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sqlglot.dialects.postgres

  1from __future__ import annotations
  2
  3import typing as t
  4
  5from sqlglot import exp, generator, parser, tokens, transforms
  6from sqlglot.dialects.dialect import (
  7    DATE_ADD_OR_SUB,
  8    Dialect,
  9    JSON_EXTRACT_TYPE,
 10    any_value_to_max_sql,
 11    binary_from_function,
 12    bool_xor_sql,
 13    datestrtodate_sql,
 14    build_formatted_time,
 15    filter_array_using_unnest,
 16    json_extract_segments,
 17    json_path_key_only_name,
 18    max_or_greatest,
 19    merge_without_target_sql,
 20    min_or_least,
 21    no_last_day_sql,
 22    no_map_from_entries_sql,
 23    no_paren_current_date_sql,
 24    no_pivot_sql,
 25    no_trycast_sql,
 26    build_json_extract_path,
 27    build_timestamp_trunc,
 28    rename_func,
 29    sha256_sql,
 30    str_position_sql,
 31    struct_extract_sql,
 32    timestamptrunc_sql,
 33    timestrtotime_sql,
 34    trim_sql,
 35    ts_or_ds_add_cast,
 36)
 37from sqlglot.helper import is_int, seq_get
 38from sqlglot.parser import binary_range_parser
 39from sqlglot.tokens import TokenType
 40
 41DATE_DIFF_FACTOR = {
 42    "MICROSECOND": " * 1000000",
 43    "MILLISECOND": " * 1000",
 44    "SECOND": "",
 45    "MINUTE": " / 60",
 46    "HOUR": " / 3600",
 47    "DAY": " / 86400",
 48}
 49
 50
 51def _date_add_sql(kind: str) -> t.Callable[[Postgres.Generator, DATE_ADD_OR_SUB], str]:
 52    def func(self: Postgres.Generator, expression: DATE_ADD_OR_SUB) -> str:
 53        if isinstance(expression, exp.TsOrDsAdd):
 54            expression = ts_or_ds_add_cast(expression)
 55
 56        this = self.sql(expression, "this")
 57        unit = expression.args.get("unit")
 58
 59        expression = self._simplify_unless_literal(expression.expression)
 60        if not isinstance(expression, exp.Literal):
 61            self.unsupported("Cannot add non literal")
 62
 63        expression.args["is_string"] = True
 64        return f"{this} {kind} {self.sql(exp.Interval(this=expression, unit=unit))}"
 65
 66    return func
 67
 68
 69def _date_diff_sql(self: Postgres.Generator, expression: exp.DateDiff) -> str:
 70    unit = expression.text("unit").upper()
 71    factor = DATE_DIFF_FACTOR.get(unit)
 72
 73    end = f"CAST({self.sql(expression, 'this')} AS TIMESTAMP)"
 74    start = f"CAST({self.sql(expression, 'expression')} AS TIMESTAMP)"
 75
 76    if factor is not None:
 77        return f"CAST(EXTRACT(epoch FROM {end} - {start}){factor} AS BIGINT)"
 78
 79    age = f"AGE({end}, {start})"
 80
 81    if unit == "WEEK":
 82        unit = f"EXTRACT(days FROM ({end} - {start})) / 7"
 83    elif unit == "MONTH":
 84        unit = f"EXTRACT(year FROM {age}) * 12 + EXTRACT(month FROM {age})"
 85    elif unit == "QUARTER":
 86        unit = f"EXTRACT(year FROM {age}) * 4 + EXTRACT(month FROM {age}) / 3"
 87    elif unit == "YEAR":
 88        unit = f"EXTRACT(year FROM {age})"
 89    else:
 90        unit = age
 91
 92    return f"CAST({unit} AS BIGINT)"
 93
 94
 95def _substring_sql(self: Postgres.Generator, expression: exp.Substring) -> str:
 96    this = self.sql(expression, "this")
 97    start = self.sql(expression, "start")
 98    length = self.sql(expression, "length")
 99
100    from_part = f" FROM {start}" if start else ""
101    for_part = f" FOR {length}" if length else ""
102
103    return f"SUBSTRING({this}{from_part}{for_part})"
104
105
106def _string_agg_sql(self: Postgres.Generator, expression: exp.GroupConcat) -> str:
107    separator = expression.args.get("separator") or exp.Literal.string(",")
108
109    order = ""
110    this = expression.this
111    if isinstance(this, exp.Order):
112        if this.this:
113            this = this.this.pop()
114        order = self.sql(expression.this)  # Order has a leading space
115
116    return f"STRING_AGG({self.format_args(this, separator)}{order})"
117
118
119def _auto_increment_to_serial(expression: exp.Expression) -> exp.Expression:
120    auto = expression.find(exp.AutoIncrementColumnConstraint)
121
122    if auto:
123        expression.args["constraints"].remove(auto.parent)
124        kind = expression.args["kind"]
125
126        if kind.this == exp.DataType.Type.INT:
127            kind.replace(exp.DataType(this=exp.DataType.Type.SERIAL))
128        elif kind.this == exp.DataType.Type.SMALLINT:
129            kind.replace(exp.DataType(this=exp.DataType.Type.SMALLSERIAL))
130        elif kind.this == exp.DataType.Type.BIGINT:
131            kind.replace(exp.DataType(this=exp.DataType.Type.BIGSERIAL))
132
133    return expression
134
135
136def _serial_to_generated(expression: exp.Expression) -> exp.Expression:
137    if not isinstance(expression, exp.ColumnDef):
138        return expression
139    kind = expression.kind
140    if not kind:
141        return expression
142
143    if kind.this == exp.DataType.Type.SERIAL:
144        data_type = exp.DataType(this=exp.DataType.Type.INT)
145    elif kind.this == exp.DataType.Type.SMALLSERIAL:
146        data_type = exp.DataType(this=exp.DataType.Type.SMALLINT)
147    elif kind.this == exp.DataType.Type.BIGSERIAL:
148        data_type = exp.DataType(this=exp.DataType.Type.BIGINT)
149    else:
150        data_type = None
151
152    if data_type:
153        expression.args["kind"].replace(data_type)
154        constraints = expression.args["constraints"]
155        generated = exp.ColumnConstraint(kind=exp.GeneratedAsIdentityColumnConstraint(this=False))
156        notnull = exp.ColumnConstraint(kind=exp.NotNullColumnConstraint())
157
158        if notnull not in constraints:
159            constraints.insert(0, notnull)
160        if generated not in constraints:
161            constraints.insert(0, generated)
162
163    return expression
164
165
166def _build_generate_series(args: t.List) -> exp.GenerateSeries:
167    # The goal is to convert step values like '1 day' or INTERVAL '1 day' into INTERVAL '1' day
168    step = seq_get(args, 2)
169
170    if step is None:
171        # Postgres allows calls with just two arguments -- the "step" argument defaults to 1
172        return exp.GenerateSeries.from_arg_list(args)
173
174    if step.is_string:
175        args[2] = exp.to_interval(step.this)
176    elif isinstance(step, exp.Interval) and not step.args.get("unit"):
177        args[2] = exp.to_interval(step.this.this)
178
179    return exp.GenerateSeries.from_arg_list(args)
180
181
182def _build_to_timestamp(args: t.List) -> exp.UnixToTime | exp.StrToTime:
183    # TO_TIMESTAMP accepts either a single double argument or (text, text)
184    if len(args) == 1:
185        # https://www.postgresql.org/docs/current/functions-datetime.html#FUNCTIONS-DATETIME-TABLE
186        return exp.UnixToTime.from_arg_list(args)
187
188    # https://www.postgresql.org/docs/current/functions-formatting.html
189    return build_formatted_time(exp.StrToTime, "postgres")(args)
190
191
192def _json_extract_sql(
193    name: str, op: str
194) -> t.Callable[[Postgres.Generator, JSON_EXTRACT_TYPE], str]:
195    def _generate(self: Postgres.Generator, expression: JSON_EXTRACT_TYPE) -> str:
196        if expression.args.get("only_json_types"):
197            return json_extract_segments(name, quoted_index=False, op=op)(self, expression)
198        return json_extract_segments(name)(self, expression)
199
200    return _generate
201
202
203def _build_regexp_replace(args: t.List) -> exp.RegexpReplace:
204    # The signature of REGEXP_REPLACE is:
205    # regexp_replace(source, pattern, replacement [, start [, N ]] [, flags ])
206    #
207    # Any one of `start`, `N` and `flags` can be column references, meaning that
208    # unless we can statically see that the last argument is a non-integer string
209    # (eg. not '0'), then it's not possible to construct the correct AST
210    if len(args) > 3:
211        last = args[-1]
212        if not is_int(last.name):
213            if not last.type or last.is_type(exp.DataType.Type.UNKNOWN, exp.DataType.Type.NULL):
214                from sqlglot.optimizer.annotate_types import annotate_types
215
216                last = annotate_types(last)
217
218            if last.is_type(*exp.DataType.TEXT_TYPES):
219                regexp_replace = exp.RegexpReplace.from_arg_list(args[:-1])
220                regexp_replace.set("modifiers", last)
221                return regexp_replace
222
223    return exp.RegexpReplace.from_arg_list(args)
224
225
226def _unix_to_time_sql(self: Postgres.Generator, expression: exp.UnixToTime) -> str:
227    scale = expression.args.get("scale")
228    timestamp = expression.this
229
230    if scale in (None, exp.UnixToTime.SECONDS):
231        return self.func("TO_TIMESTAMP", timestamp, self.format_time(expression))
232
233    return self.func(
234        "TO_TIMESTAMP",
235        exp.Div(this=timestamp, expression=exp.func("POW", 10, scale)),
236        self.format_time(expression),
237    )
238
239
240class Postgres(Dialect):
241    INDEX_OFFSET = 1
242    TYPED_DIVISION = True
243    CONCAT_COALESCE = True
244    NULL_ORDERING = "nulls_are_large"
245    TIME_FORMAT = "'YYYY-MM-DD HH24:MI:SS'"
246    TABLESAMPLE_SIZE_IS_PERCENT = True
247
248    TIME_MAPPING = {
249        "AM": "%p",
250        "PM": "%p",
251        "D": "%u",  # 1-based day of week
252        "DD": "%d",  # day of month
253        "DDD": "%j",  # zero padded day of year
