 'BINARY'>, <TokenType.ISNULL: 'ISNULL'>, <TokenType.SHOW: 'SHOW'>, <TokenType.UNPIVOT: 'UNPIVOT'>, <TokenType.SET: 'SET'>, <TokenType.STRAIGHT_JOIN: 'STRAIGHT_JOIN'>, <TokenType.BPCHAR: 'BPCHAR'>, <TokenType.NUMRANGE: 'NUMRANGE'>, <TokenType.MEDIUMBLOB: 'MEDIUMBLOB'>, <TokenType.COLUMN: 'COLUMN'>, <TokenType.VOLATILE: 'VOLATILE'>, <TokenType.END: 'END'>, <TokenType.CHAR: 'CHAR'>, <TokenType.FORMAT: 'FORMAT'>, <TokenType.ORDINALITY: 'ORDINALITY'>, <TokenType.INDEX: 'INDEX'>, <TokenType.INTERVAL: 'INTERVAL'>, <TokenType.ARRAY: 'ARRAY'>, <TokenType.UUID: 'UUID'>, <TokenType.DEFAULT: 'DEFAULT'>, <TokenType.TIMESTAMPLTZ: 'TIMESTAMPLTZ'>, <TokenType.DATETIME64: 'DATETIME64'>, <TokenType.IS: 'IS'>, <TokenType.TEMPORARY: 'TEMPORARY'>, <TokenType.DATE: 'DATE'>, <TokenType.SETTINGS: 'SETTINGS'>, <TokenType.UMEDIUMINT: 'UMEDIUMINT'>}
SHOW_TRIE: Dict = {}
SET_TRIE: Dict = {'GLOBAL': {0: True}, 'LOCAL': {0: True}, 'SESSION': {0: True}, 'TRANSACTION': {0: True}}
Inherited Members
sqlglot.parser.Parser
Parser
NO_PAREN_FUNCTIONS
STRUCT_TYPE_TOKENS
NESTED_TYPE_TOKENS
ENUM_TYPE_TOKENS
AGGREGATE_TYPE_TOKENS
TYPE_TOKENS
SIGNED_TO_UNSIGNED_TYPE_TOKEN
SUBQUERY_PREDICATES
RESERVED_TOKENS
DB_CREATABLES
CREATABLES
INTERVAL_VARS
ALIAS_TOKENS
ARRAY_CONSTRUCTORS
COMMENT_TABLE_ALIAS_TOKENS
UPDATE_ALIAS_TOKENS
TRIM_TYPES
FUNC_TOKENS
CONJUNCTION
ASSIGNMENT
DISJUNCTION
EQUALITY
COMPARISON
BITWISE
TERM
FACTOR
EXPONENT
TIMES
TIMESTAMPS
SET_OPERATIONS
JOIN_METHODS
JOIN_SIDES
JOIN_KINDS
JOIN_HINTS
LAMBDAS
COLUMN_OPERATORS
EXPRESSION_PARSERS
STATEMENT_PARSERS
UNARY_PARSERS
STRING_PARSERS
NUMERIC_PARSERS
PRIMARY_PARSERS
PLACEHOLDER_PARSERS
RANGE_PARSERS
CONSTRAINT_PARSERS
ALTER_PARSERS
ALTER_ALTER_PARSERS
SCHEMA_UNNAMED_CONSTRAINTS
INVALID_FUNC_NAME_TOKENS
FUNCTIONS_WITH_ALIASED_ARGS
KEY_VALUE_DEFINITIONS
SET_PARSERS
SHOW_PARSERS
TYPE_CONVERTERS
DDL_SELECT_TOKENS
PRE_VOLATILE_TOKENS
TRANSACTION_KIND
TRANSACTION_CHARACTERISTICS
CONFLICT_ACTIONS
CREATE_SEQUENCE
ISOLATED_LOADING_OPTIONS
USABLES
CAST_ACTIONS
INSERT_ALTERNATIVES
CLONE_KEYWORDS
HISTORICAL_DATA_KIND
OPCLASS_FOLLOW_KEYWORDS
OPTYPE_FOLLOW_TOKENS
TABLE_INDEX_HINT_TOKENS
VIEW_ATTRIBUTES
WINDOW_ALIAS_TOKENS
WINDOW_SIDES
JSON_KEY_VALUE_SEPARATOR_TOKENS
FETCH_TOKENS
ADD_CONSTRAINT_TOKENS
NULL_TOKENS
UNNEST_OFFSET_ALIAS_TOKENS
SELECT_START_TOKENS
COPY_INTO_VARLEN_OPTIONS
STRICT_CAST
PREFIXED_PIVOT_COLUMNS
IDENTIFY_PIVOT_STRINGS
LOG_DEFAULTS_TO_LN
TABLESAMPLE_CSV
DEFAULT_SAMPLING_METHOD
SET_REQUIRES_ASSIGNMENT_DELIMITER
TRIM_PATTERN_FIRST
STRING_ALIASES
MODIFIERS_ATTACHED_TO_SET_OP
SET_OP_MODIFIERS
NO_PAREN_IF_COMMANDS
JSON_ARROWS_REQUIRE_JSON_TYPE
COLON_IS_JSON_EXTRACT
SUPPORTS_IMPLICIT_UNNEST
INTERVAL_SPANS
SUPPORTS_PARTITION_SELECTION
error_level
error_message_context
max_errors
dialect
reset
parse
parse_into
check_errors
raise_error
expression
validate_expression
errors
sql
class Oracle.Generator(sqlglot.generator.Generator):
219    class Generator(generator.Generator):
