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sqlglot.dialects.postgres

  1from __future__ import annotations
  2
  3import typing as t
  4
  5from sqlglot import exp, generator, parser, tokens, transforms
  6from sqlglot.dialects.dialect import (
  7    DATE_ADD_OR_SUB,
  8    Dialect,
  9    JSON_EXTRACT_TYPE,
 10    any_value_to_max_sql,
 11    bool_xor_sql,
 12    datestrtodate_sql,
 13    build_formatted_time,
 14    filter_array_using_unnest,
 15    json_extract_segments,
 16    json_path_key_only_name,
 17    max_or_greatest,
 18    merge_without_target_sql,
 19    min_or_least,
 20    no_last_day_sql,
 21    no_map_from_entries_sql,
 22    no_paren_current_date_sql,
 23    no_pivot_sql,
 24    no_trycast_sql,
 25    build_json_extract_path,
 26    build_timestamp_trunc,
 27    rename_func,
 28    str_position_sql,
 29    struct_extract_sql,
 30    timestamptrunc_sql,
 31    timestrtotime_sql,
 32    trim_sql,
 33    ts_or_ds_add_cast,
 34)
 35from sqlglot.helper import seq_get
 36from sqlglot.parser import binary_range_parser
 37from sqlglot.tokens import TokenType
 38
 39DATE_DIFF_FACTOR = {
 40    "MICROSECOND": " * 1000000",
 41    "MILLISECOND": " * 1000",
 42    "SECOND": "",
 43    "MINUTE": " / 60",
 44    "HOUR": " / 3600",
 45    "DAY": " / 86400",
 46}
 47
 48
 49def _date_add_sql(kind: str) -> t.Callable[[Postgres.Generator, DATE_ADD_OR_SUB], str]:
 50    def func(self: Postgres.Generator, expression: DATE_ADD_OR_SUB) -> str:
 51        if isinstance(expression, exp.TsOrDsAdd):
 52            expression = ts_or_ds_add_cast(expression)
 53
 54        this = self.sql(expression, "this")
 55        unit = expression.args.get("unit")
 56
 57        expression = self._simplify_unless_literal(expression.expression)
 58        if not isinstance(expression, exp.Literal):
 59            self.unsupported("Cannot add non literal")
 60
 61        expression.args["is_string"] = True
 62        return f"{this} {kind} {self.sql(exp.Interval(this=expression, unit=unit))}"
 63
 64    return func
 65
 66
 67def _date_diff_sql(self: Postgres.Generator, expression: exp.DateDiff) -> str:
 68    unit = expression.text("unit").upper()
 69    factor = DATE_DIFF_FACTOR.get(unit)
 70
 71    end = f"CAST({self.sql(expression, 'this')} AS TIMESTAMP)"
 72    start = f"CAST({self.sql(expression, 'expression')} AS TIMESTAMP)"
 73
 74    if factor is not None:
 75        return f"CAST(EXTRACT(epoch FROM {end} - {start}){factor} AS BIGINT)"
 76
 77    age = f"AGE({end}, {start})"
 78
 79    if unit == "WEEK":
 80        unit = f"EXTRACT(days FROM ({end} - {start})) / 7"
 81    elif unit == "MONTH":
 82        unit = f"EXTRACT(year FROM {age}) * 12 + EXTRACT(month FROM {age})"
 83    elif unit == "QUARTER":
 84        unit = f"EXTRACT(year FROM {age}) * 4 + EXTRACT(month FROM {age}) / 3"
 85    elif unit == "YEAR":
 86        unit = f"EXTRACT(year FROM {age})"
 87    else:
 88        unit = age
 89
 90    return f"CAST({unit} AS BIGINT)"
 91
 92
 93def _substring_sql(self: Postgres.Generator, expression: exp.Substring) -> str:
 94    this = self.sql(expression, "this")
 95    start = self.sql(expression, "start")
 96    length = self.sql(expression, "length")
 97
 98    from_part = f" FROM {start}" if start else ""
 99    for_part = f" FOR {length}" if length else ""
100
101    return f"SUBSTRING({this}{from_part}{for_part})"
102
103
104def _string_agg_sql(self: Postgres.Generator, expression: exp.GroupConcat) -> str:
105    separator = expression.args.get("separator") or exp.Literal.string(",")
106
107    order = ""
108    this = expression.this
109    if isinstance(this, exp.Order):
110        if this.this:
111            this = this.this.pop()
112        order = self.sql(expression.this)  # Order has a leading space
113
114    return f"STRING_AGG({self.format_args(this, separator)}{order})"
115
116
117def _datatype_sql(self: Postgres.Generator, expression: exp.DataType) -> str:
118    if expression.is_type("array"):
119        return f"{self.expressions(expression, flat=True)}[]" if expression.expressions else "ARRAY"
120    return self.datatype_sql(expression)
121
122
123def _auto_increment_to_serial(expression: exp.Expression) -> exp.Expression:
124    auto = expression.find(exp.AutoIncrementColumnConstraint)
125
126    if auto:
127        expression.args["constraints"].remove(auto.parent)
128        kind = expression.args["kind"]
129
130        if kind.this == exp.DataType.Type.INT:
131            kind.replace(exp.DataType(this=exp.DataType.Type.SERIAL))
132        elif kind.this == exp.DataType.Type.SMALLINT:
133            kind.replace(exp.DataType(this=exp.DataType.Type.SMALLSERIAL))
134        elif kind.this == exp.DataType.Type.BIGINT:
135            kind.replace(exp.DataType(this=exp.DataType.Type.BIGSERIAL))
136
137    return expression
138
139
140def _serial_to_generated(expression: exp.Expression) -> exp.Expression:
141    if not isinstance(expression, exp.ColumnDef):
142        return expression
143    kind = expression.kind
144    if not kind:
145        return expression
146
147    if kind.this == exp.DataType.Type.SERIAL:
148        data_type = exp.DataType(this=exp.DataType.Type.INT)
149    elif kind.this == exp.DataType.Type.SMALLSERIAL:
150        data_type = exp.DataType(this=exp.DataType.Type.SMALLINT)
151    elif kind.this == exp.DataType.Type.BIGSERIAL:
152        data_type = exp.DataType(this=exp.DataType.Type.BIGINT)
153    else:
154        data_type = None
155
156    if data_type:
157        expression.args["kind"].replace(data_type)
158        constraints = expression.args["constraints"]
159        generated = exp.ColumnConstraint(kind=exp.GeneratedAsIdentityColumnConstraint(this=False))
160        notnull = exp.ColumnConstraint(kind=exp.NotNullColumnConstraint())
161
162        if notnull not in constraints:
163            constraints.insert(0, notnull)
164        if generated not in constraints:
165            constraints.insert(0, generated)
166
167    return expression
168
169
170def _build_generate_series(args: t.List) -> exp.GenerateSeries:
171    # The goal is to convert step values like '1 day' or INTERVAL '1 day' into INTERVAL '1' day
172    step = seq_get(args, 2)
173
174    if step is None:
175        # Postgres allows calls with just two arguments -- the "step" argument defaults to 1
176        return exp.GenerateSeries.from_arg_list(args)
177
178    if step.is_string:
179        args[2] = exp.to_interval(step.this)
180    elif isinstance(step, exp.Interval) and not step.args.get("unit"):
181        args[2] = exp.to_interval(step.this.this)
182
183    return exp.GenerateSeries.from_arg_list(args)
184
185
186def _build_to_timestamp(args: t.List) -> exp.UnixToTime | exp.StrToTime:
187    # TO_TIMESTAMP accepts either a single double argument or (text, text)
188    if len(args) == 1:
189        # https://www.postgresql.org/docs/current/functions-datetime.html#FUNCTIONS-DATETIME-TABLE
190        return exp.UnixToTime.from_arg_list(args)
191
192    # https://www.postgresql.org/docs/current/functions-formatting.html
193    return build_formatted_time(exp.StrToTime, "postgres")(args)
194
195
196def _json_extract_sql(
197    name: str, op: str
198) -> t.Callable[[Postgres.Generator, JSON_EXTRACT_TYPE], str]:
199    def _generate(self: Postgres.Generator, expression: JSON_EXTRACT_TYPE) -> str:
200        if expression.args.get("only_json_types"):
201            return json_extract_segments(name, quoted_index=False, op=op)(self, expression)
202        return json_extract_segments(name)(self, expression)
203
204    return _generate
205
206
207class Postgres(Dialect):
208    INDEX_OFFSET = 1
209    TYPED_DIVISION = True
210    CONCAT_COALESCE = True
211    NULL_ORDERING = "nulls_are_large"
212    TIME_FORMAT = "'YYYY-MM-DD HH24:MI:SS'"
213
214    TIME_MAPPING = {
215        "AM": "%p",
216        "PM": "%p",
217        "D": "%u",  # 1-based day of week
218        "DD": "%d",  # day of month
219        "DDD": "%j",  # zero padded day of year
220        "FMDD": "%-d",  # - is no leading zero for Python; same for FM in postgres
221        "FMDDD": "%-j",  # day of year
222        "FMHH12": "%-I",  # 9
223        "FMHH24": "%-H",  # 9
224        "FMMI": "%-M",  # Minute
225        "FMMM": "%-m",  # 1
226        "FMSS": "%-S",  # Second
227        "HH12": "%I",  # 09
228        "HH24": "%H",  # 09
229        "MI": "%M",  # zero padded minute
230        "MM": "%m",  # 01
231        "OF": "%z",  # utc offset
232        "SS": "%S",  # zero padded second
233        "TMDay": "%A",  # TM is locale dependent
234        "TMDy": "%a",
235        "TMMon": "%b",  # Sep
236        "TMMonth": "%B",  # September
237        "TZ": "%Z",  # uppercase timezone name
238        "US": "%f",  # zero padded microsecond
239        "WW": "%U",  # 1-based week of year
240        "YY": "%y",  # 15
241        "YYYY": "%Y",  # 2015
242    }
243
244    class Tokenizer(tokens.Tokenizer):
245        BIT_STRINGS = [("b'", "'"), ("B'", "'")]
246        HEX_STRINGS = [("x'", "'"), ("X'", "'")]
247        BYTE_STRINGS = [("e'", "'"), ("E'", "'")]
248        HEREDOC_STRINGS = ["$"]
249
250        HEREDOC_TAG_IS_IDENTIFIER = True
251        HEREDOC_STRING_ALTERNATIVE = TokenType.PARAMETER
252
253        KEYWORDS = {
254            **tokens.Tokenizer.KEYWORDS,
255            "~~": TokenType.LIKE,
256            "~~*": TokenType.ILIKE,
257            "~*": TokenType.IRLIKE,
258            "~": TokenType.RLIKE,
259            "@@": TokenType.DAT,
260            "@>": TokenType.AT_GT,
261            "<@": TokenType.LT_AT,
262            "|/": TokenType.PIPE_SLASH,
263            "||/": TokenType.DPIPE_SLASH,
264            "BEGIN": TokenType.COMMAND,
265            "BEGIN TRANSACTION": TokenType.BEGIN,
266            "BIGSERIAL": TokenType.BIGSERIAL,
267            "CHARACTER VARYING": TokenType.VARCHAR,
268            "CONSTRAINT TRIGGER": TokenType.COMMAND,
269            "DECLARE": TokenType.COMMAND,
270            "DO": TokenType.COMMAND,
271            "EXEC": TokenType.COMMAND,
272            "HSTORE": TokenType.HSTORE,
273            "JSONB": TokenType.JSONB,
274            "MONEY": TokenType.MONEY,
275            "REFRESH": TokenType.COMMAND,
276            "REINDEX": TokenType.COMMAND,
277            "RESET": TokenType.COMMAND,
278            "REVOKE": TokenType.COMMAND,
279            "SERIAL": TokenType.SERIAL,
280            "SMALLSERIAL": TokenType.SMALLSERIAL,
281            "TEMP": TokenType.TEMPORARY,
282            "CSTRING": TokenType.PSEUDO_TYPE,
283            "OID": TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER,
284            "ONLY": TokenType.ONLY,
285            "OPERATOR": TokenType.OPERATOR,
286            "REGCLASS": TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER,
287            "REGCOLLATION": TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER,
288            "REGCONFIG": TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER,
289            "REGDICTIONARY": TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER,
290            "REGNAMESPACE": TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER,
291            "REGOPER": TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER,
292            "REGOPERATOR": TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER,
293            "REGPROC": TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER,
294            "REGPROCEDURE": TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER,
295            "REGROLE": TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER,
296            "REGTYPE": TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER,
297        }
298
299        SINGLE_TOKENS = {
300            **tokens.Tokenizer.SINGLE_TOKENS,
301            "$": TokenType.HEREDOC_STRING,
302        }
303
304        VAR_SINGLE_TOKENS = {"$"}
305
306    class Parser(parser.Parser):
307        PROPERTY_PARSERS = {
308            **parser.Parser.PROPERTY_PARSERS,
309            "SET": lambda self: self.expression(exp.SetConfigProperty, this=self._parse_set()),
310        }
311        PROPERTY_PARSERS.pop("INPUT")
312
313        FUNCTIONS = {
314            **parser.Parser.FUNCTIONS,
315            "DATE_TRUNC": build_timestamp_trunc,
316            "GENERATE_SERIES": _build_generate_series,
317            "JSON_EXTRACT_PATH": build_json_extract_path(exp.JSONExtract),
318            "JSON_EXTRACT_PATH_TEXT": build_json_extract_path(exp.JSONExtractScalar),
319            "MAKE_TIME": exp.TimeFromParts.from_arg_list,
320            "MAKE_TIMESTAMP": exp.TimestampFromParts.from_arg_list,
321            "NOW": exp.CurrentTimestamp.from_arg_list,
322            "TO_CHAR": build_formatted_time(exp.TimeToStr, "postgres"),
323            "TO_TIMESTAMP": _build_to_timestamp,
324            "UNNEST": exp.Explode.from_arg_list,
325        }
326
327        FUNCTION_PARSERS = {
328            **parser.Parser.FUNCTION_PARSERS,
329            "DATE_PART": lambda self: self._parse_date_part(),
330        }
331
332        BITWISE = {
333            **parser.Parser.BITWISE,
334            TokenType.HASH: exp.BitwiseXor,
335        }
336
337        EXPONENT = {
338            TokenType.CARET: exp.Pow,
339        }
340
341        RANGE_PARSERS = {
342            **parser.Parser.RANGE_PARSERS,
343            TokenType.AT_GT: binary_range_parser(exp.ArrayContains),
344            TokenType.DAMP: binary_range_parser(exp.ArrayOverlaps),
345            TokenType.DAT: lambda self, this: self.expression(
346                exp.MatchAgainst, this=self._parse_bitwise(), expressions=[this]
347            ),
348            TokenType.LT_AT: binary_range_parser(exp.ArrayContained),
349            TokenType.OPERATOR: lambda self, this: self._parse_operator(this),
350        }
351
352        STATEMENT_PARSERS = {
353            **parser.Parser.STATEMENT_PARSERS,
354            TokenType.END: lambda self: self._parse_commit_or_rollback(),
355        }
356
357        JSON_ARROWS_REQUIRE_JSON_TYPE = True
358
359        def _parse_operator(self, this: t.Optional[exp.Expression]) -> t.Optional[exp.Expression]:
360            while True:
361                if not self._match(TokenType.L_PAREN):
362                    break
363
364                op = ""
365                while self._curr and not self._match(TokenType.R_PAREN):
366                    op += self._curr.text
367                    self._advance()
368
369                this = self.expression(
370                    exp.Operator,
371                    comments=self._prev_comments,
372                    this=this,
373                    operator=op,
374                    expression=self._parse_bitwise(),
375                )
376
377                if not self._match(TokenType.OPERATOR):
378                    break
379
380            return this
381
382        def _parse_date_part(self) -> exp.Expression:
383            part = self._parse_type()
384            self._match(TokenType.COMMA)
385            value = self._parse_bitwise()
386
387            if part and part.is_string:
388                part = exp.var(part.name)
389
390            return self.expression(exp.Extract, this=part, expression=value)
391
392    class Generator(generator.Generator):
393        SINGLE_STRING_INTERVAL = True
394        RENAME_TABLE_WITH_DB = False
395        LOCKING_READS_SUPPORTED = True
396        JOIN_HINTS = False
397        TABLE_HINTS = False
398        QUERY_HINTS = False
399        NVL2_SUPPORTED = False
400        PARAMETER_TOKEN = "$"
401        TABLESAMPLE_SIZE_IS_ROWS = False
402        TABLESAMPLE_SEED_KEYWORD = "REPEATABLE"
403        SUPPORTS_SELECT_INTO = True
404        JSON_TYPE_REQUIRED_FOR_EXTRACTION = True
405        SUPPORTS_UNLOGGED_TABLES = True
406        LIKE_PROPERTY_INSIDE_SCHEMA = True
407        MULTI_ARG_DISTINCT = False
408        CAN_IMPLEMENT_ARRAY_ANY = True
409
410        SUPPORTED_JSON_PATH_PARTS = {
411            exp.JSONPathKey,
412            exp.JSONPathRoot,
413            exp.JSONPathSubscript,
414        }
415
416        TYPE_MAPPING = {
417            **generator.Generator.TYPE_MAPPING,
418            exp.DataType.Type.TINYINT: "SMALLINT",
419            exp.DataType.Type.FLOAT: "REAL",
420            exp.DataType.Type.DOUBLE: "DOUBLE PRECISION",
421            exp.DataType.Type.BINARY: "BYTEA",
422            exp.DataType.Type.VARBINARY: "BYTEA",
423            exp.DataType.Type.DATETIME: "TIMESTAMP",
424        }
425
426        TRANSFORMS = {
427            **generator.Generator.TRANSFORMS,
428            exp.AnyValue: any_value_to_max_sql,
429            exp.Array: lambda self, e: (
430                f"{self.normalize_func('ARRAY')}({self.sql(e.expressions[0])})"
431                if isinstance(seq_get(e.expressions, 0), exp.Select)
432                else f"{self.normalize_func('ARRAY')}[{self.expressions(e, flat=True)}]"
433            ),
434            exp.ArrayConcat: rename_func("ARRAY_CAT"),
435            exp.ArrayContained: lambda self, e: self.binary(e, "<@"),
436            exp.ArrayContains: lambda self, e: self.binary(e, "@>"),
437            exp.ArrayOverlaps: lambda self, e: self.binary(e, "&&"),
438            exp.ArrayFilter: filter_array_using_unnest,
439            exp.ArraySize: lambda self, e: self.func("ARRAY_LENGTH", e.this, e.expression or "1"),
440            exp.BitwiseXor: lambda self, e: self.binary(e, "#"),
441            exp.ColumnDef: transforms.preprocess([_auto_increment_to_serial, _serial_to_generated]),
442            exp.CurrentDate: no_paren_current_date_sql,
443            exp.CurrentTimestamp: lambda *_: "CURRENT_TIMESTAMP",
444            exp.CurrentUser: lambda *_: "CURRENT_USER",
445            exp.DateAdd: _date_add_sql("+"),
446            exp.DateDiff: _date_diff_sql,
447            exp.DateStrToDate: datestrtodate_sql,
448            exp.DataType: _datatype_sql,
449            exp.DateSub: _date_add_sql("-"),
450            exp.Explode: rename_func("UNNEST"),
451            exp.GroupConcat: _string_agg_sql,
452            exp.JSONExtract: _json_extract_sql("JSON_EXTRACT_PATH", "->"),
453            exp.JSONExtractScalar: _json_extract_sql("JSON_EXTRACT_PATH_TEXT", "->>"),
454            exp.JSONBExtract: lambda self, e: self.binary(e, "#>"),
455            exp.JSONBExtractScalar: lambda self, e: self.binary(e, "#>>"),
456            exp.JSONBContains: lambda self, e: self.binary(e, "?"),
457            exp.ParseJSON: lambda self, e: self.sql(exp.cast(e.this, exp.DataType.Type.JSON)),
458            exp.JSONPathKey: json_path_key_only_name,
459            exp.JSONPathRoot: lambda *_: "",
460            exp.JSONPathSubscript: lambda self, e: self.json_path_part(e.this),
461            exp.LastDay: no_last_day_sql,
462            exp.LogicalOr: rename_func("BOOL_OR"),
463            exp.LogicalAnd: rename_func("BOOL_AND"),
464            exp.Max: max_or_greatest,
465            exp.MapFromEntries: no_map_from_entries_sql,
466            exp.Min: min_or_least,
467            exp.Merge: merge_without_target_sql,
468            exp.PartitionedByProperty: lambda self, e: f"PARTITION BY {self.sql(e, 'this')}",
469            exp.PercentileCont: transforms.preprocess(
470                [transforms.add_within_group_for_percentiles]