254        "FMDD": "%-d",  # - is no leading zero for Python; same for FM in postgres
255        "FMDDD": "%-j",  # day of year
256        "FMHH12": "%-I",  # 9
257        "FMHH24": "%-H",  # 9
258        "FMMI": "%-M",  # Minute
259        "FMMM": "%-m",  # 1
260        "FMSS": "%-S",  # Second
261        "HH12": "%I",  # 09
262        "HH24": "%H",  # 09
263        "MI": "%M",  # zero padded minute
264        "MM": "%m",  # 01
265        "OF": "%z",  # utc offset
266        "SS": "%S",  # zero padded second
267        "TMDay": "%A",  # TM is locale dependent
268        "TMDy": "%a",
269        "TMMon": "%b",  # Sep
270        "TMMonth": "%B",  # September
271        "TZ": "%Z",  # uppercase timezone name
272        "US": "%f",  # zero padded microsecond
273        "WW": "%U",  # 1-based week of year
274        "YY": "%y",  # 15
275        "YYYY": "%Y",  # 2015
276    }
277
278    class Tokenizer(tokens.Tokenizer):
279        BIT_STRINGS = [("b'", "'"), ("B'", "'")]
280        HEX_STRINGS = [("x'", "'"), ("X'", "'")]
281        BYTE_STRINGS = [("e'", "'"), ("E'", "'")]
282        HEREDOC_STRINGS = ["$"]
283
284        HEREDOC_TAG_IS_IDENTIFIER = True
285        HEREDOC_STRING_ALTERNATIVE = TokenType.PARAMETER
286
287        KEYWORDS = {
288            **tokens.Tokenizer.KEYWORDS,
289            "~~": TokenType.LIKE,
290            "~~*": TokenType.ILIKE,
291            "~*": TokenType.IRLIKE,
292            "~": TokenType.RLIKE,
293            "@@": TokenType.DAT,
294            "@>": TokenType.AT_GT,
295            "<@": TokenType.LT_AT,
296            "|/": TokenType.PIPE_SLASH,
297            "||/": TokenType.DPIPE_SLASH,
298            "BEGIN": TokenType.COMMAND,
299            "BEGIN TRANSACTION": TokenType.BEGIN,
300            "BIGSERIAL": TokenType.BIGSERIAL,
301            "CHARACTER VARYING": TokenType.VARCHAR,
302            "CONSTRAINT TRIGGER": TokenType.COMMAND,
303            "CSTRING": TokenType.PSEUDO_TYPE,
304            "DECLARE": TokenType.COMMAND,
305            "DO": TokenType.COMMAND,
306            "EXEC": TokenType.COMMAND,
307            "HSTORE": TokenType.HSTORE,
308            "INT8": TokenType.BIGINT,
309            "MONEY": TokenType.MONEY,
310            "NAME": TokenType.NAME,
311            "OID": TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER,
312            "ONLY": TokenType.ONLY,
313            "OPERATOR": TokenType.OPERATOR,
314            "REFRESH": TokenType.COMMAND,
315            "REINDEX": TokenType.COMMAND,
316            "RESET": TokenType.COMMAND,
317            "REVOKE": TokenType.COMMAND,
318            "SERIAL": TokenType.SERIAL,
319            "SMALLSERIAL": TokenType.SMALLSERIAL,
320            "TEMP": TokenType.TEMPORARY,
321            "REGCLASS": TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER,
322            "REGCOLLATION": TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER,
323            "REGCONFIG": TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER,
324            "REGDICTIONARY": TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER,
325            "REGNAMESPACE": TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER,
326            "REGOPER": TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER,
327            "REGOPERATOR": TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER,
328            "REGPROC": TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER,
329            "REGPROCEDURE": TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER,
330            "REGROLE": TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER,
331            "REGTYPE": TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER,
332            "FLOAT": TokenType.DOUBLE,
333        }
334        KEYWORDS.pop("DIV")
335
336        SINGLE_TOKENS = {
337            **tokens.Tokenizer.SINGLE_TOKENS,
338            "$": TokenType.HEREDOC_STRING,
339        }
340
341        VAR_SINGLE_TOKENS = {"$"}
342
343    class Parser(parser.Parser):
344        PROPERTY_PARSERS = {
345            **parser.Parser.PROPERTY_PARSERS,
346            "SET": lambda self: self.expression(exp.SetConfigProperty, this=self._parse_set()),
347        }
348        PROPERTY_PARSERS.pop("INPUT")
349
350        FUNCTIONS = {
351            **parser.Parser.FUNCTIONS,
352            "DATE_TRUNC": build_timestamp_trunc,
353            "DIV": lambda args: exp.cast(
354                binary_from_function(exp.IntDiv)(args), exp.DataType.Type.DECIMAL
355            ),
356            "GENERATE_SERIES": _build_generate_series,
357            "JSON_EXTRACT_PATH": build_json_extract_path(exp.JSONExtract),
358            "JSON_EXTRACT_PATH_TEXT": build_json_extract_path(exp.JSONExtractScalar),
359            "MAKE_TIME": exp.TimeFromParts.from_arg_list,
360            "MAKE_TIMESTAMP": exp.TimestampFromParts.from_arg_list,
361            "NOW": exp.CurrentTimestamp.from_arg_list,
362            "REGEXP_REPLACE": _build_regexp_replace,
363            "TO_CHAR": build_formatted_time(exp.TimeToStr, "postgres"),
364            "TO_TIMESTAMP": _build_to_timestamp,
365            "UNNEST": exp.Explode.from_arg_list,
366            "SHA256": lambda args: exp.SHA2(this=seq_get(args, 0), length=exp.Literal.number(256)),
367            "SHA384": lambda args: exp.SHA2(this=seq_get(args, 0), length=exp.Literal.number(384)),
368            "SHA512": lambda args: exp.SHA2(this=seq_get(args, 0), length=exp.Literal.number(512)),
369        }
370
371        FUNCTION_PARSERS = {
372            **parser.Parser.FUNCTION_PARSERS,
373            "DATE_PART": lambda self: self._parse_date_part(),
374        }
375
376        BITWISE = {
377            **parser.Parser.BITWISE,
378            TokenType.HASH: exp.BitwiseXor,
379        }
380
381        EXPONENT = {
382            TokenType.CARET: exp.Pow,
383        }
384
385        RANGE_PARSERS = {
386            **parser.Parser.RANGE_PARSERS,
387            TokenType.AT_GT: binary_range_parser(exp.ArrayContainsAll),
388            TokenType.DAMP: binary_range_parser(exp.ArrayOverlaps),
389            TokenType.DAT: lambda self, this: self.expression(
390                exp.MatchAgainst, this=self._parse_bitwise(), expressions=[this]
391            ),
392            TokenType.LT_AT: binary_range_parser(exp.ArrayContainsAll, reverse_args=True),
393            TokenType.OPERATOR: lambda self, this: self._parse_operator(this),
394        }
395
396        STATEMENT_PARSERS = {
397            **parser.Parser.STATEMENT_PARSERS,
398            TokenType.END: lambda self: self._parse_commit_or_rollback(),
399        }
400
401        JSON_ARROWS_REQUIRE_JSON_TYPE = True
402
403        COLUMN_OPERATORS = {
404            **parser.Parser.COLUMN_OPERATORS,
405            TokenType.ARROW: lambda self, this, path: build_json_extract_path(
406                exp.JSONExtract, arrow_req_json_type=self.JSON_ARROWS_REQUIRE_JSON_TYPE
407            )([this, path]),
408            TokenType.DARROW: lambda self, this, path: build_json_extract_path(
409                exp.JSONExtractScalar, arrow_req_json_type=self.JSON_ARROWS_REQUIRE_JSON_TYPE
410            )([this, path]),
411        }
412
413        def _parse_operator(self, this: t.Optional[exp.Expression]) -> t.Optional[exp.Expression]:
414            while True:
415                if not self._match(TokenType.L_PAREN):
416                    break
417
418                op = ""
419                while self._curr and not self._match(TokenType.R_PAREN):
420                    op += self._curr.text
421                    self._advance()
422
423                this = self.expression(
424                    exp.Operator,
425                    comments=self._prev_comments,
426                    this=this,
427                    operator=op,
428                    expression=self._parse_bitwise(),
429                )
430
431                if not self._match(TokenType.OPERATOR):
432                    break
433
434            return this
435
436        def _parse_date_part(self) -> exp.Expression:
437            part = self._parse_type()
438            self._match(TokenType.COMMA)
439            value = self._parse_bitwise()
440
441            if part and part.is_string:
442                part = exp.var(part.name)
443
444            return self.expression(exp.Extract, this=part, expression=value)
445
446    class Generator(generator.Generator):
447        SINGLE_STRING_INTERVAL = True
448        RENAME_TABLE_WITH_DB = False
449        LOCKING_READS_SUPPORTED = True
450        JOIN_HINTS = False
451        TABLE_HINTS = False
452        QUERY_HINTS = False
453        NVL2_SUPPORTED = False
454        PARAMETER_TOKEN = "$"
455        TABLESAMPLE_SIZE_IS_ROWS = False
456        TABLESAMPLE_SEED_KEYWORD = "REPEATABLE"
457        SUPPORTS_SELECT_INTO = True
458        JSON_TYPE_REQUIRED_FOR_EXTRACTION = True
459        SUPPORTS_UNLOGGED_TABLES = True
460        LIKE_PROPERTY_INSIDE_SCHEMA = True
461        MULTI_ARG_DISTINCT = False
462        CAN_IMPLEMENT_ARRAY_ANY = True
463        COPY_HAS_INTO_KEYWORD = False
464
465        SUPPORTED_JSON_PATH_PARTS = {
466            exp.JSONPathKey,
467            exp.JSONPathRoot,
468            exp.JSONPathSubscript,
469        }
470
471        TYPE_MAPPING = {
472            **generator.Generator.TYPE_MAPPING,
473            exp.DataType.Type.TINYINT: "SMALLINT",
474            exp.DataType.Type.FLOAT: "REAL",