220        LOCKING_READS_SUPPORTED = True
221        JOIN_HINTS = False
222        TABLE_HINTS = False
223        DATA_TYPE_SPECIFIERS_ALLOWED = True
224        ALTER_TABLE_INCLUDE_COLUMN_KEYWORD = False
225        LIMIT_FETCH = "FETCH"
226        TABLESAMPLE_KEYWORDS = "SAMPLE"
227        LAST_DAY_SUPPORTS_DATE_PART = False
228        SUPPORTS_SELECT_INTO = True
229        TZ_TO_WITH_TIME_ZONE = True
230
231        TYPE_MAPPING = {
232            **generator.Generator.TYPE_MAPPING,
233            exp.DataType.Type.TINYINT: "NUMBER",
234            exp.DataType.Type.SMALLINT: "NUMBER",
235            exp.DataType.Type.INT: "NUMBER",
236            exp.DataType.Type.BIGINT: "NUMBER",
237            exp.DataType.Type.DECIMAL: "NUMBER",
238            exp.DataType.Type.DOUBLE: "DOUBLE PRECISION",
239            exp.DataType.Type.VARCHAR: "VARCHAR2",
240            exp.DataType.Type.NVARCHAR: "NVARCHAR2",
241            exp.DataType.Type.NCHAR: "NCHAR",
242            exp.DataType.Type.TEXT: "CLOB",
243            exp.DataType.Type.TIMETZ: "TIME",
244            exp.DataType.Type.TIMESTAMPTZ: "TIMESTAMP",
245            exp.DataType.Type.BINARY: "BLOB",
246            exp.DataType.Type.VARBINARY: "BLOB",
247            exp.DataType.Type.ROWVERSION: "BLOB",
248        }
249
250        TRANSFORMS = {
251            **generator.Generator.TRANSFORMS,
252            exp.ConnectByRoot: lambda self, e: f"CONNECT_BY_ROOT {self.sql(e, 'this')}",
253            exp.DateStrToDate: lambda self, e: self.func(
254                "TO_DATE", e.this, exp.Literal.string("YYYY-MM-DD")
255            ),
256            exp.Group: transforms.preprocess([transforms.unalias_group]),
257            exp.ILike: no_ilike_sql,
258            exp.Select: transforms.preprocess(
259                [
260                    transforms.eliminate_distinct_on,
261                    transforms.eliminate_qualify,
262                ]
263            ),
264            exp.StrToTime: lambda self, e: self.func("TO_TIMESTAMP", e.this, self.format_time(e)),
265            exp.StrToDate: lambda self, e: self.func("TO_DATE", e.this, self.format_time(e)),
266            exp.Subquery: lambda self, e: self.subquery_sql(e, sep=" "),
267            exp.Substring: rename_func("SUBSTR"),
268            exp.Table: lambda self, e: self.table_sql(e, sep=" "),
269            exp.TableSample: lambda self, e: self.tablesample_sql(e, sep=" "),
270            exp.TemporaryProperty: lambda _, e: f"{e.name or 'GLOBAL'} TEMPORARY",
271            exp.TimeToStr: lambda self, e: self.func("TO_CHAR", e.this, self.format_time(e)),
272            exp.ToChar: lambda self, e: self.function_fallback_sql(e),
273            exp.ToNumber: to_number_with_nls_param,
274            exp.Trim: trim_sql,
275            exp.UnixToTime: lambda self,
276            e: f"TO_DATE('1970-01-01', 'YYYY-MM-DD') + ({self.sql(e, 'this')} / 86400)",
277        }
278
279        PROPERTIES_LOCATION = {