471            ),
472            exp.PercentileDisc: transforms.preprocess(
473                [transforms.add_within_group_for_percentiles]
474            ),
475            exp.Pivot: no_pivot_sql,
476            exp.Pow: lambda self, e: self.binary(e, "^"),
477            exp.Rand: rename_func("RANDOM"),
478            exp.RegexpLike: lambda self, e: self.binary(e, "~"),
479            exp.RegexpILike: lambda self, e: self.binary(e, "~*"),
480            exp.Select: transforms.preprocess(
481                [
482                    transforms.eliminate_semi_and_anti_joins,
483                    transforms.eliminate_qualify,
484                ]
485            ),
486            exp.StrPosition: str_position_sql,
487            exp.StrToTime: lambda self, e: self.func("TO_TIMESTAMP", e.this, self.format_time(e)),
488            exp.StructExtract: struct_extract_sql,
489            exp.Substring: _substring_sql,
490            exp.TimeFromParts: rename_func("MAKE_TIME"),
491            exp.TimestampFromParts: rename_func("MAKE_TIMESTAMP"),
492            exp.TimestampTrunc: timestamptrunc_sql,
493            exp.TimeStrToTime: timestrtotime_sql,
494            exp.TimeToStr: lambda self, e: self.func("TO_CHAR", e.this, self.format_time(e)),
495            exp.ToChar: lambda self, e: self.function_fallback_sql(e),
496            exp.Trim: trim_sql,
497            exp.TryCast: no_trycast_sql,
498            exp.TsOrDsAdd: _date_add_sql("+"),
499            exp.TsOrDsDiff: _date_diff_sql,
500            exp.UnixToTime: lambda self, e: self.func("TO_TIMESTAMP", e.this),
501            exp.VariancePop: rename_func("VAR_POP"),
502            exp.Variance: rename_func("VAR_SAMP"),
503            exp.Xor: bool_xor_sql,
504        }
505
506        PROPERTIES_LOCATION = {
507            **generator.Generator.PROPERTIES_LOCATION,
508            exp.PartitionedByProperty: exp.Properties.Location.POST_SCHEMA,
509            exp.TransientProperty: exp.Properties.Location.UNSUPPORTED,
510            exp.VolatileProperty: exp.Properties.Location.UNSUPPORTED,
511        }
512
513        def unnest_sql(self, expression: exp.Unnest) -> str:
514            if len(expression.expressions) == 1:
515                from sqlglot.optimizer.annotate_types import annotate_types
516
517                this = annotate_types(expression.expressions[0])
518                if this.is_type("array<json>"):
519                    while isinstance(this, exp.Cast):
520                        this = this.this
521
522                    arg = self.sql(exp.cast(this, exp.DataType.Type.JSON))
523                    alias = self.sql(expression, "alias")
524                    alias = f" AS {alias}" if alias else ""
525
526                    if expression.args.get("offset"):
527                        self.unsupported("Unsupported JSON_ARRAY_ELEMENTS with offset")
528
529                    return f"JSON_ARRAY_ELEMENTS({arg}){alias}"
530
531            return super().unnest_sql(expression)
532
533        def bracket_sql(self, expression: exp.Bracket) -> str:
534            """Forms like ARRAY[1, 2, 3][3] aren't allowed; we need to wrap the ARRAY."""
535            if isinstance(expression.this, exp.Array):
536                expression.set("this", exp.paren(expression.this, copy=False))
537
538            return super().bracket_sql(expression)
539
540        def matchagainst_sql(self, expression: exp.MatchAgainst) -> str:
541            this = self.sql(expression, "this")
542            expressions = [f"{self.sql(e)} @@ {this}" for e in expression.expressions]
543            sql = " OR ".join(expressions)
544            return f"({sql})" if len(expressions) > 1 else sql
DATE_DIFF_FACTOR = {'MICROSECOND': ' * 1000000', 'MILLISECOND': ' * 1000', 'SECOND': '', 'MINUTE': ' / 60', 'HOUR': ' / 3600', 'DAY': ' / 86400'}
class Postgres(sqlglot.dialects.dialect.Dialect):
208class Postgres(Dialect):
209    INDEX_OFFSET = 1
210    TYPED_DIVISION = True
211    CONCAT_COALESCE = True
212    NULL_ORDERING = "nulls_are_large"
213    TIME_FORMAT = "'YYYY-MM-DD HH24:MI:SS'"
214
215    TIME_MAPPING = {
216        "AM": "%p",
217        "PM": "%p",
218        "D": "%u",  # 1-based day of week
219        "DD": "%d",  # day of month
220        "DDD": "%j",  # zero padded day of year
221        "FMDD": "%-d",  # - is no leading zero for Python; same for FM in postgres
222        "FMDDD": "%-j",  # day of year
223        "FMHH12": "%-I",  # 9
224        "FMHH24": "%-H",  # 9
225        "FMMI": "%-M",  # Minute
226        "FMMM": "%-m",  # 1
227        "FMSS": "%-S",  # Second
228        "HH12": "%I",  # 09
229        "HH24": "%H",  # 09
230        "MI": "%M",  # zero padded minute
231        "MM": "%m",  # 01
232        "OF": "%z",  # utc offset
233        "SS": "%S",  # zero padded second
234        "TMDay": "%A",  # TM is locale dependent
235        "TMDy": "%a",
236        "TMMon": "%b",  # Sep
237        "TMMonth": "%B",  # September
238        "TZ": "%Z",  # uppercase timezone name
239        "US": "%f",  # zero padded microsecond
240        "WW": "%U",  # 1-based week of year
241        "YY": "%y",  # 15
242        "YYYY": "%Y",  # 2015
243    }
244
245    class Tokenizer(tokens.Tokenizer):
246        BIT_STRINGS = [("b'", "'"), ("B'", "'")]
247        HEX_STRINGS = [("x'", "'"), ("X'", "'")]
248        BYTE_STRINGS = [("e'", "'"), ("E'", "'")]
249        HEREDOC_STRINGS = ["$"]
250
251        HEREDOC_TAG_IS_IDENTIFIER = True
252        HEREDOC_STRING_ALTERNATIVE = TokenType.PARAMETER
253
254        KEYWORDS = {
255            **tokens.Tokenizer.KEYWORDS,
256            "~~": TokenType.LIKE,
257            "~~*": TokenType.ILIKE,
258            "~*": TokenType.IRLIKE,
259            "~": TokenType.RLIKE,
260            "@@": TokenType.DAT,
261            "@>": TokenType.AT_GT,
262            "<@": TokenType.LT_AT,
263            "|/": TokenType.PIPE_SLASH,
264            "||/": TokenType.DPIPE_SLASH,
265            "BEGIN": TokenType.COMMAND,
266            "BEGIN TRANSACTION": TokenType.BEGIN,
267            "BIGSERIAL": TokenType.BIGSERIAL,
268            "CHARACTER VARYING": TokenType.VARCHAR,
269            "CONSTRAINT TRIGGER": TokenType.COMMAND,
270            "DECLARE": TokenType.COMMAND,
271            "DO": TokenType.COMMAND,
272            "EXEC": TokenType.COMMAND,
273            "HSTORE": TokenType.HSTORE,
274            "JSONB": TokenType.JSONB,
275            "MONEY": TokenType.MONEY,
276            "REFRESH": TokenType.COMMAND,
277            "REINDEX": TokenType.COMMAND,
278            "RESET": TokenType.COMMAND,
279            "REVOKE": TokenType.COMMAND,
280            "SERIAL": TokenType.SERIAL,
281            "SMALLSERIAL": TokenType.SMALLSERIAL,
282            "TEMP": TokenType.TEMPORARY,
283            "CSTRING": TokenType.PSEUDO_TYPE,
284            "OID": TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER,
285            "ONLY": TokenType.ONLY,
286            "OPERATOR": TokenType.OPERATOR,
287            "REGCLASS": TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER,
288            "REGCOLLATION": TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER,
289            "REGCONFIG": TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER,
290            "REGDICTIONARY": TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER,
291            "REGNAMESPACE": TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER,
292            "REGOPER": TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER,
293            "REGOPERATOR": TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER,
294            "REGPROC": TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER,
295            "REGPROCEDURE": TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER,
296            "REGROLE": TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER,
297            "REGTYPE": TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER,
298        }
299
300        SINGLE_TOKENS = {
301            **tokens.Tokenizer.SINGLE_TOKENS,
302            "$": TokenType.HEREDOC_STRING,
303        }
304
305        VAR_SINGLE_TOKENS = {"$"}
306
307    class Parser(parser.Parser):
308        PROPERTY_PARSERS = {
309            **parser.Parser.PROPERTY_PARSERS,
310            "SET": lambda self: self.expression(exp.SetConfigProperty, this=self._parse_set()),
311        }
312        PROPERTY_PARSERS.pop("INPUT")
313
314        FUNCTIONS = {
315            **parser.Parser.FUNCTIONS,
316            "DATE_TRUNC": build_timestamp_trunc,
317            "GENERATE_SERIES": _build_generate_series,
318            "JSON_EXTRACT_PATH": build_json_extract_path(exp.JSONExtract),
319            "JSON_EXTRACT_PATH_TEXT": build_json_extract_path(exp.JSONExtractScalar),
320            "MAKE_TIME": exp.TimeFromParts.from_arg_list,
321            "MAKE_TIMESTAMP": exp.TimestampFromParts.from_arg_list,
322            "NOW": exp.CurrentTimestamp.from_arg_list,
323            "TO_CHAR": build_formatted_time(exp.TimeToStr, "postgres"),
324            "TO_TIMESTAMP": _build_to_timestamp,
325            "UNNEST": exp.Explode.from_arg_list,
326        }
327
328        FUNCTION_PARSERS = {
329            **parser.Parser.FUNCTION_PARSERS,
330            "DATE_PART": lambda self: self._parse_date_part(),
331        }
332
333        BITWISE = {
334            **parser.Parser.BITWISE,
335            TokenType.HASH: exp.BitwiseXor,
336        }
337
338        EXPONENT = {
339            TokenType.CARET: exp.Pow,
340        }
341
342        RANGE_PARSERS = {
343            **parser.Parser.RANGE_PARSERS,
344            TokenType.AT_GT: binary_range_parser(exp.ArrayContains),
345            TokenType.DAMP: binary_range_parser(exp.ArrayOverlaps),
346            TokenType.DAT: lambda self, this: self.expression(
347                exp.MatchAgainst, this=self._parse_bitwise(), expressions=[this]
348            ),
349            TokenType.LT_AT: binary_range_parser(exp.ArrayContained),
350            TokenType.OPERATOR: lambda self, this: self._parse_operator(this),
351        }
352
353        STATEMENT_PARSERS = {
354            **parser.Parser.STATEMENT_PARSERS,
355            TokenType.END: lambda self: self._parse_commit_or_rollback(),
356        }
357
358        JSON_ARROWS_REQUIRE_JSON_TYPE = True
359
360        def _parse_operator(self, this: t.Optional[exp.Expression]) -> t.Optional[exp.Expression]:
361            while True:
362                if not self._match(TokenType.L_PAREN):
363                    break
364
365                op = ""
366                while self._curr and not self._match(TokenType.R_PAREN):
367                    op += self._curr.text
368                    self._advance()
369
370                this = self.expression(
371                    exp.Operator,
372                    comments=self._prev_comments,
373                    this=this,
374                    operator=op,
375                    expression=self._parse_bitwise(),
376                )
377
378                if not self._match(TokenType.OPERATOR):
379                    break
380
381            return this
382
383        def _parse_date_part(self) -> exp.Expression:
384            part = self._parse_type()
385            self._match(TokenType.COMMA)
386            value = self._parse_bitwise()
387
388            if part and part.is_string:
389                part = exp.var(part.name)
390
391            return self.expression(exp.Extract, this=part, expression=value)
392
393    class Generator(generator.Generator):
394        SINGLE_STRING_INTERVAL = True
395        RENAME_TABLE_WITH_DB = False
396        LOCKING_READS_SUPPORTED = True
397        JOIN_HINTS = False
398        TABLE_HINTS = False
399        QUERY_HINTS = False
400        NVL2_SUPPORTED = False
401        PARAMETER_TOKEN = "$"
402        TABLESAMPLE_SIZE_IS_ROWS = False
403        TABLESAMPLE_SEED_KEYWORD = "REPEATABLE"
404        SUPPORTS_SELECT_INTO = True
405        JSON_TYPE_REQUIRED_FOR_EXTRACTION = True
406        SUPPORTS_UNLOGGED_TABLES = True
407        LIKE_PROPERTY_INSIDE_SCHEMA = True
408        MULTI_ARG_DISTINCT = False
409        CAN_IMPLEMENT_ARRAY_ANY = True
410
411        SUPPORTED_JSON_PATH_PARTS = {
412            exp.JSONPathKey,
413            exp.JSONPathRoot,
414            exp.JSONPathSubscript,
415        }
416
417        TYPE_MAPPING = {
418            **generator.Generator.TYPE_MAPPING,
419            exp.DataType.Type.TINYINT: "SMALLINT",
420            exp.DataType.Type.FLOAT: "REAL",
421            exp.DataType.Type.DOUBLE: "DOUBLE PRECISION",
422            exp.DataType.Type.BINARY: "BYTEA",
423            exp.DataType.Type.VARBINARY: "BYTEA",
424            exp.DataType.Type.DATETIME: "TIMESTAMP",
425        }
426
427        TRANSFORMS = {
428            **generator.Generator.TRANSFORMS,
429            exp.AnyValue: any_value_to_max_sql,
430            exp.Array: lambda self, e: (
431                f"{self.normalize_func('ARRAY')}({self.sql(e.expressions[0])})"
432                if isinstance(seq_get(e.expressions, 0), exp.Select)
433                else f"{self.normalize_func('ARRAY')}[{self.expressions(e, flat=True)}]"
434            ),
435            exp.ArrayConcat: rename_func("ARRAY_CAT"),
436            exp.ArrayContained: lambda self, e: self.binary(e, "<@"),
437            exp.ArrayContains: lambda self, e: self.binary(e, "@>"),
438            exp.ArrayOverlaps: lambda self, e: self.binary(e, "&&"),
439            exp.ArrayFilter: filter_array_using_unnest,
440            exp.ArraySize: lambda self, e: self.func("ARRAY_LENGTH", e.this, e.expression or "1"),
441            exp.BitwiseXor: lambda self, e: self.binary(e, "#"),
442            exp.ColumnDef: transforms.preprocess([_auto_increment_to_serial, _serial_to_generated]),
443            exp.CurrentDate: no_paren_current_date_sql,
444            exp.CurrentTimestamp: lambda *_: "CURRENT_TIMESTAMP",
445            exp.CurrentUser: lambda *_: "CURRENT_USER",
446            exp.DateAdd: _date_add_sql("+"),
447            exp.DateDiff: _date_diff_sql,
448            exp.DateStrToDate: datestrtodate_sql,
449            exp.DataType: _datatype_sql,
450            exp.DateSub: _date_add_sql("-"),
451            exp.Explode: rename_func("UNNEST"),
452            exp.GroupConcat: _string_agg_sql,
453            exp.JSONExtract: _json_extract_sql("JSON_EXTRACT_PATH", "->"),
454            exp.JSONExtractScalar: _json_extract_sql("JSON_EXTRACT_PATH_TEXT", "->>"),
455            exp.JSONBExtract: lambda self, e: self.binary(e, "#>"),
456            exp.JSONBExtractScalar: lambda self, e: self.binary(e, "#>>"),
457            exp.JSONBContains: lambda self, e: self.binary(e, "?"),
458            exp.ParseJSON: lambda self, e: self.sql(exp.cast(e.this, exp.DataType.Type.JSON)),
459            exp.JSONPathKey: json_path_key_only_name,
460            exp.JSONPathRoot: lambda *_: "",
461            exp.JSONPathSubscript: lambda self, e: self.json_path_part(e.this),
462            exp.LastDay: no_last_day_sql,
463            exp.LogicalOr: rename_func("BOOL_OR"),
464            exp.LogicalAnd: rename_func("BOOL_AND"),
465            exp.Max: max_or_greatest,
466            exp.MapFromEntries: no_map_from_entries_sql,
467            exp.Min: min_or_least,
468            exp.Merge: merge_without_target_sql,
469            exp.PartitionedByProperty: lambda self, e: f"PARTITION BY {self.sql(e, 'this')}",
470            exp.PercentileCont: transforms.preprocess(
471                [transforms.add_within_group_for_percentiles]
472            ),
473            exp.PercentileDisc: transforms.preprocess(
474                [transforms.add_within_group_for_percentiles]
475            ),
476            exp.Pivot: no_pivot_sql,
477            exp.Pow: lambda self, e: self.binary(e, "^"),
478            exp.Rand: rename_func("RANDOM"),
479            exp.RegexpLike: lambda self, e: self.binary(e, "~"),
480            exp.RegexpILike: lambda self, e: self.binary(e, "~*"),
481            exp.Select: transforms.preprocess(
482                [
483                    transforms.eliminate_semi_and_anti_joins,
484                    transforms.eliminate_qualify,
485                ]
486            ),
487            exp.StrPosition: str_position_sql,
488            exp.StrToTime: lambda self, e: self.func("TO_TIMESTAMP", e.this, self.format_time(e)),
489            exp.StructExtract: struct_extract_sql,
490            exp.Substring: _substring_sql,
491            exp.TimeFromParts: rename_func("MAKE_TIME"),
492            exp.TimestampFromParts: rename_func("MAKE_TIMESTAMP"),
493            exp.TimestampTrunc: timestamptrunc_sql,
494            exp.TimeStrToTime: timestrtotime_sql,
495            exp.TimeToStr: lambda self, e: self.func("TO_CHAR", e.this, self.format_time(e)),
496            exp.ToChar: lambda self, e: self.function_fallback_sql(e),
497            exp.Trim: trim_sql,
498            exp.TryCast: no_trycast_sql,
499            exp.TsOrDsAdd: _date_add_sql("+"),
500            exp.TsOrDsDiff: _date_diff_sql,
501            exp.UnixToTime: lambda self, e: self.func("TO_TIMESTAMP", e.this),
502            exp.VariancePop: rename_func("VAR_POP"),
503            exp.Variance: rename_func("VAR_SAMP"),
504            exp.Xor: bool_xor_sql,
505        }
506
507        PROPERTIES_LOCATION = {
508            **generator.Generator.PROPERTIES_LOCATION,
509            exp.PartitionedByProperty: exp.Properties.Location.POST_SCHEMA,
510            exp.TransientProperty: exp.Properties.Location.UNSUPPORTED,
511            exp.VolatileProperty: exp.Properties.Location.UNSUPPORTED,
512        }
513
514        def unnest_sql(self, expression: exp.Unnest) -> str:
515            if len(expression.expressions) == 1:
516                from sqlglot.optimizer.annotate_types import annotate_types
517
518                this = annotate_types(expression.expressions[0])
519                if this.is_type("array<json>"):
520                    while isinstance(this, exp.Cast):
521                        this = this.this
522
523                    arg = self.sql(exp.cast(this, exp.DataType.Type.JSON))
524                    alias = self.sql(expression, "alias")
525                    alias = f" AS {alias}" if alias else ""
526
527                    if expression.args.get("offset"):
528                        self.unsupported("Unsupported JSON_ARRAY_ELEMENTS with offset")
529
530                    return f"JSON_ARRAY_ELEMENTS({arg}){alias}"
531
532            return super().unnest_sql(expression)
533
534        def bracket_sql(self, expression: exp.Bracket) -> str:
535            """Forms like ARRAY[1, 2, 3][3] aren't allowed; we need to wrap the ARRAY."""
536            if isinstance(expression.this, exp.Array):
537                expression.set("this", exp.paren(expression.this, copy=False))
538
539            return super().bracket_sql(expression)
540
541        def matchagainst_sql(self, expression: exp.MatchAgainst) -> str:
542            this = self.sql(expression, "this")
543            expressions = [f"{self.sql(e)} @@ {this}" for e in expression.expressions]
544            sql = " OR ".join(expressions)
545            return f"({sql})" if len(expressions) > 1 else sql
INDEX_OFFSET = 1