475            exp.DataType.Type.DOUBLE: "DOUBLE PRECISION",
476            exp.DataType.Type.BINARY: "BYTEA",
477            exp.DataType.Type.VARBINARY: "BYTEA",
478            exp.DataType.Type.ROWVERSION: "BYTEA",
479            exp.DataType.Type.DATETIME: "TIMESTAMP",
480        }
481
482        TRANSFORMS = {
483            **generator.Generator.TRANSFORMS,
484            exp.AnyValue: any_value_to_max_sql,
485            exp.Array: lambda self, e: (
486                f"{self.normalize_func('ARRAY')}({self.sql(e.expressions[0])})"
487                if isinstance(seq_get(e.expressions, 0), exp.Select)
488                else f"{self.normalize_func('ARRAY')}[{self.expressions(e, flat=True)}]"
489            ),
490            exp.ArrayConcat: rename_func("ARRAY_CAT"),
491            exp.ArrayContainsAll: lambda self, e: self.binary(e, "@>"),
492            exp.ArrayOverlaps: lambda self, e: self.binary(e, "&&"),
493            exp.ArrayFilter: filter_array_using_unnest,
494            exp.ArraySize: lambda self, e: self.func("ARRAY_LENGTH", e.this, e.expression or "1"),
495            exp.BitwiseXor: lambda self, e: self.binary(e, "#"),
496            exp.ColumnDef: transforms.preprocess([_auto_increment_to_serial, _serial_to_generated]),
497            exp.CurrentDate: no_paren_current_date_sql,
498            exp.CurrentTimestamp: lambda *_: "CURRENT_TIMESTAMP",
499            exp.CurrentUser: lambda *_: "CURRENT_USER",
500            exp.DateAdd: _date_add_sql("+"),
501            exp.DateDiff: _date_diff_sql,
502            exp.DateStrToDate: datestrtodate_sql,
503            exp.DateSub: _date_add_sql("-"),
504            exp.Explode: rename_func("UNNEST"),
505            exp.GroupConcat: _string_agg_sql,
506            exp.IntDiv: rename_func("DIV"),
507            exp.JSONExtract: _json_extract_sql("JSON_EXTRACT_PATH", "->"),
508            exp.JSONExtractScalar: _json_extract_sql("JSON_EXTRACT_PATH_TEXT", "->>"),
509            exp.JSONBExtract: lambda self, e: self.binary(e, "#>"),
510            exp.JSONBExtractScalar: lambda self, e: self.binary(e, "#>>"),
511            exp.JSONBContains: lambda self, e: self.binary(e, "?"),
512            exp.ParseJSON: lambda self, e: self.sql(exp.cast(e.this, exp.DataType.Type.JSON)),
513            exp.JSONPathKey: json_path_key_only_name,
514            exp.JSONPathRoot: lambda *_: "",
515            exp.JSONPathSubscript: lambda self, e: self.json_path_part(e.this),
516            exp.LastDay: no_last_day_sql,
517            exp.LogicalOr: rename_func("BOOL_OR"),
518            exp.LogicalAnd: rename_func("BOOL_AND"),
519            exp.Max: max_or_greatest,
520            exp.MapFromEntries: no_map_from_entries_sql,
521            exp.Min: min_or_least,
522            exp.Merge: merge_without_target_sql,
523            exp.PartitionedByProperty: lambda self, e: f"PARTITION BY {self.sql(e, 'this')}",
524            exp.PercentileCont: transforms.preprocess(
525                [transforms.add_within_group_for_percentiles]
526            ),
527            exp.PercentileDisc: transforms.preprocess(
528                [transforms.add_within_group_for_percentiles]
529            ),
530            exp.Pivot: no_pivot_sql,
531            exp.Pow: lambda self, e: self.binary(e, "^"),
532            exp.Rand: rename_func("RANDOM"),
533            exp.RegexpLike: lambda self, e: self.binary(e, "~"),
534            exp.RegexpILike: lambda self, e: self.binary(e, "~*"),
535            exp.Select: transforms.preprocess(
536                [
537                    transforms.eliminate_semi_and_anti_joins,
538                    transforms.eliminate_qualify,
539                ]
540            ),
541            exp.SHA2: sha256_sql,
542            exp.StrPosition: str_position_sql,
543            exp.StrToDate: lambda self, e: self.func("TO_DATE", e.this, self.format_time(e)),
544            exp.StrToTime: lambda self, e: self.func("TO_TIMESTAMP", e.this, self.format_time(e)),
545            exp.StructExtract: struct_extract_sql,
546            exp.Substring: _substring_sql,
547            exp.TimeFromParts: rename_func("MAKE_TIME"),
548            exp.TimestampFromParts: rename_func("MAKE_TIMESTAMP"),
549            exp.TimestampTrunc: timestamptrunc_sql(zone=True),
550            exp.TimeStrToTime: timestrtotime_sql,
551            exp.TimeToStr: lambda self, e: self.func("TO_CHAR", e.this, self.format_time(e)),
552            exp.ToChar: lambda self, e: self.function_fallback_sql(e),
553            exp.Trim: trim_sql,
554            exp.TryCast: no_trycast_sql,
555            exp.TsOrDsAdd: _date_add_sql("+"),
556            exp.TsOrDsDiff: _date_diff_sql,
557            exp.UnixToTime: lambda self, e: self.func("TO_TIMESTAMP", e.this),
558            exp.TimeToUnix: lambda self, e: self.func(
559                "DATE_PART", exp.Literal.string("epoch"), e.this
560            ),
561            exp.VariancePop: rename_func("VAR_POP"),
562            exp.Variance: rename_func("VAR_SAMP"),
563            exp.Xor: bool_xor_sql,
564            exp.UnixToTime: _unix_to_time_sql,
565        }
566        TRANSFORMS.pop(exp.CommentColumnConstraint)
567
568        PROPERTIES_LOCATION = {
569            **generator.Generator.PROPERTIES_LOCATION,
570            exp.PartitionedByProperty: exp.Properties.Location.POST_SCHEMA,
571            exp.TransientProperty: exp.Properties.Location.UNSUPPORTED,
572            exp.VolatileProperty: exp.Properties.Location.UNSUPPORTED,
573        }
574
575        def schemacommentproperty_sql(self, expression: exp.SchemaCommentProperty) -> str:
576            self.unsupported("Table comments are not supported in the CREATE statement")
577            return ""
578
579        def commentcolumnconstraint_sql(self, expression: exp.CommentColumnConstraint) -> str:
580            self.unsupported("Column comments are not supported in the CREATE statement")
581            return ""
582
583        def unnest_sql(self, expression: exp.Unnest) -> str:
584            if len(expression.expressions) == 1:
585                from sqlglot.optimizer.annotate_types import annotate_types
586
587                this = annotate_types(expression.expressions[0])
588                if this.is_type("array<json>"):
589                    while isinstance(this, exp.Cast):
590                        this = this.this
591
592                    arg = self.sql(exp.cast(this, exp.DataType.Type.JSON))
593                    alias = self.sql(expression, "alias")
594                    alias = f" AS {alias}" if alias else ""
595
596                    if expression.args.get("offset"):
597                        self.unsupported("Unsupported JSON_ARRAY_ELEMENTS with offset")
598
599                    return f"JSON_ARRAY_ELEMENTS({arg}){alias}"
600
601            return super().unnest_sql(expression)
602
603        def bracket_sql(self, expression: exp.Bracket) -> str:
604            """Forms like ARRAY[1, 2, 3][3] aren't allowed; we need to wrap the ARRAY."""
605            if isinstance(expression.this, exp.Array):
606                expression.set("this", exp.paren(expression.this, copy=False))
607
608            return super().bracket_sql(expression)
609
610        def matchagainst_sql(self, expression: exp.MatchAgainst) -> str:
611            this = self.sql(expression, "this")
612            expressions = [f"{self.sql(e)} @@ {this}" for e in expression.expressions]
613            sql = " OR ".join(expressions)
614            return f"({sql})" if len(expressions) > 1 else sql
615
616        def alterset_sql(self, expression: exp.AlterSet) -> str:
617            exprs = self.expressions(expression, flat=True)
618            exprs = f"({exprs})" if exprs else ""
619
620            access_method = self.sql(expression, "access_method")
621            access_method = f"ACCESS METHOD {access_method}" if access_method else ""
622            tablespace = self.sql(expression, "tablespace")
623            tablespace = f"TABLESPACE {tablespace}" if tablespace else ""
624            option = self.sql(expression, "option")
625
626            return f"SET {exprs}{access_method}{tablespace}{option}"
627
628        def datatype_sql(self, expression: exp.DataType) -> str:
629            if expression.is_type(exp.DataType.Type.ARRAY):
630                if expression.expressions:
631                    values = self.expressions(expression, key="values", flat=True)
632                    return f"{self.expressions(expression, flat=True)}[{values}]"
633                return "ARRAY"
634            return super().datatype_sql(expression)
635
636        def cast_sql(self, expression: exp.Cast, safe_prefix: t.Optional[str] = None) -> str:
637            this = expression.this
638
639            # Postgres casts DIV() to decimal for transpilation but when roundtripping it's superfluous
640            if isinstance(this, exp.IntDiv) and expression.to == exp.DataType.build("decimal"):
641                return self.sql(this)
642
643            return super().cast_sql(expression, safe_prefix=safe_prefix)
DATE_DIFF_FACTOR = {'MICROSECOND': ' * 1000000', 'MILLISECOND': ' * 1000', 'SECOND': '', 'MINUTE': ' / 60', 'HOUR': ' / 3600', 'DAY': ' / 86400'}
class Postgres(sqlglot.dialects.dialect.Dialect):
241class Postgres(Dialect):
242    INDEX_OFFSET = 1
243    TYPED_DIVISION = True
244    CONCAT_COALESCE = True
245    NULL_ORDERING = "nulls_are_large"