280            **generator.Generator.PROPERTIES_LOCATION,
281            exp.VolatileProperty: exp.Properties.Location.UNSUPPORTED,
282        }
283
284        def currenttimestamp_sql(self, expression: exp.CurrentTimestamp) -> str:
285            this = expression.this
286            return self.func("CURRENT_TIMESTAMP", this) if this else "CURRENT_TIMESTAMP"
287
288        def offset_sql(self, expression: exp.Offset) -> str:
289            return f"{super().offset_sql(expression)} ROWS"
290
291        def xmltable_sql(self, expression: exp.XMLTable) -> str:
292            this = self.sql(expression, "this")
293            passing = self.expressions(expression, key="passing")
294            passing = f"{self.sep()}PASSING{self.seg(passing)}" if passing else ""
295            columns = self.expressions(expression, key="columns")
296            columns = f"{self.sep()}COLUMNS{self.seg(columns)}" if columns else ""
297            by_ref = (
298                f"{self.sep()}RETURNING SEQUENCE BY REF" if expression.args.get("by_ref") else ""
299            )
300            return f"XMLTABLE({self.sep('')}{self.indent(this + passing + by_ref + columns)}{self.seg(')', sep='')}"
301
302        def add_column_sql(self, expression: exp.AlterTable) -> str:
303            actions = self.expressions(expression, key="actions", flat=True)
304            if len(expression.args.get("actions", [])) > 1:
305                return f"ADD ({actions})"
306            return f"ADD {actions}"
307
308        def queryoption_sql(self, expression: exp.QueryOption) -> str:
309            option = self.sql(expression, "this")
310            value = self.sql(expression, "expression")
311            value = f" CONSTRAINT {value}" if value else ""
312
313            return f"{option}{value}"

Generator converts a given syntax tree to the corresponding SQL string.

Arguments:
  • pretty: Whether to format the produced SQL string. Default: False.
  • identify: Determines when an identifier should be quoted. Possible values are: False (default): Never quote, except in cases where it's mandatory by the dialect. True or 'always': Always quote. 'safe': Only quote identifiers that are case insensitive.
  • normalize: Whether to normalize identifiers to lowercase. Default: False.
  • pad: The pad size in a formatted string. For example, this affects the indentation of a projection in a query, relative to its nesting level. Default: 2.
  • indent: The indentation size in a formatted string. For example, this affects the indentation of subqueries and filters under a WHERE clause. Default: 2.
  • normalize_functions: How to normalize function names. Possible values are: "upper" or True (default): Convert names to uppercase. "lower": Convert names to lowercase. False: Disables function name normalization.
  • unsupported_level: Determines the generator's behavior when it encounters unsupported expressions. Default ErrorLevel.WARN.