The base index offset for arrays.

TYPED_DIVISION = True

Whether the behavior of a / b depends on the types of a and b. False means a / b is always float division. True means a / b is integer division if both a and b are integers.

CONCAT_COALESCE = True

A NULL arg in CONCAT yields NULL by default, but in some dialects it yields an empty string.

NULL_ORDERING = 'nulls_are_large'

Default NULL ordering method to use if not explicitly set. Possible values: "nulls_are_small", "nulls_are_large", "nulls_are_last"

TIME_FORMAT = "'YYYY-MM-DD HH24:MI:SS'"
TIME_MAPPING: Dict[str, str] = {'AM': '%p', 'PM': '%p', 'D': '%u', 'DD': '%d', 'DDD': '%j', 'FMDD': '%-d', 'FMDDD': '%-j', 'FMHH12': '%-I', 'FMHH24': '%-H', 'FMMI': '%-M', 'FMMM': '%-m', 'FMSS': '%-S', 'HH12': '%I', 'HH24': '%H', 'MI': '%M', 'MM': '%m', 'OF': '%z', 'SS': '%S', 'TMDay': '%A', 'TMDy': '%a', 'TMMon': '%b', 'TMMonth': '%B', 'TZ': '%Z', 'US': '%f', 'WW': '%U', 'YY': '%y', 'YYYY': '%Y'}

Associates this dialect's time formats with their equivalent Python strftime formats.