246    TIME_FORMAT = "'YYYY-MM-DD HH24:MI:SS'"
247    TABLESAMPLE_SIZE_IS_PERCENT = True
248
249    TIME_MAPPING = {
250        "AM": "%p",
251        "PM": "%p",
252        "D": "%u",  # 1-based day of week
253        "DD": "%d",  # day of month
254        "DDD": "%j",  # zero padded day of year
255        "FMDD": "%-d",  # - is no leading zero for Python; same for FM in postgres
256        "FMDDD": "%-j",  # day of year
257        "FMHH12": "%-I",  # 9
258        "FMHH24": "%-H",  # 9
259        "FMMI": "%-M",  # Minute
260        "FMMM": "%-m",  # 1
261        "FMSS": "%-S",  # Second
262        "HH12": "%I",  # 09
263        "HH24": "%H",  # 09
264        "MI": "%M",  # zero padded minute
265        "MM": "%m",  # 01
266        "OF": "%z",  # utc offset
267        "SS": "%S",  # zero padded second
268        "TMDay": "%A",  # TM is locale dependent
269        "TMDy": "%a",
270        "TMMon": "%b",  # Sep
271        "TMMonth": "%B",  # September
272        "TZ": "%Z",  # uppercase timezone name
273        "US": "%f",  # zero padded microsecond
274        "WW": "%U",  # 1-based week of year
275        "YY": "%y",  # 15
276        "YYYY": "%Y",  # 2015
277    }
278
279    class Tokenizer(tokens.Tokenizer):
280        BIT_STRINGS = [("b'", "'"), ("B'", "'")]
281        HEX_STRINGS = [("x'", "'"), ("X'", "'")]
282        BYTE_STRINGS = [("e'", "'"), ("E'", "'")]
283        HEREDOC_STRINGS = ["$"]
284
285        HEREDOC_TAG_IS_IDENTIFIER = True
286        HEREDOC_STRING_ALTERNATIVE = TokenType.PARAMETER
287
288        KEYWORDS = {
289            **tokens.Tokenizer.KEYWORDS,
290            "~~": TokenType.LIKE,
291            "~~*": TokenType.ILIKE,
292            "~*": TokenType.IRLIKE,
293            "~": TokenType.RLIKE,
294            "@@": TokenType.DAT,
295            "@>": TokenType.AT_GT,
296            "<@": TokenType.LT_AT,
297            "|/": TokenType.PIPE_SLASH,
298            "||/": TokenType.DPIPE_SLASH,
299            "BEGIN": TokenType.COMMAND,
300            "BEGIN TRANSACTION": TokenType.BEGIN,
301            "BIGSERIAL": TokenType.BIGSERIAL,
302            "CHARACTER VARYING": TokenType.VARCHAR,
303            "CONSTRAINT TRIGGER": TokenType.COMMAND,
304            "CSTRING": TokenType.PSEUDO_TYPE,
305            "DECLARE": TokenType.COMMAND,
306            "DO": TokenType.COMMAND,
307            "EXEC": TokenType.COMMAND,
308            "HSTORE": TokenType.HSTORE,
309            "INT8": TokenType.BIGINT,
310            "MONEY": TokenType.MONEY,
311            "NAME": TokenType.NAME,
312            "OID": TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER,
313            "ONLY": TokenType.ONLY,
314            "OPERATOR": TokenType.OPERATOR,
315            "REFRESH": TokenType.COMMAND,
316            "REINDEX": TokenType.COMMAND,
317            "RESET": TokenType.COMMAND,
318            "REVOKE": TokenType.COMMAND,
319            "SERIAL": TokenType.SERIAL,
320            "SMALLSERIAL": TokenType.SMALLSERIAL,
321            "TEMP": TokenType.TEMPORARY,
322            "REGCLASS": TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER,
323            "REGCOLLATION": TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER,
324            "REGCONFIG": TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER,
325            "REGDICTIONARY": TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER,
326            "REGNAMESPACE": TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER,
327            "REGOPER": TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER,
328            "REGOPERATOR": TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER,
329            "REGPROC": TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER,
330            "REGPROCEDURE": TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER,
331            "REGROLE": TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER,
332            "REGTYPE": TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER,
333            "FLOAT": TokenType.DOUBLE,
334        }
335        KEYWORDS.pop("DIV")
336
337        SINGLE_TOKENS = {
338            **tokens.Tokenizer.SINGLE_TOKENS,
339            "$": TokenType.HEREDOC_STRING,
340        }
341
342        VAR_SINGLE_TOKENS = {"$"}
343
344    class Parser(parser.Parser):
345        PROPERTY_PARSERS = {
346            **parser.Parser.PROPERTY_PARSERS,
347            "SET": lambda self: self.expression(exp.SetConfigProperty, this=self._parse_set()),
348        }
349        PROPERTY_PARSERS.pop("INPUT")
350
351        FUNCTIONS = {
352            **parser.Parser.FUNCTIONS,
353            "DATE_TRUNC": build_timestamp_trunc,
354            "DIV": lambda args: exp.cast(
355                binary_from_function(exp.IntDiv)(args), exp.DataType.Type.DECIMAL
356            ),
357            "GENERATE_SERIES": _build_generate_series,
358            "JSON_EXTRACT_PATH": build_json_extract_path(exp.JSONExtract),
359            "JSON_EXTRACT_PATH_TEXT": build_json_extract_path(exp.JSONExtractScalar),
360            "MAKE_TIME": exp.TimeFromParts.from_arg_list,
361            "MAKE_TIMESTAMP": exp.TimestampFromParts.from_arg_list,
362            "NOW": exp.CurrentTimestamp.from_arg_list,
363            "REGEXP_REPLACE": _build_regexp_replace,
364            "TO_CHAR": build_formatted_time(exp.TimeToStr, "postgres"),
365            "TO_TIMESTAMP": _build_to_timestamp,
366            "UNNEST": exp.Explode.from_arg_list,
367            "SHA256": lambda args: exp.SHA2(this=seq_get(args, 0), length=exp.Literal.number(256)),
368            "SHA384": lambda args: exp.SHA2(this=seq_get(args, 0), length=exp.Literal.number(384)),
369            "SHA512": lambda args: exp.SHA2(this=seq_get(args, 0), length=exp.Literal.number(512)),
370        }
371
372        FUNCTION_PARSERS = {
373            **parser.Parser.FUNCTION_PARSERS,
374            "DATE_PART": lambda self: self._parse_date_part(),
375        }
376
377        BITWISE = {
378            **parser.Parser.BITWISE,
379            TokenType.HASH: exp.BitwiseXor,
380        }
381
382        EXPONENT = {
383            TokenType.CARET: exp.Pow,
384        }
385
386        RANGE_PARSERS = {
387            **parser.Parser.RANGE_PARSERS,
388            TokenType.AT_GT: binary_range_parser(exp.ArrayContainsAll),
389            TokenType.DAMP: binary_range_parser(exp.ArrayOverlaps),
390            TokenType.DAT: lambda self, this: self.expression(
391                exp.MatchAgainst, this=self._parse_bitwise(), expressions=[this]
392            ),
393            TokenType.LT_AT: binary_range_parser(exp.ArrayContainsAll, reverse_args=True),
394            TokenType.OPERATOR: lambda self, this: self._parse_operator(this),
395        }
396
397        STATEMENT_PARSERS = {
398            **parser.Parser.STATEMENT_PARSERS,
399            TokenType.END: lambda self: self._parse_commit_or_rollback(),
400        }
401
402        JSON_ARROWS_REQUIRE_JSON_TYPE = True
403
404        COLUMN_OPERATORS = {
405            **parser.Parser.COLUMN_OPERATORS,
406            TokenType.ARROW: lambda self, this, path: build_json_extract_path(
407                exp.JSONExtract, arrow_req_json_type=self.JSON_ARROWS_REQUIRE_JSON_TYPE
408            )([this, path]),
409            TokenType.DARROW: lambda self, this, path: build_json_extract_path(
410                exp.JSONExtractScalar, arrow_req_json_type=self.JSON_ARROWS_REQUIRE_JSON_TYPE
411            )([this, path]),
412        }
413
414        def _parse_operator(self, this: t.Optional[exp.Expression]) -> t.Optional[exp.Expression]:
415            while True:
416                if not self._match(TokenType.L_PAREN):
417                    break
418
419                op = ""
420                while self._curr and not self._match(TokenType.R_PAREN):
421                    op += self._curr.text
422                    self._advance()
423
424                this = self.expression(
425                    exp.Operator,
426                    comments=self._prev_comments,
427                    this=this,
428                    operator=op,
429                    expression=self._parse_bitwise(),
430                )
431
432                if not self._match(TokenType.OPERATOR):
433                    break
434
435            return this
436
437        def _parse_date_part(self) -> exp.Expression:
438            part = self._parse_type()
439            self._match(TokenType.COMMA)
440            value = self._parse_bitwise()
441
442            if part and part.is_string:
443                part = exp.var(part.name)
444
445            return self.expression(exp.Extract, this=part, expression=value)
446
447    class Generator(generator.Generator):
448        SINGLE_STRING_INTERVAL = True
449        RENAME_TABLE_WITH_DB = False
450        LOCKING_READS_SUPPORTED = True
451        JOIN_HINTS = False
452        TABLE_HINTS = False
453        QUERY_HINTS = False
454        NVL2_SUPPORTED = False
455        PARAMETER_TOKEN = "$"
456        TABLESAMPLE_SIZE_IS_ROWS = False
457        TABLESAMPLE_SEED_KEYWORD = "REPEATABLE"
458        SUPPORTS_SELECT_INTO = True
459        JSON_TYPE_REQUIRED_FOR_EXTRACTION = True
460        SUPPORTS_UNLOGGED_TABLES = True
461        LIKE_PROPERTY_INSIDE_SCHEMA = True
462        MULTI_ARG_DISTINCT = False
463        CAN_IMPLEMENT_ARRAY_ANY = True
464        COPY_HAS_INTO_KEYWORD = False
465
466        SUPPORTED_JSON_PATH_PARTS = {