  • max_unsupported: Maximum number of unsupported messages to include in a raised UnsupportedError. This is only relevant if unsupported_level is ErrorLevel.RAISE. Default: 3
  • leading_comma: Whether the comma is leading or trailing in select expressions. This is only relevant when generating in pretty mode. Default: False
  • max_text_width: The max number of characters in a segment before creating new lines in pretty mode. The default is on the smaller end because the length only represents a segment and not the true line length. Default: 80
  • comments: Whether to preserve comments in the output SQL code. Default: True
LOCKING_READS_SUPPORTED = True
JOIN_HINTS = False
TABLE_HINTS = False
DATA_TYPE_SPECIFIERS_ALLOWED = True
ALTER_TABLE_INCLUDE_COLUMN_KEYWORD = False
LIMIT_FETCH = 'FETCH'
TABLESAMPLE_KEYWORDS = 'SAMPLE'
LAST_DAY_SUPPORTS_DATE_PART = False
SUPPORTS_SELECT_INTO = True
TZ_TO_WITH_TIME_ZONE = True
TYPE_MAPPING = {<Type.NCHAR: 'NCHAR'>: 'NCHAR', <Type.NVARCHAR: 'NVARCHAR'>: 'NVARCHAR2', <Type.MEDIUMTEXT: 'MEDIUMTEXT'>: 'TEXT', <Type.LONGTEXT: 'LONGTEXT'>: 'TEXT', <Type.TINYTEXT: 'TINYTEXT'>: 'TEXT', <Type.MEDIUMBLOB: 'MEDIUMBLOB'>: 'BLOB', <Type.LONGBLOB: 'LONGBLOB'>: 'BLOB', <Type.TINYBLOB: 'TINYBLOB'>: 'BLOB', <Type.INET: 'INET'>: 'INET', <Type.ROWVERSION: 'ROWVERSION'>: 'BLOB', <Type.TINYINT: 'TINYINT'>: 'NUMBER', <Type.SMALLINT: 'SMALLINT'>: 'NUMBER', <Type.INT: 'INT'>: 'NUMBER', <Type.BIGINT: 'BIGINT'>: 'NUMBER', <Type.DECIMAL: 'DECIMAL'>: 'NUMBER', <Type.DOUBLE: 'DOUBLE'>: 'DOUBLE PRECISION', <Type.VARCHAR: 'VARCHAR'>: 'VARCHAR2', <Type.TEXT: 'TEXT'>: 'CLOB', <Type.TIMETZ: 'TIMETZ'>: 'TIME', <Type.TIMESTAMPTZ: 'TIMESTAMPTZ'>: 'TIMESTAMP', <Type.BINARY: 'BINARY'>: 'BLOB', <Type.VARBINARY: 'VARBINARY'>: 'BLOB'}
TRANSFORMS = {<class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONPathFilter'>: <function <lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONPathKey'>: <function <lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONPathRecursive'>: <function <lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONPathRoot'>: <function <lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONPathScript'>: <function <lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONPathSelector'>: <function <lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONPathSlice'>: <function <lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONPathSubscript'>: <function <lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONPathUnion'>: <function <lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONPathWildcard'>: <function <lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.AllowedValuesProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.AutoRefreshProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.BackupProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CaseSpecificColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CharacterSetColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CharacterSetProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ClusteredColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CollateColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CommentColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CopyGrantsProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateFormatColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DefaultColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.EncodeColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.EphemeralColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ExcludeColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ExecuteAsProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ExternalProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.GlobalProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.HeapProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.IcebergProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.InheritsProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.InlineLengthColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.InputModelProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.IntervalSpan'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONExtract'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONExtractScalar'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LanguageProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LocationProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LogProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.MaterializedProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.NonClusteredColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.NoPrimaryIndexProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.NotForReplicationColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.OnCommitProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.OnProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.OnUpdateColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.OutputModelProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.PathColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ProjectionPolicyColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RemoteWithConnectionModelProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ReturnsProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SampleProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SecureProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SetConfigProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SetProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SettingsProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SharingProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SqlReadWriteProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SqlSecurityProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StabilityProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StrictProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TemporaryProperty'>: <function Oracle.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TagColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TitleColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Timestamp'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ToMap'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ToTableProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TransformModelProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TransientProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.UppercaseColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.UnloggedProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.VarMap'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ViewAttributeProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.VolatileProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.WithJournalTableProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.WithOperator'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ConnectByRoot'>: <function Oracle.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateStrToDate'>: <function Oracle.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Group'>: <function preprocess.<locals>._to_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ILike'>: <function no_ilike_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Select'>: <function preprocess.<locals>._to_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StrToTime'>: <function Oracle.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StrToDate'>: <function Oracle.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Subquery'>: <function Oracle.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Substring'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Table'>: <function Oracle.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TableSample'>: <function Oracle.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeToStr'>: <function Oracle.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ToChar'>: <function Oracle.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ToNumber'>: <function to_number_with_nls_param>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Trim'>: <function trim_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.UnixToTime'>: <function Oracle.Generator.<lambda>>}
PROPERTIES_LOCATION = {<class 'sqlglot.expressions.AllowedValuesProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.AlgorithmProperty'>: <Location.POST_CREATE: 'POST_CREATE'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.AutoIncrementProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.AutoRefreshProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.BackupProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.BlockCompressionProperty'>: <Location.POST_NAME: 'POST_NAME'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CharacterSetProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ChecksumProperty'>: <Location.POST_NAME: 'POST_NAME'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CollateProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CopyGrantsProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Cluster'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ClusteredByProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DataBlocksizeProperty'>: <Location.POST_NAME: 'POST_NAME'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DataDeletionProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DefinerProperty'>: <Location.POST_CREATE: 'POST_CREATE'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DictRange'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DictProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DistKeyProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DistStyleProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.EngineProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ExecuteAsProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ExternalProperty'>: <Location.POST_CREATE: 'POST_CREATE'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.FallbackProperty'>: <Location.POST_NAME: 'POST_NAME'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.FileFormatProperty'>: <Location.POST_WITH: 'POST_WITH'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.FreespaceProperty'>: <Location.POST_NAME: 'POST_NAME'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.GlobalProperty'>: <Location.POST_CREATE: 'POST_CREATE'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.HeapProperty'>: <Location.POST_WITH: 'POST_WITH'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.InheritsProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.IcebergProperty'>: <Location.POST_CREATE: 'POST_CREATE'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.InputModelProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.IsolatedLoadingProperty'>: <Location.POST_NAME: 'POST_NAME'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JournalProperty'>: <Location.POST_NAME: 'POST_NAME'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LanguageProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LikeProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LocationProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LockProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LockingProperty'>: <Location.POST_ALIAS: 'POST_ALIAS'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LogProperty'>: <Location.POST_NAME: 'POST_NAME'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.MaterializedProperty'>: <Location.POST_CREATE: 'POST_CREATE'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.MergeBlockRatioProperty'>: <Location.POST_NAME: 'POST_NAME'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.NoPrimaryIndexProperty'>: <Location.POST_EXPRESSION: 'POST_EXPRESSION'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.OnProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.OnCommitProperty'>: <Location.POST_EXPRESSION: 'POST_EXPRESSION'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Order'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.OutputModelProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.PartitionedByProperty'>: <Location.POST_WITH: 'POST_WITH'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.PartitionedOfProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.PrimaryKey'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Property'>: <Location.POST_WITH: 'POST_WITH'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RemoteWithConnectionModelProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ReturnsProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RowFormatProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RowFormatDelimitedProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RowFormatSerdeProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SampleProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SchemaCommentProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SecureProperty'>: <Location.POST_CREATE: 'POST_CREATE'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SerdeProperties'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Set'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SettingsProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SetProperty'>: <Location.POST_CREATE: 'POST_CREATE'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SetConfigProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SharingProperty'>: <Location.POST_EXPRESSION: 'POST_EXPRESSION'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SequenceProperties'>: <Location.POST_EXPRESSION: 'POST_EXPRESSION'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SortKeyProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SqlReadWriteProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SqlSecurityProperty'>: <Location.POST_CREATE: 'POST_CREATE'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StabilityProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StrictProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TemporaryProperty'>: <Location.POST_CREATE: 'POST_CREATE'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ToTableProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TransientProperty'>: <Location.POST_CREATE: 'POST_CREATE'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TransformModelProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.MergeTreeTTL'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.UnloggedProperty'>: <Location.POST_CREATE: 'POST_CREATE'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ViewAttributeProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.VolatileProperty'>: <Location.UNSUPPORTED: 'UNSUPPORTED'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.WithDataProperty'>: <Location.POST_EXPRESSION: 'POST_EXPRESSION'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.WithJournalTableProperty'>: <Location.POST_NAME: 'POST_NAME'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.WithSystemVersioningProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>}
def currenttimestamp_sql(self, expression: sqlglot.expressions.CurrentTimestamp) -> str:
284        def currenttimestamp_sql(self, expression: exp.CurrentTimestamp) -> str:
285            this = expression.this
286            return self.func("CURRENT_TIMESTAMP", this) if this else "CURRENT_TIMESTAMP"
def offset_sql(self, expression: sqlglot.expressions.Offset) -> str:
288        def offset_sql(self, expression: exp.Offset) -> str:
289            return f"{super().offset_sql(expression)} ROWS"
def xmltable_sql(self, expression: sqlglot.expressions.XMLTable) -> str:
291        def xmltable_sql(self, expression: exp.XMLTable) -> str:
292            this = self.sql(expression, "this")
293            passing = self.expressions(expression, key="passing")
294            passing = f"{self.sep()}PASSING{self.seg(passing)}" if passing else ""
295            columns = self.expressions(expression, key="columns")
296            columns = f"{self.sep()}COLUMNS{self.seg(columns)}" if columns else ""
297            by_ref = (
298                f"{self.sep()}RETURNING SEQUENCE BY REF" if expression.args.get("by_ref") else ""
299            )
300            return f"XMLTABLE({self.sep('')}{self.indent(this + passing + by_ref + columns)}{self.seg(')', sep='')}"
def add_column_sql(self, expression: sqlglot.expressions.AlterTable) -> str:
302        def add_column_sql(self, expression: exp.AlterTable) -> str:
303            actions = self.expressions(expression, key="actions", flat=True)
304            if len(expression.args.get("actions", [])) > 1:
305                return f"ADD ({actions})"
306            return f"ADD {actions}"
def queryoption_sql(self, expression: sqlglot.expressions.QueryOption) -> str:
308        def queryoption_sql(self, expression: exp.QueryOption) -> str:
309            option = self.sql(expression, "this")
310            value = self.sql(expression, "expression")
311            value = f" CONSTRAINT {value}" if value else ""
312
313            return f"{option}{value}"
SELECT_KINDS: Tuple[str, ...] = ()
TRY_SUPPORTED = False
SUPPORTS_UESCAPE = False
AFTER_HAVING_MODIFIER_TRANSFORMS = {'qualify': <function Generator.<lambda>>, 'windows': <function Generator.<lambda>>}
Inherited Members
sqlglot.generator.Generator
Generator
NULL_ORDERING_SUPPORTED
IGNORE_NULLS_IN_FUNC
EXPLICIT_SET_OP
WRAP_DERIVED_VALUES
CREATE_FUNCTION_RETURN_AS
MATCHED_BY_SOURCE
SINGLE_STRING_INTERVAL
INTERVAL_ALLOWS_PLURAL_FORM
LIMIT_ONLY_LITERALS
RENAME_TABLE_WITH_DB
GROUPINGS_SEP
INDEX_ON
QUERY_HINTS
QUERY_HINT_SEP
IS_BOOL_ALLOWED
DUPLICATE_KEY_UPDATE_WITH_SET
LIMIT_IS_TOP
RETURNING_END
EXTRACT_ALLOWS_QUOTES
NVL2_SUPPORTED
VALUES_AS_TABLE
UNNEST_WITH_ORDINALITY
AGGREGATE_FILTER_SUPPORTED
SEMI_ANTI_JOIN_WITH_SIDE
COMPUTED_COLUMN_WITH_TYPE
SUPPORTS_TABLE_COPY
TABLESAMPLE_REQUIRES_PARENS
TABLESAMPLE_SIZE_IS_ROWS
TABLESAMPLE_WITH_METHOD
TABLESAMPLE_SEED_KEYWORD
COLLATE_IS_FUNC
ENSURE_BOOLS
CTE_RECURSIVE_KEYWORD_REQUIRED
SUPPORTS_SINGLE_ARG_CONCAT
SUPPORTS_TABLE_ALIAS_COLUMNS
UNPIVOT_ALIASES_ARE_IDENTIFIERS
JSON_KEY_VALUE_PAIR_SEP
INSERT_OVERWRITE
SUPPORTS_UNLOGGED_TABLES
SUPPORTS_CREATE_TABLE_LIKE
LIKE_PROPERTY_INSIDE_SCHEMA
MULTI_ARG_DISTINCT
JSON_TYPE_REQUIRED_FOR_EXTRACTION
JSON_PATH_BRACKETED_KEY_SUPPORTED
JSON_PATH_SINGLE_QUOTE_ESCAPE
SUPPORTED_JSON_PATH_PARTS
CAN_IMPLEMENT_ARRAY_ANY
SUPPORTS_TO_NUMBER
SET_OP_MODIFIERS
COPY_PARAMS_ARE_WRAPPED
COPY_PARAMS_EQ_REQUIRED
COPY_HAS_INTO_KEYWORD
STAR_EXCEPT
HEX_FUNC
WITH_PROPERTIES_PREFIX
QUOTE_JSON_PATH
TIME_PART_SINGULARS
TOKEN_MAPPING
STRUCT_DELIMITER
PARAMETER_TOKEN
NAMED_PLACEHOLDER_TOKEN
RESERVED_KEYWORDS
WITH_SEPARATED_COMMENTS
EXCLUDE_COMMENTS
UNWRAPPED_INTERVAL_VALUES
PARAMETERIZABLE_TEXT_TYPES
EXPRESSIONS_WITHOUT_NESTED_CTES
SENTINEL_LINE_BREAK
pretty
identify
normalize
pad
unsupported_level
max_unsupported
leading_comma
max_text_width