tokenizer_class = <class 'Postgres.Tokenizer'>
parser_class = <class 'Postgres.Parser'>
generator_class = <class 'Postgres.Generator'>
TIME_TRIE: Dict = {'A': {'M': {0: True}}, 'P': {'M': {0: True}}, 'D': {0: True, 'D': {0: True, 'D': {0: True}}}, 'F': {'M': {'D': {'D': {0: True, 'D': {0: True}}}, 'H': {'H': {'1': {'2': {0: True}}, '2': {'4': {0: True}}}}, 'M': {'I': {0: True}, 'M': {0: True}}, 'S': {'S': {0: True}}}}, 'H': {'H': {'1': {'2': {0: True}}, '2': {'4': {0: True}}}}, 'M': {'I': {0: True}, 'M': {0: True}}, 'O': {'F': {0: True}}, 'S': {'S': {0: True}}, 'T': {'M': {'D': {'a': {'y': {0: True}}, 'y': {0: True}}, 'M': {'o': {'n': {0: True, 't': {'h': {0: True}}}}}}, 'Z': {0: True}}, 'U': {'S': {0: True}}, 'W': {'W': {0: True}}, 'Y': {'Y': {0: True, 'Y': {'Y': {0: True}}}}}
FORMAT_TRIE: Dict = {'A': {'M': {0: True}}, 'P': {'M': {0: True}}, 'D': {0: True, 'D': {0: True, 'D': {0: True}}}, 'F': {'M': {'D': {'D': {0: True, 'D': {0: True}}}, 'H': {'H': {'1': {'2': {0: True}}, '2': {'4': {0: True}}}}, 'M': {'I': {0: True}, 'M': {0: True}}, 'S': {'S': {0: True}}}}, 'H': {'H': {'1': {'2': {0: True}}, '2': {'4': {0: True}}}}, 'M': {'I': {0: True}, 'M': {0: True}}, 'O': {'F': {0: True}}, 'S': {'S': {0: True}}, 'T': {'M': {'D': {'a': {'y': {0: True}}, 'y': {0: True}}, 'M': {'o': {'n': {0: True, 't': {'h': {0: True}}}}}}, 'Z': {0: True}}, 'U': {'S': {0: True}}, 'W': {'W': {0: True}}, 'Y': {'Y': {0: True, 'Y': {'Y': {0: True}}}}}
INVERSE_TIME_MAPPING: Dict[str, str] = {'%p': 'PM', '%u': 'D', '%d': 'DD', '%j': 'DDD', '%-d': 'FMDD', '%-j': 'FMDDD', '%-I': 'FMHH12', '%-H': 'FMHH24', '%-M': 'FMMI', '%-m': 'FMMM', '%-S': 'FMSS', '%I': 'HH12', '%H': 'HH24', '%M': 'MI', '%m': 'MM', '%z': 'OF', '%S': 'SS', '%A': 'TMDay', '%a': 'TMDy', '%b': 'TMMon', '%B': 'TMMonth', '%Z': 'TZ', '%f': 'US', '%U': 'WW', '%y': 'YY', '%Y': 'YYYY'}
INVERSE_TIME_TRIE: Dict = {'%': {'p': {0: True}, 'u': {0: True}, 'd': {0: True}, 'j': {0: True}, '-': {'d': {0: True}, 'j': {0: True}, 'I': {0: True}, 'H': {0: True}, 'M': {0: True}, 'm': {0: True}, 'S': {0: True}}, 'I': {0: True}, 'H': {0: True}, 'M': {0: True}, 'm': {0: True}, 'z': {0: True}, 'S': {0: True}, 'A': {0: True}, 'a': {0: True}, 'b': {0: True}, 'B': {0: True}, 'Z': {0: True}, 'f': {0: True}, 'U': {0: True}, 'y': {0: True}, 'Y': {0: True}}}
INVERSE_ESCAPE_SEQUENCES: Dict[str, str] = {}
QUOTE_START = "'"
QUOTE_END = "'"
IDENTIFIER_START = '"'
IDENTIFIER_END = '"'
BIT_START: Optional[str] = "b'"
BIT_END: Optional[str] = "'"
HEX_START: Optional[str] = "x'"
HEX_END: Optional[str] = "'"
BYTE_START: Optional[str] = "e'"
BYTE_END: Optional[str] = "'"
UNICODE_START: Optional[str] = None
UNICODE_END: Optional[str] = None
class Postgres.Tokenizer(sqlglot.tokens.Tokenizer):
245    class Tokenizer(tokens.Tokenizer):
246        BIT_STRINGS = [("b'", "'"), ("B'", "'")]
247        HEX_STRINGS = [("x'", "'"), ("X'", "'")]
248        BYTE_STRINGS = [("e'", "'"), ("E'", "'")]
249        HEREDOC_STRINGS = ["$"]
250
251        HEREDOC_TAG_IS_IDENTIFIER = True
252        HEREDOC_STRING_ALTERNATIVE = TokenType.PARAMETER
253
254        KEYWORDS = {
255            **tokens.Tokenizer.KEYWORDS,
256            "~~": TokenType.LIKE,
257            "~~*": TokenType.ILIKE,
258            "~*": TokenType.IRLIKE,
259            "~": TokenType.RLIKE,
260            "@@": TokenType.DAT,
261            "@>": TokenType.AT_GT,
262            "<@": TokenType.LT_AT,
263            "|/": TokenType.PIPE_SLASH,
264            "||/": TokenType.DPIPE_SLASH,
265            "BEGIN": TokenType.COMMAND,
266            "BEGIN TRANSACTION": TokenType.BEGIN,
267            "BIGSERIAL": TokenType.BIGSERIAL,
268            "CHARACTER VARYING": TokenType.VARCHAR,
269            "CONSTRAINT TRIGGER": TokenType.COMMAND,
270            "DECLARE": TokenType.COMMAND,
271            "DO": TokenType.COMMAND,
272            "EXEC": TokenType.COMMAND,
273            "HSTORE": TokenType.HSTORE,
274            "JSONB": TokenType.JSONB,
275            "MONEY": TokenType.MONEY,
276            "REFRESH": TokenType.COMMAND,
277            "REINDEX": TokenType.COMMAND,
278            "RESET": TokenType.COMMAND,
279            "REVOKE": TokenType.COMMAND,
280            "SERIAL": TokenType.SERIAL,
281            "SMALLSERIAL": TokenType.SMALLSERIAL,
282            "TEMP": TokenType.TEMPORARY,
283            "CSTRING": TokenType.PSEUDO_TYPE,
284            "OID": TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER,
285            "ONLY": TokenType.ONLY,
286            "OPERATOR": TokenType.OPERATOR,
287            "REGCLASS": TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER,
288            "REGCOLLATION": TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER,
289            "REGCONFIG": TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER,
290            "REGDICTIONARY": TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER,
291            "REGNAMESPACE": TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER,
292            "REGOPER": TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER,
293            "REGOPERATOR": TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER,
294            "REGPROC": TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER,
295            "REGPROCEDURE": TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER,
296            "REGROLE": TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER,
297            "REGTYPE": TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER,
298        }
299
300        SINGLE_TOKENS = {
301            **tokens.Tokenizer.SINGLE_TOKENS,
302            "$": TokenType.HEREDOC_STRING,
303        }
304
305        VAR_SINGLE_TOKENS = {"$"}
BIT_STRINGS = [("b'", "'"), ("B'", "'")]
HEX_STRINGS = [("x'", "'"), ("X'", "'")]
BYTE_STRINGS = [("e'", "'"), ("E'", "'")]
HEREDOC_STRINGS = ['$']
HEREDOC_TAG_IS_IDENTIFIER = True
HEREDOC_STRING_ALTERNATIVE = <TokenType.PARAMETER: 'PARAMETER'>
KEYWORDS = {'{%': <TokenType.BLOCK_START: 'BLOCK_START'>, '{%+': <TokenType.BLOCK_START: 'BLOCK_START'>, '{%-': <TokenType.BLOCK_START: 'BLOCK_START'>, '%}': <TokenType.BLOCK_END: 'BLOCK_END'>, '+%}': <TokenType.BLOCK_END: 'BLOCK_END'>, '-%}': <TokenType.BLOCK_END: 'BLOCK_END'>, '{{+': <TokenType.BLOCK_START: 'BLOCK_START'>, '{{-': <TokenType.BLOCK_START: 'BLOCK_START'>, '+}}': <TokenType.BLOCK_END: 'BLOCK_END'>, '-}}': <TokenType.BLOCK_END: 'BLOCK_END'>, '/*+': <TokenType.HINT: 'HINT'>, '==': <TokenType.EQ: 'EQ'>, '::': <TokenType.DCOLON: 'DCOLON'>, '||': <TokenType.DPIPE: 'DPIPE'>, '>=': <TokenType.GTE: 'GTE'>, '<=': <TokenType.LTE: 'LTE'>, '<>': <TokenType.NEQ: 'NEQ'>, '!=': <TokenType.NEQ: 'NEQ'>, ':=': <TokenType.COLON_EQ: 'COLON_EQ'>, '<=>': <TokenType.NULLSAFE_EQ: 'NULLSAFE_EQ'>, '->': <TokenType.ARROW: 'ARROW'>, '->>': <TokenType.DARROW: 'DARROW'>, '=>': <TokenType.FARROW: 'FARROW'>, '#>': <TokenType.HASH_ARROW: 'HASH_ARROW'>, '#>>': <TokenType.DHASH_ARROW: 'DHASH_ARROW'>, '<->': <TokenType.LR_ARROW: 'LR_ARROW'>, '&&': <TokenType.DAMP: 'DAMP'>, '??': <TokenType.DQMARK: 'DQMARK'>, 'ALL': <TokenType.ALL: 'ALL'>, 'ALWAYS': <TokenType.ALWAYS: 'ALWAYS'>, 'AND': <TokenType.AND: 'AND'>, 'ANTI': <TokenType.ANTI: 'ANTI'>, 'ANY': <TokenType.ANY: 'ANY'>, 'ASC': <TokenType.ASC: 'ASC'>, 'AS': <TokenType.ALIAS: 'ALIAS'>, 'ASOF': <TokenType.ASOF: 'ASOF'>, 'AUTOINCREMENT': <TokenType.AUTO_INCREMENT: 'AUTO_INCREMENT'>, 'AUTO_INCREMENT': <TokenType.AUTO_INCREMENT: 'AUTO_INCREMENT'>, 'BEGIN': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'BETWEEN': <TokenType.BETWEEN: 'BETWEEN'>, 'CACHE': <TokenType.CACHE: 'CACHE'>, 'UNCACHE': <TokenType.UNCACHE: 'UNCACHE'>, 'CASE': <TokenType.CASE: 'CASE'>, 'CHARACTER SET': <TokenType.CHARACTER_SET: 'CHARACTER_SET'>, 'CLUSTER BY': <TokenType.CLUSTER_BY: 'CLUSTER_BY'>, 'COLLATE': <TokenType.COLLATE: 'COLLATE'>, 'COLUMN': <TokenType.COLUMN: 'COLUMN'>, 'COMMIT': <TokenType.COMMIT: 'COMMIT'>, 'CONNECT BY': <TokenType.CONNECT_BY: 'CONNECT_BY'>, 'CONSTRAINT': <TokenType.CONSTRAINT: 'CONSTRAINT'>, 'CREATE': <TokenType.CREATE: 'CREATE'>, 'CROSS': <TokenType.CROSS: 'CROSS'>, 'CUBE': <TokenType.CUBE: 'CUBE'>, 'CURRENT_DATE': <TokenType.CURRENT_DATE: 'CURRENT_DATE'>, 'CURRENT_TIME': <TokenType.CURRENT_TIME: 'CURRENT_TIME'>, 'CURRENT_TIMESTAMP': <TokenType.CURRENT_TIMESTAMP: 'CURRENT_TIMESTAMP'>, 'CURRENT_USER': <TokenType.CURRENT_USER: 'CURRENT_USER'>, 'DATABASE': <TokenType.DATABASE: 'DATABASE'>, 'DEFAULT': <TokenType.DEFAULT: 'DEFAULT'>, 'DELETE': <TokenType.DELETE: 'DELETE'>, 'DESC': <TokenType.DESC: 'DESC'>, 'DESCRIBE': <TokenType.DESCRIBE: 'DESCRIBE'>, 'DISTINCT': <TokenType.DISTINCT: 'DISTINCT'>, 'DISTRIBUTE BY': <TokenType.DISTRIBUTE_BY: 'DISTRIBUTE_BY'>, 'DIV': <TokenType.DIV: 'DIV'>, 'DROP': <TokenType.DROP: 'DROP'>, 'ELSE': <TokenType.ELSE: 'ELSE'>, 'END': <TokenType.END: 'END'>, 'ENUM': <TokenType.ENUM: 'ENUM'>, 'ESCAPE': <TokenType.ESCAPE: 'ESCAPE'>, 'EXCEPT': <TokenType.EXCEPT: 'EXCEPT'>, 'EXECUTE': <TokenType.EXECUTE: 'EXECUTE'>, 'EXISTS': <TokenType.EXISTS: 'EXISTS'>, 'FALSE': <TokenType.FALSE: 'FALSE'>, 'FETCH': <TokenType.FETCH: 'FETCH'>, 'FILTER': <TokenType.FILTER: 'FILTER'>, 'FIRST': <TokenType.FIRST: 'FIRST'>, 'FULL': <TokenType.FULL: 'FULL'>, 'FUNCTION': <TokenType.FUNCTION: 'FUNCTION'>, 'FOR': <TokenType.FOR: 'FOR'>, 'FOREIGN KEY': <TokenType.FOREIGN_KEY: 'FOREIGN_KEY'>, 'FORMAT': <TokenType.FORMAT: 'FORMAT'>, 'FROM': <TokenType.FROM: 'FROM'>, 'GEOGRAPHY': <TokenType.GEOGRAPHY: 'GEOGRAPHY'>, 'GEOMETRY': <TokenType.GEOMETRY: 'GEOMETRY'>, 'GLOB': <TokenType.GLOB: 'GLOB'>, 'GROUP BY': <TokenType.GROUP_BY: 'GROUP_BY'>, 'GROUPING SETS': <TokenType.GROUPING_SETS: 'GROUPING_SETS'>, 'HAVING': <TokenType.HAVING: 'HAVING'>, 'ILIKE': <TokenType.ILIKE: 'ILIKE'>, 'IN': <TokenType.IN: 'IN'>, 'INDEX': <TokenType.INDEX: 'INDEX'>, 'INET': <TokenType.INET: 'INET'>, 'INNER': <TokenType.INNER: 'INNER'>, 'INSERT': <TokenType.INSERT: 'INSERT'>, 'INTERVAL': <TokenType.INTERVAL: 'INTERVAL'>, 'INTERSECT': <TokenType.INTERSECT: 'INTERSECT'>, 'INTO': <TokenType.INTO: 'INTO'>, 'IS': <TokenType.IS: 'IS'>, 'ISNULL': <TokenType.ISNULL: 'ISNULL'>, 'JOIN': <TokenType.JOIN: 'JOIN'>, 'KEEP': <TokenType.KEEP: 'KEEP'>, 'KILL': <TokenType.KILL: 'KILL'>, 'LATERAL': <TokenType.LATERAL: 'LATERAL'>, 'LEFT': <TokenType.LEFT: 'LEFT'>, 'LIKE': <TokenType.LIKE: 'LIKE'>, 'LIMIT': <TokenType.LIMIT: 'LIMIT'>, 'LOAD': <TokenType.LOAD: 'LOAD'>, 'LOCK': <TokenType.LOCK: 'LOCK'>, 'MERGE': <TokenType.MERGE: 'MERGE'>, 'NATURAL': <TokenType.NATURAL: 'NATURAL'>, 'NEXT': <TokenType.NEXT: 'NEXT'>, 'NOT': <TokenType.NOT: 'NOT'>, 'NOTNULL': <TokenType.NOTNULL: 'NOTNULL'>, 'NULL': <TokenType.NULL: 'NULL'>, 'OBJECT': <TokenType.OBJECT: 'OBJECT'>, 'OFFSET': <TokenType.OFFSET: 'OFFSET'>, 'ON': <TokenType.ON: 'ON'>, 'OR': <TokenType.OR: 'OR'>, 'XOR': <TokenType.XOR: 'XOR'>, 'ORDER BY': <TokenType.ORDER_BY: 'ORDER_BY'>, 'ORDINALITY': <TokenType.ORDINALITY: 'ORDINALITY'>, 'OUTER': <TokenType.OUTER: 'OUTER'>, 'OVER': <TokenType.OVER: 'OVER'>, 'OVERLAPS': <TokenType.OVERLAPS: 'OVERLAPS'>, 'OVERWRITE': <TokenType.OVERWRITE: 'OVERWRITE'>, 'PARTITION': <TokenType.PARTITION: 'PARTITION'>, 'PARTITION BY': <TokenType.PARTITION_BY: 'PARTITION_BY'>, 'PARTITIONED BY': <TokenType.PARTITION_BY: 'PARTITION_BY'>, 'PARTITIONED_BY': <TokenType.PARTITION_BY: 'PARTITION_BY'>, 'PERCENT': <TokenType.PERCENT: 'PERCENT'>, 'PIVOT': <TokenType.PIVOT: 'PIVOT'>, 'PRAGMA': <TokenType.PRAGMA: 'PRAGMA'>, 'PRIMARY KEY': <TokenType.PRIMARY_KEY: 'PRIMARY_KEY'>, 'PROCEDURE': <TokenType.PROCEDURE: 'PROCEDURE'>, 'QUALIFY': <TokenType.QUALIFY: 'QUALIFY'>, 'RANGE': <TokenType.RANGE: 'RANGE'>, 'RECURSIVE': <TokenType.RECURSIVE: 'RECURSIVE'>, 'REGEXP': <TokenType.RLIKE: 'RLIKE'>, 'REPLACE': <TokenType.REPLACE: 'REPLACE'>, 'RETURNING': <TokenType.RETURNING: 'RETURNING'>, 'REFERENCES': <TokenType.REFERENCES: 'REFERENCES'>, 'RIGHT': <TokenType.RIGHT: 'RIGHT'>, 'RLIKE': <TokenType.RLIKE: 'RLIKE'>, 'ROLLBACK': <TokenType.ROLLBACK: 'ROLLBACK'>, 'ROLLUP': <TokenType.ROLLUP: 'ROLLUP'>, 'ROW': <TokenType.ROW: 'ROW'>, 'ROWS': <TokenType.ROWS: 'ROWS'>, 'SCHEMA': <TokenType.SCHEMA: 'SCHEMA'>, 'SELECT': <TokenType.SELECT: 'SELECT'>, 'SEMI': <TokenType.SEMI: 'SEMI'>, 'SET': <TokenType.SET: 'SET'>, 'SETTINGS': <TokenType.SETTINGS: 'SETTINGS'>, 'SHOW': <TokenType.SHOW: 'SHOW'>, 'SIMILAR TO': <TokenType.SIMILAR_TO: 'SIMILAR_TO'>, 'SOME': <TokenType.SOME: 'SOME'>, 'SORT