467            exp.JSONPathKey,
468            exp.JSONPathRoot,
469            exp.JSONPathSubscript,
470        }
471
472        TYPE_MAPPING = {
473            **generator.Generator.TYPE_MAPPING,
474            exp.DataType.Type.TINYINT: "SMALLINT",
475            exp.DataType.Type.FLOAT: "REAL",
476            exp.DataType.Type.DOUBLE: "DOUBLE PRECISION",
477            exp.DataType.Type.BINARY: "BYTEA",
478            exp.DataType.Type.VARBINARY: "BYTEA",
479            exp.DataType.Type.ROWVERSION: "BYTEA",
480            exp.DataType.Type.DATETIME: "TIMESTAMP",
481        }
482
483        TRANSFORMS = {
484            **generator.Generator.TRANSFORMS,
485            exp.AnyValue: any_value_to_max_sql,
486            exp.Array: lambda self, e: (
487                f"{self.normalize_func('ARRAY')}({self.sql(e.expressions[0])})"
488                if isinstance(seq_get(e.expressions, 0), exp.Select)
489                else f"{self.normalize_func('ARRAY')}[{self.expressions(e, flat=True)}]"
490            ),
491            exp.ArrayConcat: rename_func("ARRAY_CAT"),
492            exp.ArrayContainsAll: lambda self, e: self.binary(e, "@>"),
493            exp.ArrayOverlaps: lambda self, e: self.binary(e, "&&"),
494            exp.ArrayFilter: filter_array_using_unnest,
495            exp.ArraySize: lambda self, e: self.func("ARRAY_LENGTH", e.this, e.expression or "1"),
496            exp.BitwiseXor: lambda self, e: self.binary(e, "#"),
497            exp.ColumnDef: transforms.preprocess([_auto_increment_to_serial, _serial_to_generated]),
498            exp.CurrentDate: no_paren_current_date_sql,
499            exp.CurrentTimestamp: lambda *_: "CURRENT_TIMESTAMP",
500            exp.CurrentUser: lambda *_: "CURRENT_USER",
501            exp.DateAdd: _date_add_sql("+"),
502            exp.DateDiff: _date_diff_sql,
503            exp.DateStrToDate: datestrtodate_sql,
504            exp.DateSub: _date_add_sql("-"),
505            exp.Explode: rename_func("UNNEST"),
506            exp.GroupConcat: _string_agg_sql,
507            exp.IntDiv: rename_func("DIV"),
508            exp.JSONExtract: _json_extract_sql("JSON_EXTRACT_PATH", "->"),
509            exp.JSONExtractScalar: _json_extract_sql("JSON_EXTRACT_PATH_TEXT", "->>"),
510            exp.JSONBExtract: lambda self, e: self.binary(e, "#>"),
511            exp.JSONBExtractScalar: lambda self, e: self.binary(e, "#>>"),
512            exp.JSONBContains: lambda self, e: self.binary(e, "?"),
513            exp.ParseJSON: lambda self, e: self.sql(exp.cast(e.this, exp.DataType.Type.JSON)),
514            exp.JSONPathKey: json_path_key_only_name,
515            exp.JSONPathRoot: lambda *_: "",
516            exp.JSONPathSubscript: lambda self, e: self.json_path_part(e.this),
517            exp.LastDay: no_last_day_sql,
518            exp.LogicalOr: rename_func("BOOL_OR"),
519            exp.LogicalAnd: rename_func("BOOL_AND"),
520            exp.Max: max_or_greatest,
521            exp.MapFromEntries: no_map_from_entries_sql,
522            exp.Min: min_or_least,
523            exp.Merge: merge_without_target_sql,
524            exp.PartitionedByProperty: lambda self, e: f"PARTITION BY {self.sql(e, 'this')}",
525            exp.PercentileCont: transforms.preprocess(
526                [transforms.add_within_group_for_percentiles]
527            ),
528            exp.PercentileDisc: transforms.preprocess(
529                [transforms.add_within_group_for_percentiles]
530            ),
531            exp.Pivot: no_pivot_sql,
532            exp.Pow: lambda self, e: self.binary(e, "^"),
533            exp.Rand: rename_func("RANDOM"),
534            exp.RegexpLike: lambda self, e: self.binary(e, "~"),
535            exp.RegexpILike: lambda self, e: self.binary(e, "~*"),
536            exp.Select: transforms.preprocess(
537                [
538                    transforms.eliminate_semi_and_anti_joins,
539                    transforms.eliminate_qualify,
540                ]
541            ),
542            exp.SHA2: sha256_sql,
543            exp.StrPosition: str_position_sql,
544            exp.StrToDate: lambda self, e: self.func("TO_DATE", e.this, self.format_time(e)),
545            exp.StrToTime: lambda self, e: self.func("TO_TIMESTAMP", e.this, self.format_time(e)),
546            exp.StructExtract: struct_extract_sql,
547            exp.Substring: _substring_sql,
548            exp.TimeFromParts: rename_func("MAKE_TIME"),
549            exp.TimestampFromParts: rename_func("MAKE_TIMESTAMP"),
550            exp.TimestampTrunc: timestamptrunc_sql(zone=True),
551            exp.TimeStrToTime: timestrtotime_sql,
552            exp.TimeToStr: lambda self, e: self.func("TO_CHAR", e.this, self.format_time(e)),
553            exp.ToChar: lambda self, e: self.function_fallback_sql(e),
554            exp.Trim: trim_sql,
555            exp.TryCast: no_trycast_sql,
556            exp.TsOrDsAdd: _date_add_sql("+"),
557            exp.TsOrDsDiff: _date_diff_sql,
558            exp.UnixToTime: lambda self, e: self.func("TO_TIMESTAMP", e.this),
559            exp.TimeToUnix: lambda self, e: self.func(
560                "DATE_PART", exp.Literal.string("epoch"), e.this
561            ),
562            exp.VariancePop: rename_func("VAR_POP"),
563            exp.Variance: rename_func("VAR_SAMP"),
564            exp.Xor: bool_xor_sql,
565            exp.UnixToTime: _unix_to_time_sql,
566        }
567        TRANSFORMS.pop(exp.CommentColumnConstraint)
568
569        PROPERTIES_LOCATION = {
570            **generator.Generator.PROPERTIES_LOCATION,
571            exp.PartitionedByProperty: exp.Properties.Location.POST_SCHEMA,
572            exp.TransientProperty: exp.Properties.Location.UNSUPPORTED,
573            exp.VolatileProperty: exp.Properties.Location.UNSUPPORTED,
574        }
575
576        def schemacommentproperty_sql(self, expression: exp.SchemaCommentProperty) -> str:
577            self.unsupported("Table comments are not supported in the CREATE statement")
578            return ""
579
580        def commentcolumnconstraint_sql(self, expression: exp.CommentColumnConstraint) -> str:
581            self.unsupported("Column comments are not supported in the CREATE statement")
582            return ""
583
584        def unnest_sql(self, expression: exp.Unnest) -> str:
585            if len(expression.expressions) == 1:
586                from sqlglot.optimizer.annotate_types import annotate_types
587
588                this = annotate_types(expression.expressions[0])
589                if this.is_type("array<json>"):
590                    while isinstance(this, exp.Cast):
591                        this = this.this
592
593                    arg = self.sql(exp.cast(this, exp.DataType.Type.JSON))
594                    alias = self.sql(expression, "alias")
595                    alias = f" AS {alias}" if alias else ""
596
597                    if expression.args.get("offset"):
598                        self.unsupported("Unsupported JSON_ARRAY_ELEMENTS with offset")
599
600                    return f"JSON_ARRAY_ELEMENTS({arg}){alias}"
601
602            return super().unnest_sql(expression)
603
604        def bracket_sql(self, expression: exp.Bracket) -> str:
605            """Forms like ARRAY[1, 2, 3][3] aren't allowed; we need to wrap the ARRAY."""
606            if isinstance(expression.this, exp.Array):
607                expression.set("this", exp.paren(expression.this, copy=False))
608
609            return super().bracket_sql(expression)
610
611        def matchagainst_sql(self, expression: exp.MatchAgainst) -> str:
612            this = self.sql(expression, "this")
613            expressions = [f"{self.sql(e)} @@ {this}" for e in expression.expressions]
614            sql = " OR ".join(expressions)
615            return f"({sql})" if len(expressions) > 1 else sql
616
617        def alterset_sql(self, expression: exp.AlterSet) -> str:
618            exprs = self.expressions(expression, flat=True)
619            exprs = f"({exprs})" if exprs else ""
620
621            access_method = self.sql(expression, "access_method")
622            access_method = f"ACCESS METHOD {access_method}" if access_method else ""
623            tablespace = self.sql(expression, "tablespace")
624            tablespace = f"TABLESPACE {tablespace}" if tablespace else ""
625            option = self.sql(expression, "option")
626
627            return f"SET {exprs}{access_method}{tablespace}{option}"
628
629        def datatype_sql(self, expression: exp.DataType) -> str:
630            if expression.is_type(exp.DataType.Type.ARRAY):
631                if expression.expressions:
632                    values = self.expressions(expression, key="values", flat=True)
633                    return f"{self.expressions(expression, flat=True)}[{values}]"
634                return "ARRAY"
635            return super().datatype_sql(expression)
636
637        def cast_sql(self, expression: exp.Cast, safe_prefix: t.Optional[str] = None) -> str:
638            this = expression.this
639
640            # Postgres casts DIV() to decimal for transpilation but when roundtripping it's superfluous
641            if isinstance(this, exp.IntDiv) and expression.to == exp.DataType.build("decimal"):
642                return self.sql(this)
643
644            return super().cast_sql(expression, safe_prefix=safe_prefix)
INDEX_OFFSET = 1