comments
dialect
normalize_functions
unsupported_messages
generate
preprocess
unsupported
sep
seg
pad_comment
maybe_comment
wrap
no_identify
normalize_func
indent
sql
uncache_sql
cache_sql
characterset_sql
column_parts
column_sql
columnposition_sql
columndef_sql
columnconstraint_sql
computedcolumnconstraint_sql
autoincrementcolumnconstraint_sql
compresscolumnconstraint_sql
generatedasidentitycolumnconstraint_sql
generatedasrowcolumnconstraint_sql
periodforsystemtimeconstraint_sql
notnullcolumnconstraint_sql
transformcolumnconstraint_sql
primarykeycolumnconstraint_sql
uniquecolumnconstraint_sql
createable_sql
create_sql
sequenceproperties_sql
clone_sql
describe_sql
heredoc_sql
prepend_ctes
with_sql
cte_sql
tablealias_sql
bitstring_sql
hexstring_sql
bytestring_sql
unicodestring_sql
rawstring_sql
datatypeparam_sql
datatype_sql
directory_sql
delete_sql
drop_sql
except_sql
except_op
fetch_sql
filter_sql
hint_sql
indexparameters_sql
index_sql
identifier_sql
hex_sql
lowerhex_sql
inputoutputformat_sql
national_sql
partition_sql
properties_sql
root_properties
properties
with_properties
locate_properties
property_name
property_sql
likeproperty_sql
fallbackproperty_sql
journalproperty_sql
freespaceproperty_sql
checksumproperty_sql
mergeblockratioproperty_sql
datablocksizeproperty_sql
blockcompressionproperty_sql
isolatedloadingproperty_sql
partitionboundspec_sql
partitionedofproperty_sql
lockingproperty_sql
withdataproperty_sql
withsystemversioningproperty_sql
insert_sql
intersect_sql
intersect_op
introducer_sql
kill_sql
pseudotype_sql
objectidentifier_sql
onconflict_sql
returning_sql
rowformatdelimitedproperty_sql
withtablehint_sql
indextablehint_sql
historicaldata_sql
table_parts
table_sql
tablesample_sql
pivot_sql
version_sql
tuple_sql
update_sql
values_sql
var_sql
into_sql
from_sql
group_sql
having_sql
connect_sql
prior_sql
join_sql
lambda_sql
lateral_op
lateral_sql
limit_sql
setitem_sql
set_sql
pragma_sql
lock_sql
literal_sql
escape_str
loaddata_sql
null_sql
boolean_sql
order_sql
withfill_sql
cluster_sql
distribute_sql
sort_sql
ordered_sql
matchrecognizemeasure_sql
matchrecognize_sql
query_modifiers
options_modifier
offset_limit_modifiers
after_limit_modifiers
select_sql
schema_sql
schema_columns_sql
star_sql
parameter_sql
sessionparameter_sql
placeholder_sql
subquery_sql
qualify_sql
set_operations
union_sql
union_op
unnest_sql
prewhere_sql
where_sql
window_sql
partition_by_sql
windowspec_sql
withingroup_sql
between_sql
bracket_offset_expressions
bracket_sql
all_sql
any_sql
exists_sql
case_sql
constraint_sql
nextvaluefor_sql
extract_sql
trim_sql
convert_concat_args
concat_sql
concatws_sql
check_sql
foreignkey_sql
primarykey_sql
if_sql
matchagainst_sql
jsonkeyvalue_sql
jsonpath_sql
json_path_part
formatjson_sql
jsonobject_sql
jsonobjectagg_sql
jsonarray_sql
jsonarrayagg_sql
jsoncolumndef_sql
jsonschema_sql
jsontable_sql
openjsoncolumndef_sql
openjson_sql
in_sql
in_unnest_op
interval_sql
return_sql
reference_sql
anonymous_sql
paren_sql
neg_sql
not_sql
alias_sql
pivotalias_sql
aliases_sql
atindex_sql
attimezone_sql
fromtimezone_sql
add_sql
and_sql
or_sql
xor_sql
connector_sql
bitwiseand_sql
bitwiseleftshift_sql
bitwisenot_sql
bitwiseor_sql
bitwiserightshift_sql
bitwisexor_sql
cast_sql
currentdate_sql
collate_sql
command_sql
comment_sql
mergetreettlaction_sql
mergetreettl_sql
transaction_sql
commit_sql
rollback_sql
altercolumn_sql
alterdiststyle_sql
altersortkey_sql
renametable_sql
renamecolumn_sql
alterset_sql
altertable_sql
droppartition_sql
addconstraint_sql
distinct_sql
ignorenulls_sql
respectnulls_sql
havingmax_sql
intdiv_sql
dpipe_sql
div_sql
overlaps_sql
distance_sql
dot_sql
eq_sql
propertyeq_sql
escape_sql
glob_sql
gt_sql
gte_sql
ilike_sql
ilikeany_sql
is_sql
like_sql
likeany_sql
similarto_sql
lt_sql
lte_sql
mod_sql
mul_sql
neq_sql
nullsafeeq_sql
nullsafeneq_sql
slice_sql
sub_sql
trycast_sql
try_sql
log_sql
use_sql
binary
function_fallback_sql
func
format_args
too_wide
format_time
expressions
op_expressions
naked_property
tag_sql
token_sql
userdefinedfunction_sql
joinhint_sql
kwarg_sql
when_sql
merge_sql
tochar_sql
tonumber_sql
dictproperty_sql
dictrange_sql
dictsubproperty_sql
oncluster_sql
clusteredbyproperty_sql
anyvalue_sql
querytransform_sql
indexconstraintoption_sql
checkcolumnconstraint_sql
indexcolumnconstraint_sql
nvl2_sql
comprehension_sql
columnprefix_sql
opclass_sql
predict_sql
forin_sql
refresh_sql
operator_sql
toarray_sql
tsordstotime_sql
tsordstotimestamp_sql
tsordstodate_sql
unixdate_sql
lastday_sql
dateadd_sql
arrayany_sql
generateseries_sql
struct_sql
partitionrange_sql
truncatetable_sql
convert_sql
copyparameter_sql
credentials_sql
copy_sql
semicolon_sql
datadeletionproperty_sql
maskingpolicycolumnconstraint_sql
gapfill_sql