BY': <TokenType.SORT_BY: 'SORT_BY'>, 'START WITH': <TokenType.START_WITH: 'START_WITH'>, 'TABLE': <TokenType.TABLE: 'TABLE'>, 'TABLESAMPLE': <TokenType.TABLE_SAMPLE: 'TABLE_SAMPLE'>, 'TEMP': <TokenType.TEMPORARY: 'TEMPORARY'>, 'TEMPORARY': <TokenType.TEMPORARY: 'TEMPORARY'>, 'THEN': <TokenType.THEN: 'THEN'>, 'TRUE': <TokenType.TRUE: 'TRUE'>, 'TRUNCATE': <TokenType.TRUNCATE: 'TRUNCATE'>, 'UNION': <TokenType.UNION: 'UNION'>, 'UNKNOWN': <TokenType.UNKNOWN: 'UNKNOWN'>, 'UNNEST': <TokenType.UNNEST: 'UNNEST'>, 'UNPIVOT': <TokenType.UNPIVOT: 'UNPIVOT'>, 'UPDATE': <TokenType.UPDATE: 'UPDATE'>, 'USE': <TokenType.USE: 'USE'>, 'USING': <TokenType.USING: 'USING'>, 'UUID': <TokenType.UUID: 'UUID'>, 'VALUES': <TokenType.VALUES: 'VALUES'>, 'VIEW': <TokenType.VIEW: 'VIEW'>, 'VOLATILE': <TokenType.VOLATILE: 'VOLATILE'>, 'WHEN': <TokenType.WHEN: 'WHEN'>, 'WHERE': <TokenType.WHERE: 'WHERE'>, 'WINDOW': <TokenType.WINDOW: 'WINDOW'>, 'WITH': <TokenType.WITH: 'WITH'>, 'APPLY': <TokenType.APPLY: 'APPLY'>, 'ARRAY': <TokenType.ARRAY: 'ARRAY'>, 'BIT': <TokenType.BIT: 'BIT'>, 'BOOL': <TokenType.BOOLEAN: 'BOOLEAN'>, 'BOOLEAN': <TokenType.BOOLEAN: 'BOOLEAN'>, 'BYTE': <TokenType.TINYINT: 'TINYINT'>, 'MEDIUMINT': <TokenType.MEDIUMINT: 'MEDIUMINT'>, 'INT1': <TokenType.TINYINT: 'TINYINT'>, 'TINYINT': <TokenType.TINYINT: 'TINYINT'>, 'INT16': <TokenType.SMALLINT: 'SMALLINT'>, 'SHORT': <TokenType.SMALLINT: 'SMALLINT'>, 'SMALLINT': <TokenType.SMALLINT: 'SMALLINT'>, 'INT128': <TokenType.INT128: 'INT128'>, 'HUGEINT': <TokenType.INT128: 'INT128'>, 'INT2': <TokenType.SMALLINT: 'SMALLINT'>, 'INTEGER': <TokenType.INT: 'INT'>, 'INT': <TokenType.INT: 'INT'>, 'INT4': <TokenType.INT: 'INT'>, 'INT32': <TokenType.INT: 'INT'>, 'INT64': <TokenType.BIGINT: 'BIGINT'>, 'LONG': <TokenType.BIGINT: 'BIGINT'>, 'BIGINT': <TokenType.BIGINT: 'BIGINT'>, 'INT8': <TokenType.TINYINT: 'TINYINT'>, 'DEC': <TokenType.DECIMAL: 'DECIMAL'>, 'DECIMAL': <TokenType.DECIMAL: 'DECIMAL'>, 'BIGDECIMAL': <TokenType.BIGDECIMAL: 'BIGDECIMAL'>, 'BIGNUMERIC': <TokenType.BIGDECIMAL: 'BIGDECIMAL'>, 'MAP': <TokenType.MAP: 'MAP'>, 'NULLABLE': <TokenType.NULLABLE: 'NULLABLE'>, 'NUMBER': <TokenType.DECIMAL: 'DECIMAL'>, 'NUMERIC': <TokenType.DECIMAL: 'DECIMAL'>, 'FIXED': <TokenType.DECIMAL: 'DECIMAL'>, 'REAL': <TokenType.FLOAT: 'FLOAT'>, 'FLOAT': <TokenType.FLOAT: 'FLOAT'>, 'FLOAT4': <TokenType.FLOAT: 'FLOAT'>, 'FLOAT8': <TokenType.DOUBLE: 'DOUBLE'>, 'DOUBLE': <TokenType.DOUBLE: 'DOUBLE'>, 'DOUBLE PRECISION': <TokenType.DOUBLE: 'DOUBLE'>, 'JSON': <TokenType.JSON: 'JSON'>, 'CHAR': <TokenType.CHAR: 'CHAR'>, 'CHARACTER': <TokenType.CHAR: 'CHAR'>, 'NCHAR': <TokenType.NCHAR: 'NCHAR'>, 'VARCHAR': <TokenType.VARCHAR: 'VARCHAR'>, 'VARCHAR2': <TokenType.VARCHAR: 'VARCHAR'>, 'NVARCHAR': <TokenType.NVARCHAR: 'NVARCHAR'>, 'NVARCHAR2': <TokenType.NVARCHAR: 'NVARCHAR'>, 'BPCHAR': <TokenType.BPCHAR: 'BPCHAR'>, 'STR': <TokenType.TEXT: 'TEXT'>, 'STRING': <TokenType.TEXT: 'TEXT'>, 'TEXT': <TokenType.TEXT: 'TEXT'>, 'LONGTEXT': <TokenType.LONGTEXT: 'LONGTEXT'>, 'MEDIUMTEXT': <TokenType.MEDIUMTEXT: 'MEDIUMTEXT'>, 'TINYTEXT': <TokenType.TINYTEXT: 'TINYTEXT'>, 'CLOB': <TokenType.TEXT: 'TEXT'>, 'LONGVARCHAR': <TokenType.TEXT: 'TEXT'>, 'BINARY': <TokenType.BINARY: 'BINARY'>, 'BLOB': <TokenType.VARBINARY: 'VARBINARY'>, 'LONGBLOB': <TokenType.LONGBLOB: 'LONGBLOB'>, 'MEDIUMBLOB': <TokenType.MEDIUMBLOB: 'MEDIUMBLOB'>, 'TINYBLOB': <TokenType.TINYBLOB: 'TINYBLOB'>, 'BYTEA': <TokenType.VARBINARY: 'VARBINARY'>, 'VARBINARY': <TokenType.VARBINARY: 'VARBINARY'>, 'TIME': <TokenType.TIME: 'TIME'>, 'TIMETZ': <TokenType.TIMETZ: 'TIMETZ'>, 'TIMESTAMP': <TokenType.TIMESTAMP: 'TIMESTAMP'>, 'TIMESTAMPTZ': <TokenType.TIMESTAMPTZ: 'TIMESTAMPTZ'>, 'TIMESTAMPLTZ': <TokenType.TIMESTAMPLTZ: 'TIMESTAMPLTZ'>, 'DATE': <TokenType.DATE: 'DATE'>, 'DATETIME': <TokenType.DATETIME: 'DATETIME'>, 'INT4RANGE': <TokenType.INT4RANGE: 'INT4RANGE'>, 'INT4MULTIRANGE': <TokenType.INT4MULTIRANGE: 'INT4MULTIRANGE'>, 'INT8RANGE': <TokenType.INT8RANGE: 'INT8RANGE'>, 'INT8MULTIRANGE': <TokenType.INT8MULTIRANGE: 'INT8MULTIRANGE'>, 'NUMRANGE': <TokenType.NUMRANGE: 'NUMRANGE'>, 'NUMMULTIRANGE': <TokenType.NUMMULTIRANGE: 'NUMMULTIRANGE'>, 'TSRANGE': <TokenType.TSRANGE: 'TSRANGE'>, 'TSMULTIRANGE': <TokenType.TSMULTIRANGE: 'TSMULTIRANGE'>, 'TSTZRANGE': <TokenType.TSTZRANGE: 'TSTZRANGE'>, 'TSTZMULTIRANGE': <TokenType.TSTZMULTIRANGE: 'TSTZMULTIRANGE'>, 'DATERANGE': <TokenType.DATERANGE: 'DATERANGE'>, 'DATEMULTIRANGE': <TokenType.DATEMULTIRANGE: 'DATEMULTIRANGE'>, 'UNIQUE': <TokenType.UNIQUE: 'UNIQUE'>, 'STRUCT': <TokenType.STRUCT: 'STRUCT'>, 'VARIANT': <TokenType.VARIANT: 'VARIANT'>, 'ALTER': <TokenType.ALTER: 'ALTER'>, 'ANALYZE': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'CALL': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'COMMENT': <TokenType.COMMENT: 'COMMENT'>, 'COPY': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'EXPLAIN': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'GRANT': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'OPTIMIZE': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'PREPARE': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'VACUUM': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'USER-DEFINED': <TokenType.USERDEFINED: 'USERDEFINED'>, 'FOR VERSION': <TokenType.VERSION_SNAPSHOT: 'VERSION_SNAPSHOT'>, 'FOR TIMESTAMP': <TokenType.TIMESTAMP_SNAPSHOT: 'TIMESTAMP_SNAPSHOT'>, '~~': <TokenType.LIKE: 'LIKE'>, '~~*': <TokenType.ILIKE: 'ILIKE'>, '~*': <TokenType.IRLIKE: 'IRLIKE'>, '~': <TokenType.RLIKE: 'RLIKE'>, '@@': <TokenType.DAT: 'DAT'>, '@>': <TokenType.AT_GT: 'AT_GT'>, '<@': <TokenType.LT_AT: 'LT_AT'>, '|/': <TokenType.PIPE_SLASH: 'PIPE_SLASH'>, '||/': <TokenType.DPIPE_SLASH: 'DPIPE_SLASH'>, 'BEGIN TRANSACTION': <TokenType.BEGIN: 'BEGIN'>, 'BIGSERIAL': <TokenType.BIGSERIAL: 'BIGSERIAL'>, 'CHARACTER VARYING': <TokenType.VARCHAR: 'VARCHAR'>, 'CONSTRAINT TRIGGER': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'DECLARE': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'DO': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'EXEC': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'HSTORE': <TokenType.HSTORE: 'HSTORE'>, 'JSONB': <TokenType.JSONB: 'JSONB'>, 'MONEY': <TokenType.MONEY: 'MONEY'>, 'REFRESH': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'REINDEX': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'RESET': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'REVOKE': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'SERIAL': <TokenType.SERIAL: 'SERIAL'>, 'SMALLSERIAL': <TokenType.SMALLSERIAL: 'SMALLSERIAL'>, 'CSTRING': <TokenType.PSEUDO_TYPE: 'PSEUDO_TYPE'>, 'OID': <TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER: 'OBJECT_IDENTIFIER'>, 'ONLY': <TokenType.ONLY: 'ONLY'>, 'OPERATOR': <TokenType.OPERATOR: 'OPERATOR'>, 'REGCLASS': <TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER: 'OBJECT_IDENTIFIER'>, 'REGCOLLATION': <TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER: 'OBJECT_IDENTIFIER'>, 'REGCONFIG': <TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER: 'OBJECT_IDENTIFIER'>, 'REGDICTIONARY': <TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER: 'OBJECT_IDENTIFIER'>, 'REGNAMESPACE': <TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER: 'OBJECT_IDENTIFIER'>, 'REGOPER': <TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER: 'OBJECT_IDENTIFIER'>, 'REGOPERATOR': <TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER: 'OBJECT_IDENTIFIER'>, 'REGPROC': <TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER: 'OBJECT_IDENTIFIER'>, 'REGPROCEDURE': <TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER: 'OBJECT_IDENTIFIER'>, 'REGROLE': <TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER: 'OBJECT_IDENTIFIER'>, 'REGTYPE': <TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER: 'OBJECT_IDENTIFIER'>}
SINGLE_TOKENS = {'(': <TokenType.L_PAREN: 'L_PAREN'>, ')': <TokenType.R_PAREN: 'R_PAREN'>, '[': <TokenType.L_BRACKET: 'L_BRACKET'>, ']': <TokenType.R_BRACKET: 'R_BRACKET'>, '{': <TokenType.L_BRACE: 'L_BRACE'>, '}': <TokenType.R_BRACE: 'R_BRACE'>, '&': <TokenType.AMP: 'AMP'>, '^': <TokenType.CARET: 'CARET'>, ':': <TokenType.COLON: 'COLON'>, ',': <TokenType.COMMA: 'COMMA'>, '.': <TokenType.DOT: 'DOT'>, '-': <TokenType.DASH: 'DASH'>, '=': <TokenType.EQ: 'EQ'>, '>': <TokenType.GT: 'GT'>, '<': <TokenType.LT: 'LT'>, '%': <TokenType.MOD: 'MOD'>, '!': <TokenType.NOT: 'NOT'>, '|': <TokenType.PIPE: 'PIPE'>, '+': <TokenType.PLUS: 'PLUS'>, ';': <TokenType.SEMICOLON: 'SEMICOLON'>, '/': <TokenType.SLASH: 'SLASH'>, '\\': <TokenType.BACKSLASH: 'BACKSLASH'>, '*': <TokenType.STAR: 'STAR'>, '~': <TokenType.TILDA: 'TILDA'>, '?': <TokenType.PLACEHOLDER: 'PLACEHOLDER'>, '@': <TokenType.PARAMETER: 'PARAMETER'>, "'": <TokenType.QUOTE: 'QUOTE'>, '`': <TokenType.IDENTIFIER: 'IDENTIFIER'>, '"': <TokenType.IDENTIFIER: 'IDENTIFIER'>, '#': <TokenType.HASH: 'HASH'>, '$': <TokenType.HEREDOC_STRING: 'HEREDOC_STRING'>}
VAR_SINGLE_TOKENS = {'$'}
class Postgres.Parser(sqlglot.parser.Parser):
307    class Parser(parser.Parser):
308        PROPERTY_PARSERS = {
309            **parser.Parser.PROPERTY_PARSERS,
310            "SET": lambda self: self.expression(exp.SetConfigProperty, this=self._parse_set()),
311        }
312        PROPERTY_PARSERS.pop("INPUT")
313
314        FUNCTIONS = {
315            **parser.Parser.FUNCTIONS,
316            "DATE_TRUNC": build_timestamp_trunc,
317            "GENERATE_SERIES": _build_generate_series,
318            "JSON_EXTRACT_PATH": build_json_extract_path(exp.JSONExtract),
319            "JSON_EXTRACT_PATH_TEXT": build_json_extract_path(exp.JSONExtractScalar),
320            "MAKE_TIME": exp.TimeFromParts.from_arg_list,
321            "MAKE_TIMESTAMP": exp.TimestampFromParts.from_arg_list,
322            "NOW": exp.CurrentTimestamp.from_arg_list,
323            "TO_CHAR": build_formatted_time(exp.TimeToStr, "postgres"),
324            "TO_TIMESTAMP": _build_to_timestamp,
325            "UNNEST": exp.Explode.from_arg_list,
326        }
327
328        FUNCTION_PARSERS = {
329            **parser.Parser.FUNCTION_PARSERS,
330            "DATE_PART": lambda self: self._parse_date_part(),
331        }
332
333        BITWISE = {
334            **parser.Parser.BITWISE,
335            TokenType.HASH: exp.BitwiseXor,
336        }
337
338        EXPONENT = {
339            TokenType.CARET: exp.Pow,
340        }
341
342        RANGE_PARSERS = {
343            **parser.Parser.RANGE_PARSERS,
344            TokenType.AT_GT: binary_range_parser(exp.ArrayContains),
345            TokenType.DAMP: binary_range_parser(exp.ArrayOverlaps),
346            TokenType.DAT: lambda self, this: self.expression(
347                exp.MatchAgainst, this=self._parse_bitwise(), expressions=[this]
348            ),
349            TokenType.LT_AT: binary_range_parser(exp.ArrayContained),
350            TokenType.OPERATOR: lambda self, this: self._parse_operator(this),
351        }
352
353        STATEMENT_PARSERS = {
354            **parser.Parser.STATEMENT_PARSERS,
355            TokenType.END: lambda self: self._parse_commit_or_rollback(),
356        }
357
358        JSON_ARROWS_REQUIRE_JSON_TYPE = True
359
360        def _parse_operator(self, this: t.Optional[exp.Expression]) -> t.Optional[exp.Expression]:
361            while True:
362                if not self._match(TokenType.L_PAREN):
363                    break
364
365                op = ""
366                while self._curr and not self._match(TokenType.R_PAREN):
367                    op += self._curr.text
368                    self._advance()
369
370                this = self.expression(
371                    exp.Operator,
372                    comments=self._prev_comments,
373                    this=this,
374                    operator=op,
375                    expression=self._parse_bitwise(),
376                )
377
378                if not self._match(TokenType.OPERATOR):
379                    break
380
381            return this
382
383        def _parse_date_part(self) -> exp.Expression:
384            part = self._parse_type()
385            self._match(TokenType.COMMA)
386            value = self._parse_bitwise()
387
388            if part and part.is_string:
389                part = exp.var(part.name)
390
391            return self.expression(exp.Extract, this=part, expression=value)