The base index offset for arrays.

TYPED_DIVISION = True

Whether the behavior of a / b depends on the types of a and b. False means a / b is always float division. True means a / b is integer division if both a and b are integers.

CONCAT_COALESCE = True

A NULL arg in CONCAT yields NULL by default, but in some dialects it yields an empty string.

NULL_ORDERING = 'nulls_are_large'

Default NULL ordering method to use if not explicitly set. Possible values: "nulls_are_small", "nulls_are_large", "nulls_are_last"

TIME_FORMAT = "'YYYY-MM-DD HH24:MI:SS'"
TABLESAMPLE_SIZE_IS_PERCENT = True

Whether a size in the table sample clause represents percentage.

TIME_MAPPING: Dict[str, str] = {'AM': '%p', 'PM': '%p', 'D': '%u', 'DD': '%d', 'DDD': '%j', 'FMDD': '%-d', 'FMDDD': '%-j', 'FMHH12': '%-I', 'FMHH24': '%-H', 'FMMI': '%-M', 'FMMM': '%-m', 'FMSS': '%-S', 'HH12': '%I', 'HH24': '%H', 'MI': '%M', 'MM': '%m', 'OF': '%z', 'SS': '%S', 'TMDay': '%A', 'TMDy': '%a', 'TMMon': '%b', 'TMMonth': '%B', 'TZ': '%Z', 'US': '%f', 'WW': '%U', 'YY': '%y', 'YYYY': '%Y'}

Associates this dialect's time formats with their equivalent Python strftime formats.