Parser consumes a list of tokens produced by the Tokenizer and produces a parsed syntax tree.

Arguments:
  • error_level: The desired error level. Default: ErrorLevel.IMMEDIATE
  • error_message_context: The amount of context to capture from a query string when displaying the error message (in number of characters). Default: 100
  • max_errors: Maximum number of error messages to include in a raised ParseError. This is only relevant if error_level is ErrorLevel.RAISE. Default: 3
PROPERTY_PARSERS = {'ALGORITHM': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'AUTO': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'AUTO_INCREMENT': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'BLOCKCOMPRESSION': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'CHARSET': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'CHARACTER SET': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'CHECKSUM': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'CLUSTER BY': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'CLUSTERED': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'COLLATE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'COMMENT': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'CONTAINS': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'COPY': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'DATABLOCKSIZE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'DEFINER': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'DETERMINISTIC': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'DISTKEY': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'DISTSTYLE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'ENGINE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'EXECUTE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'EXTERNAL': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'FALLBACK': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'FORMAT': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'FREESPACE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'HEAP': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'IMMUTABLE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'INHERITS': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'JOURNAL': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'LANGUAGE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'LAYOUT': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'LIFETIME': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'LIKE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'LOCATION': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'LOCK': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'LOCKING': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'LOG': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'MATERIALIZED': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'MERGEBLOCKRATIO': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'MODIFIES': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'MULTISET': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'NO': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'ON': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'ORDER BY': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'OUTPUT': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'PARTITION': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'PARTITION BY': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'PARTITIONED BY': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'PARTITIONED_BY': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'PRIMARY KEY': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'RANGE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'READS': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'REMOTE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'RETURNS': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'ROW': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'ROW_FORMAT': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'SAMPLE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'SET': <function Postgres.Parser.<lambda>>, 'SETTINGS': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'SORTKEY': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'SOURCE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'STABLE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'STORED': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'SYSTEM_VERSIONING': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'TBLPROPERTIES': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'TEMP': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'TEMPORARY': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'TO': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'TRANSIENT': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'TRANSFORM': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'TTL': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'USING': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'VOLATILE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'WITH': <function Parser.<lambda>>}
FUNCTIONS = {'ABS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Abs'>>, 'ADD_MONTHS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.AddMonths'>>, 'ANONYMOUS_AGG_FUNC': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.AnonymousAggFunc'>>, 'ANY_VALUE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.AnyValue'>>, 'APPROX_DISTINCT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ApproxDistinct'>>, 'APPROX_COUNT_DISTINCT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ApproxDistinct'>>, 'APPROX_QUANTILE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ApproxQuantile'>>, 'APPROX_TOP_K': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ApproxTopK'>>, 'ARG_MAX': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArgMax'>>, 'ARGMAX': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArgMax'>>, 'MAX_BY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArgMax'>>, 'ARG_MIN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArgMin'>>, 'ARGMIN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArgMin'>>, 'MIN_BY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArgMin'>>, 'ARRAY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Array'>>, 'ARRAY_AGG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayAgg'>>, 'ARRAY_ALL': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayAll'>>, 'ARRAY_ANY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayAny'>>, 'ARRAY_CONCAT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayConcat'>>, 'ARRAY_CAT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayConcat'>>, 'ARRAY_CONTAINS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayContains'>>, 'FILTER': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayFilter'>>, 'ARRAY_FILTER': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayFilter'>>, 'ARRAY_JOIN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayJoin'>>, 'ARRAY_OVERLAPS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayOverlaps'>>, 'ARRAY_SIZE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArraySize'>>, 'ARRAY_LENGTH': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArraySize'>>, 'ARRAY_SORT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArraySort'>>, 'ARRAY_SUM': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArraySum'>>, 'ARRAY_UNION_AGG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayUnionAgg'>>, 'ARRAY_UNIQUE_AGG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayUniqueAgg'>>, 'AVG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Avg'>>, 'CASE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Case'>>, 'CAST': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Cast'>>, 'CAST_TO_STR_TYPE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CastToStrType'>>, 'CBRT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Cbrt'>>, 'CEIL': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Ceil'>>, 'CEILING': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Ceil'>>, 'CHR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Chr'>>, 'CHAR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Chr'>>, 'COALESCE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Coalesce'>>, 'IFNULL': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Coalesce'>>, 'NVL': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Coalesce'>>, 'COLLATE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Collate'>>, 'COMBINED_AGG_FUNC': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CombinedAggFunc'>>, 'COMBINED_PARAMETERIZED_AGG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CombinedParameterizedAgg'>>, 'CONCAT': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'CONCAT_WS': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'CONNECT_BY_ROOT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ConnectByRoot'>>, 'CONVERT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Convert'>>, 'COUNT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Count'>>, 'COUNT_IF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CountIf'>>, 'COUNTIF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CountIf'>>, 'CURRENT_DATE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CurrentDate'>>, 'CURRENT_DATETIME': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CurrentDatetime'>>, 'CURRENT_TIME': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CurrentTime'>>, 'CURRENT_TIMESTAMP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CurrentTimestamp'>>, 'CURRENT_USER': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CurrentUser'>>, 'DATE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Date'>>, 'DATE_ADD': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateAdd'>>, 'DATEDIFF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateDiff'>>, 'DATE_DIFF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateDiff'>>, 'DATE_FROM_PARTS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateFromParts'>>, 'DATEFROMPARTS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateFromParts'>>, 'DATE_STR_TO_DATE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateStrToDate'>>, 'DATE_SUB': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateSub'>>, 'DATE_TO_DATE_STR': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'DATE_TO_DI': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateToDi'>>, 'DATE_TRUNC': <function build_timestamp_trunc>, 'DATETIME_ADD': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DatetimeAdd'>>, 'DATETIME_DIFF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DatetimeDiff'>>, 'DATETIME_SUB': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DatetimeSub'>>, 'DATETIME_TRUNC': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DatetimeTrunc'>>, 'DAY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Day'>>, 'DAY_OF_MONTH': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DayOfMonth'>>, 'DAYOFMONTH': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DayOfMonth'>>, 'DAY_OF_WEEK': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DayOfWeek'>>, 'DAYOFWEEK': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DayOfWeek'>>, 'DAY_OF_YEAR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DayOfYear'>>, 'DAYOFYEAR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DayOfYear'>>, 'DECODE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Decode'>>, 'DI_TO_DATE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DiToDate'>>, 'ENCODE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Encode'>>, 'EXP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Exp'>>, 'EXPLODE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Explode'>>, 'EXPLODE_OUTER': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ExplodeOuter'>>, 'EXTRACT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Extract'>>, 'FIRST': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.First'>>, 'FIRST_VALUE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.FirstValue'>>, 'FLATTEN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Flatten'>>, 'FLOOR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Floor'>>, 'FROM_BASE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.FromBase'>>, 'FROM_BASE64': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.FromBase64'>>, 'GENERATE_SERIES': <function _build_generate_series>, 'GREATEST': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Greatest'>>, 'GROUP_CONCAT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.GroupConcat'>>, 'HEX': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Hex'>>, 'HLL': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Hll'>>, 'IF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.If'>>, 'IIF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.If'>>, 'INITCAP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Initcap'>>, 'IS_INF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.IsInf'>>, 'ISINF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.IsInf'>>, 'IS_NAN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.IsNan'>>, 'ISNAN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.IsNan'>>, 'J_S_O_N_ARRAY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONArray'>>, 'J_S_O_N_ARRAY_AGG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONArrayAgg'>>, 'JSON_ARRAY_CONTAINS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONArrayContains'>>, 'JSONB_EXTRACT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONBExtract'>>, 'JSONB_EXTRACT_SCALAR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONBExtractScalar'>>, 'JSON_EXTRACT': <function build_extract_json_with_path.<locals>._builder>, 'JSON_EXTRACT_SCALAR': <function build_extract_json_with_path.<locals>._builder>, 'JSON_FORMAT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONFormat'>>, 'J_S_O_N_OBJECT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONObject'>>, 'J_S_O_N_OBJECT_AGG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONObjectAgg'>>, 'J_S_O_N_TABLE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONTable'>>, 'LAG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Lag'>>, 'LAST': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Last'>>, 'LAST_DAY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LastDay'>>, 'LAST_DAY_OF_MONTH': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LastDay'>>, 'LAST_VALUE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LastValue'>>, 'LEAD': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Lead'>>, 'LEAST': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Least'>>, 'LEFT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Left'>>, 'LENGTH': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Length'>>, 'LEN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Length'>>, 'LEVENSHTEIN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Levenshtein'>>, 'LN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Ln'>>, 'LOG': <function build_logarithm>, 'LOG10': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Log10'>>, 'LOG2': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Log2'>>, 'LOGICAL_AND': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LogicalAnd'>>, 'BOOL_AND': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LogicalAnd'>>, 'BOOLAND_AGG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LogicalAnd'>>, 'LOGICAL_OR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LogicalOr'>>, 'BOOL_OR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LogicalOr'>>, 'BOOLOR_AGG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LogicalOr'>>, 'LOWER': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Lower'>>, 'LCASE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Lower'>>, 'MD5': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.MD5'>>, 'MD5_DIGEST': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.MD5Digest'>>, 'MAP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Map'>>, 'MAP_FROM_ENTRIES': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.MapFromEntries'>>, 'MATCH_AGAINST': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.MatchAgainst'>>, 'MAX': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Max'>>, 'MIN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Min'>>, 'MONTH': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Month'>>, 'MONTHS_BETWEEN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.MonthsBetween'>>, 'NEXT_VALUE_FOR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.NextValueFor'>>, 'NTH_VALUE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.NthValue'>>, 'NULLIF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Nullif'>>, 'NUMBER_TO_STR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.NumberToStr'>>, 'NVL2': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Nvl2'>>, 'OPEN_J_S_O_N': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.OpenJSON'>>, 'PARAMETERIZED_AGG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ParameterizedAgg'>>, 'PARSE_JSON': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ParseJSON'>>, 'JSON_PARSE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ParseJSON'>>, 'PERCENTILE_CONT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.PercentileCont'>>, 'PERCENTILE_DISC': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.PercentileDisc'>>, 'POSEXPLODE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Posexplode'>>, 'POSEXPLODE_OUTER': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.PosexplodeOuter'>>, 'POWER': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Pow'>>, 'POW': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Pow'>>, 'PREDICT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Predict'>>, 'QUANTILE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Quantile'>>, 'RAND': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Rand'>>, 'RANDOM': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Rand'>>, 'RANDN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Randn'>>, 'RANGE_N': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RangeN'>>, 'READ_CSV': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ReadCSV'>>, 'REDUCE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Reduce'>>, 'REGEXP_EXTRACT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RegexpExtract'>>, 'REGEXP_I_LIKE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RegexpILike'>>, 'REGEXP_LIKE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RegexpLike'>>, 'REGEXP_REPLACE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RegexpReplace'>>, 'REGEXP_SPLIT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RegexpSplit'>>, 'REPEAT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Repeat'>>, 'RIGHT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Right'>>, 'ROUND': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Round'>>, 'ROW_NUMBER': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RowNumber'>>, 'SHA': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SHA'>>, 'SHA1': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SHA'>>, 'SHA2': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SHA2'>>, 'SAFE_DIVIDE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SafeDivide'>>, 'SIGN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Sign'>>, 'SIGNUM': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Sign'>>, 'SORT_ARRAY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SortArray'>>, 'SPLIT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Split'>>, 'SQRT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Sqrt'>>, 'STANDARD_HASH': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StandardHash'>>, 'STAR_MAP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StarMap'>>, 'STARTS_WITH': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StartsWith'>>, 'STARTSWITH': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StartsWith'>>, 'STDDEV': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Stddev'>>, 'STDDEV_POP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StddevPop'>>, 'STDDEV_SAMP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StddevSamp'>>, 'STR_POSITION': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StrPosition'>>, 'STR_TO_DATE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StrToDate'>>, 'STR_TO_MAP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StrToMap'>>, 'STR_TO_TIME': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StrToTime'>>, 'STR_TO_UNIX': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StrToUnix'>>, 'STRUCT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Struct'>>, 'STRUCT_EXTRACT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StructExtract'>>, 'STUFF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Stuff'>>, 'INSERT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Stuff'>>, 'SUBSTRING': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Substring'>>, 'SUM': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Sum'>>, 'TIME_ADD': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeAdd'>>, 'TIME_DIFF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeDiff'>>, 'TIME_FROM_PARTS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeFromParts'>>, 'TIMEFROMPARTS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeFromParts'>>, 'TIME_STR_TO_DATE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeStrToDate'>>, 'TIME_STR_TO_TIME': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeStrToTime'>>, 'TIME_STR_TO_UNIX': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeStrToUnix'>>, 'TIME_SUB': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeSub'>>, 'TIME_TO_STR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeToStr'>>, 'TIME_TO_TIME_STR': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'TIME_TO_UNIX': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeToUnix'>>, 'TIME_TRUNC': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeTrunc'>>, 'TIMESTAMP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Timestamp'>>, 'TIMESTAMP_ADD': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimestampAdd'>>, 'TIMESTAMPDIFF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimestampDiff'>>, 'TIMESTAMP_DIFF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimestampDiff'>>, 'TIMESTAMP_FROM_PARTS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimestampFromParts'>>, 'TIMESTAMPFROMPARTS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimestampFromParts'>>, 'TIMESTAMP_SUB': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimestampSub'>>, 'TIMESTAMP_TRUNC': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimestampTrunc'>>, 'TO_ARRAY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ToArray'>>, 'TO_BASE64': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ToBase64'>>, 'TO_CHAR': <function build_formatted_time.<locals>._builder>, 'TO_DAYS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ToDays'>>, 'TRANSFORM': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Transform'>>, 'TRIM': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Trim'>>, 'TRY_CAST': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TryCast'>>, 'TS_OR_DI_TO_DI': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TsOrDiToDi'>>, 'TS_OR_DS_ADD': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TsOrDsAdd'>>, 'TS_OR_DS_DIFF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TsOrDsDiff'>>, 'TS_OR_DS_TO_DATE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TsOrDsToDate'>>, 'TS_OR_DS_TO_DATE_STR': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'TS_OR_DS_TO_TIME': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TsOrDsToTime'>>, 'UNHEX': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Unhex'>>, 'UNIX_DATE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.UnixDate'>>, 'UNIX_TO_STR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.UnixToStr'>>, 'UNIX_TO_TIME': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.UnixToTime'>>, 'UNIX_TO_TIME_STR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.UnixToTimeStr'>>, 'UPPER': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Upper'>>, 'UCASE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Upper'>>, 'VAR_MAP': <function build_var_map>, 'VARIANCE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Variance'>>, 'VARIANCE_SAMP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Variance'>>, 'VAR_SAMP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Variance'>>, 'VARIANCE_POP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.VariancePop'>>, 'VAR_POP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.VariancePop'>>, 'WEEK': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Week'>>, 'WEEK_OF_YEAR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.WeekOfYear'>>, 'WEEKOFYEAR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.WeekOfYear'>>, 'WHEN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.When'>>, 'X_M_L_TABLE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.XMLTable'>>, 'XOR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Xor'>>, 'YEAR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Year'>>, 'GLOB': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'JSON_EXTRACT_PATH_TEXT': <function build_json_extract_path.<locals>._builder>, 'LIKE': <function build_like>, 'JSON_EXTRACT_PATH': <function build_json_extract_path.<locals>._builder>, 'MAKE_TIME': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeFromParts'>>, 'MAKE_TIMESTAMP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimestampFromParts'>>, 'NOW': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CurrentTimestamp'>>, 'TO_TIMESTAMP': <function _build_to_timestamp>, 'UNNEST': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Explode'>>}
FUNCTION_PARSERS = {'CAST': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'CONVERT': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'DECODE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'EXTRACT': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'JSON_OBJECT': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'JSON_OBJECTAGG': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'JSON_TABLE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'MATCH': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'OPENJSON': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'POSITION': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'PREDICT': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'SAFE_CAST': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'STRING_AGG': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'SUBSTRING': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'TRIM': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'TRY_CAST': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'TRY_CONVERT': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'DATE_PART': <function Postgres.Parser.<lambda>>}
BITWISE = {<TokenType.AMP: 'AMP'>: <class 'sqlglot.expressions.BitwiseAnd'>, <TokenType.CARET: 'CARET'>: <class 'sqlglot.expressions.BitwiseXor'>, <TokenType.PIPE: 'PIPE'>: <class 'sqlglot.expressions.BitwiseOr'>, <TokenType.HASH: 'HASH'>: <class 'sqlglot.expressions.BitwiseXor'>}
EXPONENT = {<TokenType.CARET: 'CARET'>: <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Pow'>}
RANGE_PARSERS = {<TokenType.BETWEEN: 'BETWEEN'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.GLOB: 'GLOB'>: <function binary_range_parser.<locals>.<lambda>>, <TokenType.ILIKE: 'ILIKE'>: <function binary_range_parser.<locals>.<lambda>>, <TokenType.IN: 'IN'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.IRLIKE: 'IRLIKE'>: <function binary_range_parser.<locals>.<lambda>>, <TokenType.IS: 'IS'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.LIKE: 'LIKE'>: <function binary_range_parser.<locals>.<lambda>>, <TokenType.OVERLAPS: 'OVERLAPS'>: <function binary_range_parser.<locals>.<lambda>>, <TokenType.RLIKE: 'RLIKE'>: <function binary_range_parser.<locals>.<lambda>>, <TokenType.SIMILAR_TO: 'SIMILAR_TO'>: <function binary_range_parser.<locals>.<lambda>>, <TokenType.FOR: 'FOR'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.AT_GT: 'AT_GT'>: <function binary_range_parser.<locals>.<lambda>>, <TokenType.DAMP: 'DAMP'>: <function binary_range_parser.<locals>.<lambda>>, <TokenType.DAT: 'DAT'>: <function Postgres.Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.LT_AT: 'LT_AT'>: <function binary_range_parser.<locals>.<lambda>>, <TokenType.OPERATOR: 'OPERATOR'>: <function Postgres.Parser.<lambda>>}
STATEMENT_PARSERS = {<TokenType.ALTER: 'ALTER'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.BEGIN: 'BEGIN'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.CACHE: 'CACHE'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.COMMIT: 'COMMIT'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.COMMENT: 'COMMENT'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.CREATE: 'CREATE'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.DELETE: 'DELETE'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.DESC: 'DESC'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.DESCRIBE: 'DESCRIBE'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.DROP: 'DROP'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.INSERT: 'INSERT'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.KILL: 'KILL'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.LOAD: 'LOAD'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.MERGE: 'MERGE'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.PIVOT: 'PIVOT'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.PRAGMA: 'PRAGMA'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.REFRESH: 'REFRESH'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.ROLLBACK: 'ROLLBACK'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.SET: 'SET'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.UNCACHE: 'UNCACHE'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.UPDATE: 'UPDATE'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.TRUNCATE: 'TRUNCATE'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.USE: 'USE'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.END: 'END'>: <function Postgres.Parser.<lambda>>}
JSON_ARROWS_REQUIRE_JSON_TYPE = True
SHOW_TRIE: Dict = {}
SET_TRIE: Dict = {'GLOBAL': {0: True}, 'LOCAL': {0: True}, 'SESSION': {0: True}, 'TRANSACTION': {0: True}}
Inherited Members
sqlglot.parser.Parser
Parser
NO_PAREN_FUNCTIONS
STRUCT_TYPE_TOKENS
NESTED_TYPE_TOKENS
ENUM_TYPE_TOKENS
AGGREGATE_TYPE_TOKENS
TYPE_TOKENS
SIGNED_TO_UNSIGNED_TYPE_TOKEN
SUBQUERY_PREDICATES
RESERVED_TOKENS
DB_CREATABLES
CREATABLES
ID_VAR_TOKENS
INTERVAL_VARS
TABLE_ALIAS_TOKENS
COMMENT_TABLE_ALIAS_TOKENS
UPDATE_ALIAS_TOKENS
TRIM_TYPES
FUNC_TOKENS
CONJUNCTION
EQUALITY
COMPARISON
TERM
FACTOR
TIMES
TIMESTAMPS
SET_OPERATIONS
JOIN_METHODS
JOIN_SIDES
JOIN_KINDS
JOIN_HINTS
LAMBDAS
COLUMN_OPERATORS
EXPRESSION_PARSERS
UNARY_PARSERS
STRING_PARSERS
NUMERIC_PARSERS
PRIMARY_PARSERS
PLACEHOLDER_PARSERS
CONSTRAINT_PARSERS
ALTER_PARSERS
SCHEMA_UNNAMED_CONSTRAINTS
NO_PAREN_FUNCTION_PARSERS
INVALID_FUNC_NAME_TOKENS
FUNCTIONS_WITH_ALIASED_ARGS
KEY_VALUE_DEFINITIONS
QUERY_MODIFIER_PARSERS
SET_PARSERS
SHOW_PARSERS
TYPE_LITERAL_PARSERS
DDL_SELECT_TOKENS
PRE_VOLATILE_TOKENS
TRANSACTION_KIND
TRANSACTION_CHARACTERISTICS
USABLES
INSERT_ALTERNATIVES
CLONE_KEYWORDS
HISTORICAL_DATA_KIND
OPCLASS_FOLLOW_KEYWORDS
OPTYPE_FOLLOW_TOKENS
TABLE_INDEX_HINT_TOKENS
WINDOW_ALIAS_TOKENS
WINDOW_BEFORE_PAREN_TOKENS
WINDOW_SIDES
JSON_KEY_VALUE_SEPARATOR_TOKENS
FETCH_TOKENS
ADD_CONSTRAINT_TOKENS
DISTINCT_TOKENS
NULL_TOKENS
UNNEST_OFFSET_ALIAS_TOKENS
STRICT_CAST
PREFIXED_PIVOT_COLUMNS
IDENTIFY_PIVOT_STRINGS
LOG_DEFAULTS_TO_LN
ALTER_TABLE_ADD_REQUIRED_FOR_EACH_COLUMN
TABLESAMPLE_CSV
SET_REQUIRES_ASSIGNMENT_DELIMITER
TRIM_PATTERN_FIRST
STRING_ALIASES
MODIFIERS_ATTACHED_TO_UNION
UNION_MODIFIERS
NO_PAREN_IF_COMMANDS
VALUES_FOLLOWED_BY_PAREN
SUPPORTS_IMPLICIT_UNNEST
error_level
error_message_context
max_errors
dialect
reset
parse
parse_into
check_errors
raise_error
expression
validate_expression
errors
sql
class Postgres.Generator(sqlglot.generator.Generator):
393    class Generator(generator.Generator):
394        SINGLE_STRING_INTERVAL = True
395        RENAME_TABLE_WITH_DB = False
396        LOCKING_READS_SUPPORTED = True
397        JOIN_HINTS = False
398        TABLE_HINTS = False
399        QUERY_HINTS = False
400        NVL2_SUPPORTED = False
401        PARAMETER_TOKEN = "$"
402        TABLESAMPLE_SIZE_IS_ROWS = False
403        TABLESAMPLE_SEED_KEYWORD = "REPEATABLE"
404        SUPPORTS_SELECT_INTO = True
405        JSON_TYPE_REQUIRED_FOR_EXTRACTION = True
406        SUPPORTS_UNLOGGED_TABLES = True
407        LIKE_PROPERTY_INSIDE_SCHEMA = True
408        MULTI_ARG_DISTINCT = False
409        CAN_IMPLEMENT_ARRAY_ANY = True
410
411        SUPPORTED_JSON_PATH_PARTS = {
412            exp.JSONPathKey,
413            exp.JSONPathRoot,
414            exp.JSONPathSubscript,
415        }
416
417        TYPE_MAPPING = {
418            **generator.Generator.TYPE_MAPPING,
419            exp.DataType.Type.TINYINT: "SMALLINT",
420            exp.DataType.Type.FLOAT: "REAL",
421            exp.DataType.Type.DOUBLE: "DOUBLE PRECISION",
422            exp.DataType.Type.BINARY: "BYTEA",
423            exp.DataType.Type.VARBINARY: "BYTEA",
424            exp.DataType.Type.DATETIME: "TIMESTAMP",
425        }
426
427        TRANSFORMS = {
428            **generator.Generator.TRANSFORMS,
429            exp.AnyValue: any_value_to_max_sql,
430            exp.Array: lambda self, e: (
431                f"{self.normalize_func('ARRAY')}({self.sql(e.expressions[0])})"
432                if isinstance(seq_get(e.expressions, 0), exp.Select)
433                else f"{self.normalize_func('ARRAY')}[{self.expressions(e, flat=True)}]"
434            ),
435            exp.ArrayConcat: rename_func("ARRAY_CAT"),
436            exp.ArrayContained: lambda self, e: self.binary(e, "<@"),
437            exp.ArrayContains: lambda self, e: self.binary(e, "@>"),
438            exp.ArrayOverlaps: lambda self, e: self.binary(e, "&&"),
439            exp.ArrayFilter: filter_array_using_unnest,
440            exp.ArraySize: lambda self, e: self.func("ARRAY_LENGTH", e.this, e.expression or "1"),
441            exp.BitwiseXor: lambda self, e: self.binary(e, "#"),
442            exp.ColumnDef: transforms.preprocess([_auto_increment_to_serial, _serial_to_generated]),
443            exp.CurrentDate: no_paren_current_date_sql,
444            exp.CurrentTimestamp: lambda *_: "CURRENT_TIMESTAMP",
445            exp.CurrentUser: lambda *_: "CURRENT_USER",
446            exp.DateAdd: _date_add_sql("+"),
447            exp.DateDiff: _date_diff_sql,
448            exp.DateStrToDate: datestrtodate_sql,
449            exp.DataType: _datatype_sql,
450            exp.DateSub: _date_add_sql("-"),
451            exp.Explode: rename_func("UNNEST"),
452            exp.GroupConcat: _string_agg_sql,
453            exp.JSONExtract: _json_extract_sql("JSON_EXTRACT_PATH", "->"),
454            exp.JSONExtractScalar: _json_extract_sql("JSON_EXTRACT_PATH_TEXT", "->>"),
455            exp.JSONBExtract: lambda self, e: self.binary(e, "#>"),
456            exp.JSONBExtractScalar: lambda self, e: self.binary(e, "#>>"),
457            exp.JSONBContains: lambda self, e: self.binary(e, "?"),
458            exp.ParseJSON: lambda self, e: self.sql(exp.cast(e.this, exp.DataType.Type.JSON)),
459            exp.JSONPathKey: json_path_key_only_name,
460            exp.JSONPathRoot: lambda *_: "",
461            exp.JSONPathSubscript: lambda self, e: self.json_path_part(e.this),
462            exp.LastDay: no_last_day_sql,
463            exp.LogicalOr: rename_func("BOOL_OR"),
464            exp.LogicalAnd: rename_func("BOOL_AND"),
465            exp.Max: max_or_greatest,
466            exp.MapFromEntries: no_map_from_entries_sql,
467            exp.Min: min_or_least,
468            exp.Merge: merge_without_target_sql,
469            exp.PartitionedByProperty: lambda self, e: f"PARTITION BY {self.sql(e, 'this')}",
470            exp.PercentileCont: transforms.preprocess(
471                [transforms.add_within_group_for_percentiles]
472            ),
473            exp.PercentileDisc: transforms.preprocess(
474                [transforms.add_within_group_for_percentiles]
475            ),
476            exp.Pivot: no_pivot_sql,
477            exp.Pow: lambda self, e: self.binary(e, "^"),
478            exp.Rand: rename_func("RANDOM"),
479            exp.RegexpLike: lambda self, e: self.binary(e, "~"),
480            exp.RegexpILike: lambda self, e: self.binary(e, "~*"),
481            exp.Select: transforms.preprocess(
482                [
483                    transforms.eliminate_semi_and_anti_joins,
484                    transforms.eliminate_qualify,
485                ]
486            ),
487            exp.StrPosition: str_position_sql,
488            exp.StrToTime: lambda self, e: self.func("TO_TIMESTAMP", e.this, self.format_time(e)),
489            exp.StructExtract: struct_extract_sql,
490            exp.Substring: _substring_sql,
491            exp.TimeFromParts: rename_func("MAKE_TIME"),
492            exp.TimestampFromParts: rename_func("MAKE_TIMESTAMP"),
493            exp.TimestampTrunc: timestamptrunc_sql,
494            exp.TimeStrToTime: timestrtotime_sql,
495            exp.TimeToStr: lambda self, e: self.func("TO_CHAR", e.this, self.format_time(e)),
496            exp.ToChar: lambda self, e: self.function_fallback_sql(e),
497            exp.Trim: trim_sql,
498            exp.TryCast: no_trycast_sql,
499            exp.TsOrDsAdd: _date_add_sql("+"),
500            exp.TsOrDsDiff: _date_diff_sql,
501            exp.UnixToTime: lambda self, e: self.func("TO_TIMESTAMP", e.this),
502            exp.VariancePop: rename_func("VAR_POP"),
503            exp.Variance: rename_func("VAR_SAMP"),
504            exp.Xor: bool_xor_sql,
505        }
506
507        PROPERTIES_LOCATION = {
508            **generator.Generator.PROPERTIES_LOCATION,
509            exp.PartitionedByProperty: exp.Properties.Location.POST_SCHEMA,
510            exp.TransientProperty: exp.Properties.Location.UNSUPPORTED,
511            exp.VolatileProperty: exp.Properties.Location.UNSUPPORTED,
512        }
513
514        def unnest_sql(self, expression: exp.Unnest) -> str:
515            if len(expression.expressions) == 1:
516                from sqlglot.optimizer.annotate_types import annotate_types
517
518                this = annotate_types(expression.expressions[0])
519                if this.is_type("array<json>"):
520                    while isinstance(this, exp.Cast):
521                        this = this.this
522
523                    arg = self.sql(exp.cast(this, exp.DataType.Type.JSON))
524                    alias = self.sql(expression, "alias")
525                    alias = f" AS {alias}" if alias else ""
526
527                    if expression.args.get("offset"):
528                        self.unsupported("Unsupported JSON_ARRAY_ELEMENTS with offset")
529
530                    return f"JSON_ARRAY_ELEMENTS({arg}){alias}"
531
532            return super().unnest_sql(expression)
533
534        def bracket_sql(self, expression: exp.Bracket) -> str:
535            """Forms like ARRAY[1, 2, 3][3] aren't allowed; we need to wrap the ARRAY."""
536            if isinstance(expression.this, exp.Array):
537                expression.set("this", exp.paren(expression.this, copy=False))
538
539            return super().bracket_sql(expression)
540
541        def matchagainst_sql(self, expression: exp.MatchAgainst) -> str:
542            this = self.sql(expression, "this")
543            expressions = [f"{self.sql(e)} @@ {this}" for e in expression.expressions]
544            sql = " OR ".join(expressions)
545            return f"({sql})" if len(expressions) > 1 else sql