SUPPORTS_COLUMN_JOIN_MARKS = False

Whether the old-style outer join (+) syntax is supported.

tokenizer_class = <class 'Postgres.Tokenizer'>
jsonpath_tokenizer_class = <class 'sqlglot.tokens.JSONPathTokenizer'>
parser_class = <class 'Postgres.Parser'>
generator_class = <class 'Postgres.Generator'>
TIME_TRIE: Dict = {'A': {'M': {0: True}}, 'P': {'M': {0: True}}, 'D': {0: True, 'D': {0: True, 'D': {0: True}}}, 'F': {'M': {'D': {'D': {0: True, 'D': {0: True}}}, 'H': {'H': {'1': {'2': {0: True}}, '2': {'4': {0: True}}}}, 'M': {'I': {0: True}, 'M': {0: True}}, 'S': {'S': {0: True}}}}, 'H': {'H': {'1': {'2': {0: True}}, '2': {'4': {0: True}}}}, 'M': {'I': {0: True}, 'M': {0: True}}, 'O': {'F': {0: True}}, 'S': {'S': {0: True}}, 'T': {'M': {'D': {'a': {'y': {0: True}}, 'y': {0: True}}, 'M': {'o': {'n': {0: True, 't': {'h': {0: True}}}}}}, 'Z': {0: True}}, 'U': {'S': {0: True}}, 'W': {'W': {0: True}}, 'Y': {'Y': {0: True, 'Y': {'Y': {0: True}}}}}
FORMAT_TRIE: Dict = {'A': {'M': {0: True}}, 'P': {'M': {0: True}}, 'D': {0: True, 'D': {0: True, 'D': {0: True}}}, 'F': {'M': {'D': {'D': {0: True, 'D': {0: True}}}, 'H': {'H': {'1': {'2': {0: True}}, '2': {'4': {0: True}}}}, 'M': {'I': {0: True}, 'M': {0: True}}, 'S': {'S': {0: True}}}}, 'H': {'H': {'1': {'2': {0: True}}, '2': {'4': {0: True}}}}, 'M': {'I': {0: True}, 'M': {0: True}}, 'O': {'F': {0: True}}, 'S': {'S': {0: True}}, 'T': {'M': {'D': {'a': {'y': {0: True}}, 'y': {0: True}}, 'M': {'o': {'n': {0: True, 't': {'h': {0: True}}}}}}, 'Z': {0: True}}, 'U': {'S': {0: True}}, 'W': {'W': {0: True}}, 'Y': {'Y': {0: True, 'Y': {'Y': {0: True}}}}}
INVERSE_TIME_MAPPING: Dict[str, str] = {'%p': 'PM', '%u': 'D', '%d': 'DD', '%j': 'DDD', '%-d': 'FMDD', '%-j': 'FMDDD', '%-I': 'FMHH12', '%-H': 'FMHH24', '%-M': 'FMMI', '%-m': 'FMMM', '%-S': 'FMSS', '%I': 'HH12', '%H': 'HH24', '%M': 'MI', '%m': 'MM', '%z': 'OF', '%S': 'SS', '%A': 'TMDay', '%a': 'TMDy', '%b': 'TMMon', '%B': 'TMMonth', '%Z': 'TZ', '%f': 'US', '%U': 'WW', '%y': 'YY', '%Y': 'YYYY'}
INVERSE_TIME_TRIE: Dict = {'%': {'p': {0: True}, 'u': {0: True}, 'd': {0: True}, 'j': {0: True}, '-': {'d': {0: True}, 'j': {0: True}, 'I': {0: True}, 'H': {0: True}, 'M': {0: True}, 'm': {0: True}, 'S': {0: True}}, 'I': {0: True}, 'H': {0: True}, 'M': {0: True}, 'm': {0: True}, 'z': {0: True}, 'S': {0: True}, 'A': {0: True}, 'a': {0: True}, 'b': {0: True}, 'B': {0: True}, 'Z': {0: True}, 'f': {0: True}, 'U': {0: True}, 'y': {0: True}, 'Y': {0: True}}}
ESCAPED_SEQUENCES: Dict[str, str] = {}
QUOTE_START = "'"
QUOTE_END = "'"
IDENTIFIER_START = '"'
IDENTIFIER_END = '"'
BIT_START: Optional[str] = "b'"
BIT_END: Optional[str] = "'"
HEX_START: Optional[str] = "x'"
HEX_END: Optional[str] = "'"
BYTE_START: Optional[str] = "e'"
BYTE_END: Optional[str] = "'"
UNICODE_START: Optional[str] = None
UNICODE_END: Optional[str] = None
class Postgres.Tokenizer(sqlglot.tokens.Tokenizer):
279    class Tokenizer(tokens.Tokenizer):
280        BIT_STRINGS = [("b'", "'"), ("B'", "'")]
281        HEX_STRINGS = [("x'", "'"), ("X'", "'")]
282        BYTE_STRINGS = [("e'", "'"), ("E'", "'")]
283        HEREDOC_STRINGS = ["$"]
284
285        HEREDOC_TAG_IS_IDENTIFIER = True
286        HEREDOC_STRING_ALTERNATIVE = TokenType.PARAMETER
287
288        KEYWORDS = {
289            **tokens.Tokenizer.KEYWORDS,
290            "~~": TokenType.LIKE,
291            "~~*": TokenType.ILIKE,
292            "~*": TokenType.IRLIKE,
293            "~": TokenType.RLIKE,
294            "@@": TokenType.DAT,
295            "@>": TokenType.AT_GT,
296            "<@": TokenType.LT_AT,
297            "|/": TokenType.PIPE_SLASH,
298            "||/": TokenType.DPIPE_SLASH,
299            "BEGIN": TokenType.COMMAND,
300            "BEGIN TRANSACTION": TokenType.BEGIN,
301            "BIGSERIAL": TokenType.BIGSERIAL,
302            "CHARACTER VARYING": TokenType.VARCHAR,
303            "CONSTRAINT TRIGGER": TokenType.COMMAND,
304            "CSTRING": TokenType.PSEUDO_TYPE,
305            "DECLARE": TokenType.COMMAND,
306            "DO": TokenType.COMMAND,
307            "EXEC": TokenType.COMMAND,
308            "HSTORE": TokenType.HSTORE,
309            "INT8": TokenType.BIGINT,
310            "MONEY": TokenType.MONEY,
311            "NAME": TokenType.NAME,
312            "OID": TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER,
313            "ONLY": TokenType.ONLY,
314            "OPERATOR": TokenType.OPERATOR,
315            "REFRESH": TokenType.COMMAND,
316            "REINDEX": TokenType.COMMAND,
317            "RESET": TokenType.COMMAND,
318            "REVOKE": TokenType.COMMAND,
319            "SERIAL": TokenType.SERIAL,
320            "SMALLSERIAL": TokenType.SMALLSERIAL,
321            "TEMP": TokenType.TEMPORARY,
322            "REGCLASS": TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER,
323            "REGCOLLATION": TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER,
324            "REGCONFIG": TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER,
325            "REGDICTIONARY": TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER,
326            "REGNAMESPACE": TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER,
327            "REGOPER": TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER,
328            "REGOPERATOR": TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER,
329            "REGPROC": TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER,
330            "REGPROCEDURE": TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER,
331            "REGROLE": TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER,