Generator converts a given syntax tree to the corresponding SQL string.

Arguments:
  • pretty: Whether to format the produced SQL string. Default: False.
  • identify: Determines when an identifier should be quoted. Possible values are: False (default): Never quote, except in cases where it's mandatory by the dialect. True or 'always': Always quote. 'safe': Only quote identifiers that are case insensitive.
  • normalize: Whether to normalize identifiers to lowercase. Default: False.
  • pad: The pad size in a formatted string. Default: 2.
  • indent: The indentation size in a formatted string. Default: 2.
  • normalize_functions: How to normalize function names. Possible values are: "upper" or True (default): Convert names to uppercase. "lower": Convert names to lowercase. False: Disables function name normalization.
  • unsupported_level: Determines the generator's behavior when it encounters unsupported expressions. Default ErrorLevel.WARN.
  • max_unsupported: Maximum number of unsupported messages to include in a raised UnsupportedError. This is only relevant if unsupported_level is ErrorLevel.RAISE. Default: 3
  • leading_comma: Whether the comma is leading or trailing in select expressions. This is only relevant when generating in pretty mode. Default: False
  • max_text_width: The max number of characters in a segment before creating new lines in pretty mode. The default is on the smaller end because the length only represents a segment and not the true line length. Default: 80
  • comments: Whether to preserve comments in the output SQL code. Default: True
SINGLE_STRING_INTERVAL = True
RENAME_TABLE_WITH_DB = False
LOCKING_READS_SUPPORTED = True
JOIN_HINTS = False
TABLE_HINTS = False
QUERY_HINTS = False
NVL2_SUPPORTED = False
PARAMETER_TOKEN = '$'
TABLESAMPLE_SIZE_IS_ROWS = False
TABLESAMPLE_SEED_KEYWORD = 'REPEATABLE'
SUPPORTS_SELECT_INTO = True
JSON_TYPE_REQUIRED_FOR_EXTRACTION = True
SUPPORTS_UNLOGGED_TABLES = True
LIKE_PROPERTY_INSIDE_SCHEMA = True
MULTI_ARG_DISTINCT = False
CAN_IMPLEMENT_ARRAY_ANY = True
TYPE_MAPPING = {<Type.NCHAR: 'NCHAR'>: 'CHAR', <Type.NVARCHAR: 'NVARCHAR'>: 'VARCHAR', <Type.MEDIUMTEXT: 'MEDIUMTEXT'>: 'TEXT', <Type.LONGTEXT: 'LONGTEXT'>: 'TEXT', <Type.TINYTEXT: 'TINYTEXT'>: 'TEXT', <Type.MEDIUMBLOB: 'MEDIUMBLOB'>: 'BLOB', <Type.LONGBLOB: 'LONGBLOB'>: 'BLOB', <Type.TINYBLOB: 'TINYBLOB'>: 'BLOB', <Type.INET: 'INET'>: 'INET', <Type.TINYINT: 'TINYINT'>: 'SMALLINT', <Type.FLOAT: 'FLOAT'>: 'REAL', <Type.DOUBLE: 'DOUBLE'>: 'DOUBLE PRECISION', <Type.BINARY: 'BINARY'>: 'BYTEA', <Type.VARBINARY: 'VARBINARY'>: 'BYTEA', <Type.DATETIME: 'DATETIME'>: 'TIMESTAMP'}
TRANSFORMS = {<class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONPathKey'>: <function json_path_key_only_name>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONPathRoot'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONPathSubscript'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.AutoRefreshProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CaseSpecificColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CharacterSetColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CharacterSetProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ClusteredColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CollateColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CommentColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CopyGrantsProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateAdd'>: <function _date_add_sql.<locals>.func>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateFormatColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DefaultColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.EncodeColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ExecuteAsProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ExternalProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.HeapProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.InheritsProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.InlineLengthColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.InputModelProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.IntervalSpan'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONExtract'>: <function _json_extract_sql.<locals>._generate>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONExtractScalar'>: <function _json_extract_sql.<locals>._generate>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LanguageProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LocationProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LogProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.MaterializedProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.NonClusteredColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.NoPrimaryIndexProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.NotForReplicationColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.OnCommitProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.OnProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.OnUpdateColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.OutputModelProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.PathColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RemoteWithConnectionModelProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ReturnsProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SampleProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SetConfigProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SetProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SettingsProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SqlReadWriteProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SqlSecurityProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StabilityProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TemporaryProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TitleColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Timestamp'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ToTableProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TransformModelProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TransientProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.UppercaseColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.VarMap'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.VolatileProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.WithJournalTableProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.AnyValue'>: <function any_value_to_max_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Array'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayConcat'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayContained'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayContains'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayOverlaps'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayFilter'>: <function filter_array_using_unnest>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArraySize'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.BitwiseXor'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ColumnDef'>: <function preprocess.<locals>._to_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CurrentDate'>: <function no_paren_current_date_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CurrentTimestamp'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CurrentUser'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateDiff'>: <function _date_diff_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateStrToDate'>: <function datestrtodate_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DataType'>: <function _datatype_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateSub'>: <function _date_add_sql.<locals>.func>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Explode'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.GroupConcat'>: <function _string_agg_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONBExtract'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONBExtractScalar'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONBContains'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ParseJSON'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LastDay'>: <function no_last_day_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LogicalOr'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LogicalAnd'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Max'>: <function max_or_greatest>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.MapFromEntries'>: <function no_map_from_entries_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Min'>: <function min_or_least>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Merge'>: <function merge_without_target_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.PartitionedByProperty'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.PercentileCont'>: <function preprocess.<locals>._to_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.PercentileDisc'>: <function preprocess.<locals>._to_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Pivot'>: <function no_pivot_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Pow'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Rand'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RegexpLike'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RegexpILike'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Select'>: <function preprocess.<locals>._to_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StrPosition'>: <function str_position_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StrToTime'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StructExtract'>: <function struct_extract_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Substring'>: <function _substring_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeFromParts'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimestampFromParts'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimestampTrunc'>: <function timestamptrunc_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeStrToTime'>: <function timestrtotime_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeToStr'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ToChar'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Trim'>: <function trim_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TryCast'>: <function no_trycast_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TsOrDsAdd'>: <function _date_add_sql.<locals>.func>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TsOrDsDiff'>: <function _date_diff_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.UnixToTime'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.VariancePop'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Variance'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Xor'>: <function bool_xor_sql>}
PROPERTIES_LOCATION = {<class 'sqlglot.expressions.AlgorithmProperty'>: <Location.POST_CREATE: 'POST_CREATE'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.AutoIncrementProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.AutoRefreshProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.BlockCompressionProperty'>: <Location.POST_NAME: 'POST_NAME'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CharacterSetProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ChecksumProperty'>: <Location.POST_NAME: 'POST_NAME'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CollateProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CopyGrantsProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Cluster'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ClusteredByProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DataBlocksizeProperty'>: <Location.POST_NAME: 'POST_NAME'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DefinerProperty'>: <Location.POST_CREATE: 'POST_CREATE'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DictRange'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DictProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DistKeyProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DistStyleProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.EngineProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ExecuteAsProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ExternalProperty'>: <Location.POST_CREATE: 'POST_CREATE'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.FallbackProperty'>: <Location.POST_NAME: 'POST_NAME'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.FileFormatProperty'>: <Location.POST_WITH: 'POST_WITH'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.FreespaceProperty'>: <Location.POST_NAME: 'POST_NAME'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.HeapProperty'>: <Location.POST_WITH: 'POST_WITH'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.InheritsProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.InputModelProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.IsolatedLoadingProperty'>: <Location.POST_NAME: 'POST_NAME'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JournalProperty'>: <Location.POST_NAME: 'POST_NAME'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LanguageProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LikeProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LocationProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LockProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LockingProperty'>: <Location.POST_ALIAS: 'POST_ALIAS'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LogProperty'>: <Location.POST_NAME: 'POST_NAME'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.MaterializedProperty'>: <Location.POST_CREATE: 'POST_CREATE'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.MergeBlockRatioProperty'>: <Location.POST_NAME: 'POST_NAME'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.NoPrimaryIndexProperty'>: <Location.POST_EXPRESSION: 'POST_EXPRESSION'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.OnProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.OnCommitProperty'>: <Location.POST_EXPRESSION: 'POST_EXPRESSION'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Order'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.OutputModelProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.PartitionedByProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.PartitionedOfProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.PrimaryKey'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Property'>: <Location.POST_WITH: 'POST_WITH'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RemoteWithConnectionModelProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ReturnsProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RowFormatProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RowFormatDelimitedProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RowFormatSerdeProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SampleProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SchemaCommentProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SerdeProperties'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Set'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SettingsProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SetProperty'>: <Location.POST_CREATE: 'POST_CREATE'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SetConfigProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SortKeyProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SqlReadWriteProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SqlSecurityProperty'>: <Location.POST_CREATE: 'POST_CREATE'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StabilityProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TemporaryProperty'>: <Location.POST_CREATE: 'POST_CREATE'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ToTableProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TransientProperty'>: <Location.UNSUPPORTED: 'UNSUPPORTED'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TransformModelProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.MergeTreeTTL'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.VolatileProperty'>: <Location.UNSUPPORTED: 'UNSUPPORTED'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.WithDataProperty'>: <Location.POST_EXPRESSION: 'POST_EXPRESSION'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.WithJournalTableProperty'>: <Location.POST_NAME: 'POST_NAME'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.WithSystemVersioningProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>}
def unnest_sql(self, expression: sqlglot.expressions.Unnest) -> str:
514        def unnest_sql(self, expression: exp.Unnest) -> str:
515            if len(expression.expressions) == 1:
516                from sqlglot.optimizer.annotate_types import annotate_types
517
518                this = annotate_types(expression.expressions[0])
519                if this.is_type("array<json>"):
520                    while isinstance(this, exp.Cast):
521                        this = this.this
522
523                    arg = self.sql(exp.cast(this, exp.DataType.Type.JSON))
524                    alias = self.sql(expression, "alias")
525                    alias = f" AS {alias}" if alias else ""
526
527                    if expression.args.get("offset"):
528                        self.unsupported("Unsupported JSON_ARRAY_ELEMENTS with offset")
529
530                    return f"JSON_ARRAY_ELEMENTS({arg}){alias}"
531
532            return super().unnest_sql(expression)
def bracket_sql(self, expression: sqlglot.expressions.Bracket) -> str:
534        def bracket_sql(self, expression: exp.Bracket) -> str:
535            """Forms like ARRAY[1, 2, 3][3] aren't allowed; we need to wrap the ARRAY."""
536            if isinstance(expression.this, exp.Array):
537                expression.set("this", exp.paren(expression.this, copy=False))
538
539            return super().bracket_sql(expression)

Forms like ARRAY[1, 2, 3][3] aren't allowed; we need to wrap the ARRAY.

def matchagainst_sql(self, expression: sqlglot.expressions.MatchAgainst) -> str:
541        def matchagainst_sql(self, expression: exp.MatchAgainst) -> str:
542            this = self.sql(expression, "this")
543            expressions = [f"{self.sql(e)} @@ {this}" for e in expression.expressions]
544            sql = " OR ".join(expressions)
545            return f"({sql})" if len(expressions) > 1 else sql
SELECT_KINDS: Tuple[str, ...] = ()
Inherited Members
sqlglot.generator.Generator
Generator
NULL_ORDERING_SUPPORTED
IGNORE_NULLS_IN_FUNC
EXPLICIT_UNION
WRAP_DERIVED_VALUES
CREATE_FUNCTION_RETURN_AS
MATCHED_BY_SOURCE
INTERVAL_ALLOWS_PLURAL_FORM
LIMIT_FETCH
LIMIT_ONLY_LITERALS
GROUPINGS_SEP
INDEX_ON
QUERY_HINT_SEP
IS_BOOL_ALLOWED
DUPLICATE_KEY_UPDATE_WITH_SET
LIMIT_IS_TOP
RETURNING_END
COLUMN_JOIN_MARKS_SUPPORTED
EXTRACT_ALLOWS_QUOTES
TZ_TO_WITH_TIME_ZONE
VALUES_AS_TABLE
ALTER_TABLE_INCLUDE_COLUMN_KEYWORD
UNNEST_WITH_ORDINALITY
AGGREGATE_FILTER_SUPPORTED
SEMI_ANTI_JOIN_WITH_SIDE
COMPUTED_COLUMN_WITH_TYPE
SUPPORTS_TABLE_COPY
TABLESAMPLE_REQUIRES_PARENS
TABLESAMPLE_KEYWORDS
TABLESAMPLE_WITH_METHOD
COLLATE_IS_FUNC
DATA_TYPE_SPECIFIERS_ALLOWED
ENSURE_BOOLS
CTE_RECURSIVE_KEYWORD_REQUIRED
SUPPORTS_SINGLE_ARG_CONCAT
LAST_DAY_SUPPORTS_DATE_PART
SUPPORTS_TABLE_ALIAS_COLUMNS
UNPIVOT_ALIASES_ARE_IDENTIFIERS
JSON_KEY_VALUE_PAIR_SEP
INSERT_OVERWRITE
SUPPORTS_CREATE_TABLE_LIKE
JSON_PATH_BRACKETED_KEY_SUPPORTED
JSON_PATH_SINGLE_QUOTE_ESCAPE
STAR_MAPPING
TIME_PART_SINGULARS
TOKEN_MAPPING
STRUCT_DELIMITER
NAMED_PLACEHOLDER_TOKEN
RESERVED_KEYWORDS
WITH_SEPARATED_COMMENTS
EXCLUDE_COMMENTS
UNWRAPPED_INTERVAL_VALUES
PARAMETERIZABLE_TEXT_TYPES
EXPRESSIONS_WITHOUT_NESTED_CTES
SENTINEL_LINE_BREAK
pretty
identify
normalize
pad
unsupported_level
max_unsupported
leading_comma
max_text_width
comments
dialect
normalize_functions
unsupported_messages
generate
preprocess
unsupported
sep
seg
pad_comment
maybe_comment
wrap
no_identify
normalize_func
indent
sql
uncache_sql
cache_sql
characterset_sql
column_sql
columnposition_sql
columndef_sql
columnconstraint_sql
computedcolumnconstraint_sql
autoincrementcolumnconstraint_sql
compresscolumnconstraint_sql
generatedasidentitycolumnconstraint_sql
generatedasrowcolumnconstraint_sql
periodforsystemtimeconstraint_sql
notnullcolumnconstraint_sql
transformcolumnconstraint_sql
primarykeycolumnconstraint_sql
uniquecolumnconstraint_sql
createable_sql
create_sql
clone_sql
describe_sql
heredoc_sql
prepend_ctes
with_sql
cte_sql
tablealias_sql
bitstring_sql
hexstring_sql
bytestring_sql
unicodestring_sql
rawstring_sql
datatypeparam_sql
datatype_sql
directory_sql
delete_sql
drop_sql
except_sql
except_op
fetch_sql
filter_sql
hint_sql
index_sql
identifier_sql
inputoutputformat_sql
national_sql
partition_sql
properties_sql
root_properties
properties
with_properties
locate_properties
property_name
property_sql
likeproperty_sql
fallbackproperty_sql
journalproperty_sql
freespaceproperty_sql
checksumproperty_sql
mergeblockratioproperty_sql
datablocksizeproperty_sql
blockcompressionproperty_sql
isolatedloadingproperty_sql
partitionboundspec_sql
partitionedofproperty_sql
lockingproperty_sql
withdataproperty_sql
withsystemversioningproperty_sql
insert_sql
intersect_sql
intersect_op
introducer_sql
kill_sql
pseudotype_sql
objectidentifier_sql
onconflict_sql
returning_sql
rowformatdelimitedproperty_sql
withtablehint_sql
indextablehint_sql
historicaldata_sql
table_parts
table_sql
tablesample_sql
pivot_sql
version_sql
tuple_sql
update_sql
values_sql
var_sql
into_sql
from_sql
group_sql
having_sql
connect_sql
prior_sql
join_sql
lambda_sql
lateral_op
lateral_sql
limit_sql
offset_sql
setitem_sql
set_sql
pragma_sql
lock_sql
literal_sql
escape_str
loaddata_sql
null_sql
boolean_sql
order_sql
withfill_sql
cluster_sql
distribute_sql
sort_sql
ordered_sql
matchrecognize_sql
query_modifiers
queryoption_sql
offset_limit_modifiers
after_having_modifiers
after_limit_modifiers
select_sql
schema_sql
schema_columns_sql
star_sql
parameter_sql
sessionparameter_sql
placeholder_sql
subquery_sql
qualify_sql
union_sql
union_op
prewhere_sql
where_sql
window_sql
partition_by_sql
windowspec_sql
withingroup_sql
between_sql
all_sql
any_sql
exists_sql
case_sql
constraint_sql
nextvaluefor_sql
extract_sql
trim_sql
convert_concat_args
concat_sql
concatws_sql
check_sql
foreignkey_sql
primarykey_sql
if_sql
jsonkeyvalue_sql
jsonpath_sql
json_path_part
formatjson_sql
jsonobject_sql
jsonobjectagg_sql
jsonarray_sql
jsonarrayagg_sql
jsoncolumndef_sql
jsonschema_sql
jsontable_sql
openjsoncolumndef_sql
openjson_sql
in_sql
in_unnest_op
interval_sql
return_sql
reference_sql
anonymous_sql
paren_sql
neg_sql
not_sql
alias_sql
pivotalias_sql
aliases_sql
atindex_sql
attimezone_sql
fromtimezone_sql
add_sql
and_sql
xor_sql
connector_sql
bitwiseand_sql
bitwiseleftshift_sql
bitwisenot_sql
bitwiseor_sql
bitwiserightshift_sql
bitwisexor_sql
cast_sql
currentdate_sql
currenttimestamp_sql
collate_sql
command_sql
comment_sql
mergetreettlaction_sql
mergetreettl_sql
transaction_sql
commit_sql
rollback_sql
altercolumn_sql
renametable_sql
renamecolumn_sql
altertable_sql
add_column_sql
droppartition_sql
addconstraint_sql
distinct_sql
ignorenulls_sql
respectnulls_sql
havingmax_sql
intdiv_sql
dpipe_sql
div_sql
overlaps_sql
distance_sql
dot_sql
eq_sql
propertyeq_sql
escape_sql
glob_sql
gt_sql
gte_sql
ilike_sql
ilikeany_sql
is_sql
like_sql
likeany_sql
similarto_sql
lt_sql
lte_sql
mod_sql
mul_sql
neq_sql
nullsafeeq_sql
nullsafeneq_sql
or_sql
slice_sql
sub_sql
trycast_sql
log_sql
use_sql
binary
function_fallback_sql
func
format_args
text_width
format_time
expressions
op_expressions
naked_property
set_operation
tag_sql
token_sql
userdefinedfunction_sql
joinhint_sql
kwarg_sql
when_sql
merge_sql
tochar_sql
dictproperty_sql
dictrange_sql
dictsubproperty_sql
oncluster_sql
clusteredbyproperty_sql
anyvalue_sql
querytransform_sql
indexconstraintoption_sql
checkcolumnconstraint_sql
indexcolumnconstraint_sql
nvl2_sql
comprehension_sql
columnprefix_sql
opclass_sql
predict_sql
forin_sql
refresh_sql
operator_sql
toarray_sql
tsordstotime_sql
tsordstodate_sql
unixdate_sql
lastday_sql
arrayany_sql
generateseries_sql
struct_sql
partitionrange_sql
truncatetable_sql
convert_sql