332            "REGTYPE": TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER,
333            "FLOAT": TokenType.DOUBLE,
334        }
335        KEYWORDS.pop("DIV")
336
337        SINGLE_TOKENS = {
338            **tokens.Tokenizer.SINGLE_TOKENS,
339            "$": TokenType.HEREDOC_STRING,
340        }
341
342        VAR_SINGLE_TOKENS = {"$"}
BIT_STRINGS = [("b'", "'"), ("B'", "'")]
HEX_STRINGS = [("x'", "'"), ("X'", "'")]
BYTE_STRINGS = [("e'", "'"), ("E'", "'")]
HEREDOC_STRINGS = ['$']
HEREDOC_TAG_IS_IDENTIFIER = True
HEREDOC_STRING_ALTERNATIVE = <TokenType.PARAMETER: 'PARAMETER'>
KEYWORDS = {'{%': <TokenType.BLOCK_START: 'BLOCK_START'>, '{%+': <TokenType.BLOCK_START: 'BLOCK_START'>, '{%-': <TokenType.BLOCK_START: 'BLOCK_START'>, '%}': <TokenType.BLOCK_END: 'BLOCK_END'>, '+%}': <TokenType.BLOCK_END: 'BLOCK_END'>, '-%}': <TokenType.BLOCK_END: 'BLOCK_END'>, '{{+': <TokenType.BLOCK_START: 'BLOCK_START'>, '{{-': <TokenType.BLOCK_START: 'BLOCK_START'>, '+}}': <TokenType.BLOCK_END: 'BLOCK_END'>, '-}}': <TokenType.BLOCK_END: 'BLOCK_END'>, '/*+': <TokenType.HINT: 'HINT'>, '==': <TokenType.EQ: 'EQ'>, '::': <TokenType.DCOLON: 'DCOLON'>, '||': <TokenType.DPIPE: 'DPIPE'>, '>=': <TokenType.GTE: 'GTE'>, '<=': <TokenType.LTE: 'LTE'>, '<>': <TokenType.NEQ: 'NEQ'>, '!=': <TokenType.NEQ: 'NEQ'>, ':=': <TokenType.COLON_EQ: 'COLON_EQ'>, '<=>': <TokenType.NULLSAFE_EQ: 'NULLSAFE_EQ'>, '->': <TokenType.ARROW: 'ARROW'>, '->>': <TokenType.DARROW: 'DARROW'>, '=>': <TokenType.FARROW: 'FARROW'>, '#>': <TokenType.HASH_ARROW: 'HASH_ARROW'>, '#>>': <TokenType.DHASH_ARROW: 'DHASH_ARROW'>, '<->': <TokenType.LR_ARROW: 'LR_ARROW'>, '&&': <TokenType.DAMP: 'DAMP'>, '??': <TokenType.DQMARK: 'DQMARK'>, 'ALL': <TokenType.ALL: 'ALL'>, 'ALWAYS': <TokenType.ALWAYS: 'ALWAYS'>, 'AND': <TokenType.AND: 'AND'>, 'ANTI': <TokenType.ANTI: 'ANTI'>, 'ANY': <TokenType.ANY: 'ANY'>, 'ASC': <TokenType.ASC: 'ASC'>, 'AS': <TokenType.ALIAS: 'ALIAS'>, 'ASOF': <TokenType.ASOF: 'ASOF'>, 'AUTOINCREMENT': <TokenType.AUTO_INCREMENT: 'AUTO_INCREMENT'>, 'AUTO_INCREMENT': <TokenType.AUTO_INCREMENT: 'AUTO_INCREMENT'>, 'BEGIN': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'BETWEEN': <TokenType.BETWEEN: 'BETWEEN'>, 'CACHE': <TokenType.CACHE: 'CACHE'>, 'UNCACHE': <TokenType.UNCACHE: 'UNCACHE'>, 'CASE': <TokenType.CASE: 'CASE'>, 'CHARACTER SET': <TokenType.CHARACTER_SET: 'CHARACTER_SET'>, 'CLUSTER BY': <TokenType.CLUSTER_BY: 'CLUSTER_BY'>, 'COLLATE': <TokenType.COLLATE: 'COLLATE'>, 'COLUMN': <TokenType.COLUMN: 'COLUMN'>, 'COMMIT': <TokenType.COMMIT: 'COMMIT'>, 'CONNECT BY': <TokenType.CONNECT_BY: 'CONNECT_BY'>, 'CONSTRAINT': <TokenType.CONSTRAINT: 'CONSTRAINT'>, 'COPY': <TokenType.COPY: 'COPY'>, 'CREATE': <TokenType.CREATE: 'CREATE'>, 'CROSS': <TokenType.CROSS: 'CROSS'>, 'CUBE': <TokenType.CUBE: 'CUBE'>, 'CURRENT_DATE': <TokenType.CURRENT_DATE: 'CURRENT_DATE'>, 'CURRENT_TIME': <TokenType.CURRENT_TIME: 'CURRENT_TIME'>, 'CURRENT_TIMESTAMP': <TokenType.CURRENT_TIMESTAMP: 'CURRENT_TIMESTAMP'>, 'CURRENT_USER': <TokenType.CURRENT_USER: 'CURRENT_USER'>, 'DATABASE': <TokenType.DATABASE: 'DATABASE'>, 'DEFAULT': <TokenType.DEFAULT: 'DEFAULT'>, 'DELETE': <TokenType.DELETE: 'DELETE'>, 'DESC': <TokenType.DESC: 'DESC'>, 'DESCRIBE': <TokenType.DESCRIBE: 'DESCRIBE'>, 'DISTINCT': <TokenType.DISTINCT: 'DISTINCT'>, 'DISTRIBUTE BY': <TokenType.DISTRIBUTE_BY: 'DISTRIBUTE_BY'>, 'DROP': <TokenType.DROP: 'DROP'>, 'ELSE': <TokenType.ELSE: 'ELSE'>, 'END': <TokenType.END: 'END'>, 'ENUM': <TokenType.ENUM: 'ENUM'>, 'ESCAPE': <TokenType.ESCAPE: 'ESCAPE'>, 'EXCEPT': <TokenType.EXCEPT: 'EXCEPT'>, 'EXECUTE': <TokenType.EXECUTE: 'EXECUTE'>, 'EXISTS': <TokenType.EXISTS: 'EXISTS'>, 'FALSE': <TokenType.FALSE: 'FALSE'>, 'FETCH': <TokenType.FETCH: 'FETCH'>, 'FILTER': <TokenType.FILTER: 'FILTER'>, 'FIRST': <TokenType.FIRST: 'FIRST'>, 'FULL': <TokenType.FULL: 'FULL'>, 'FUNCTION': <TokenType.FUNCTION: 'FUNCTION'>, 'FOR': <TokenType.FOR: 'FOR'>, 'FOREIGN KEY': <TokenType.FOREIGN_KEY: 'FOREIGN_KEY'>, 'FORMAT': <TokenType.FORMAT: 'FORMAT'>, 'FROM': <TokenType.FROM: 'FROM'>, 'GEOGRAPHY': <TokenType.GEOGRAPHY: 'GEOGRAPHY'>, 'GEOMETRY': <TokenType.GEOMETRY: 'GEOMETRY'>, 'GLOB': <TokenType.GLOB: 'GLOB'>, 'GROUP BY': <TokenType.GROUP_BY: 'GROUP_BY'>, 'GROUPING SETS': <TokenType.GROUPING_SETS: 'GROUPING_SETS'>, 'HAVING': <TokenType.HAVING: 'HAVING'>, 'ILIKE': <TokenType.ILIKE: 'ILIKE'>, 'IN': <TokenType.IN: 'IN'>, 'INDEX': <TokenType.INDEX: 'INDEX'>, 'INET': <TokenType.INET: 'INET'>, 'INNER': <TokenType.INNER: 'INNER'>, 'INSERT': <TokenType.INSERT: 'INSERT'>, 'INTERVAL': <TokenType.INTERVAL: 'INTERVAL'>, 'INTERSECT': <TokenType.INTERSECT: 'INTERSECT'>, 'INTO': <TokenType.INTO: 'INTO'>, 'IS': <TokenType.IS: 'IS'>, 'ISNULL': <TokenType.ISNULL: 'ISNULL'>, 'JOIN': <TokenType.JOIN: 'JOIN'>, 'KEEP': <TokenType.KEEP: 'KEEP'>, 'KILL': <TokenType.KILL: 'KILL'>, 'LATERAL': <TokenType.LATERAL: 'LATERAL'>, 'LEFT': <TokenType.LEFT: 'LEFT'>, 'LIKE': <TokenType.LIKE: 'LIKE'>, 'LIMIT': <TokenType.LIMIT: 'LIMIT'>, 'LOAD': <TokenType.LOAD: 'LOAD'>, 'LOCK': <TokenType.LOCK: 'LOCK'>, 'MERGE': <TokenType.MERGE: 'MERGE'>, 'NATURAL': <TokenType.NATURAL: 'NATURAL'>, 'NEXT': <TokenType.NEXT: 'NEXT'>, 'NOT': <TokenType.NOT: 'NOT'>, 'NOTNULL': <TokenType.NOTNULL: 'NOTNULL'>, 'NULL': <TokenType.NULL: 'NULL'>, 'OBJECT': <TokenType.OBJECT: 'OBJECT'>, 'OFFSET': <TokenType.OFFSET: 'OFFSET'>, 'ON': <TokenType.ON: 'ON'>, 'OR': <TokenType.OR: 'OR'>, 'XOR': <TokenType.XOR: 'XOR'>, 'ORDER BY': <TokenType.ORDER_BY: 'ORDER_BY'>, 'ORDINALITY': <TokenType.ORDINALITY: 'ORDINALITY'>, 'OUTER': <TokenType.OUTER: 'OUTER'>, 'OVER': <TokenType.OVER: 'OVER'>, 'OVERLAPS': <TokenType.OVERLAPS: 'OVERLAPS'>, 'OVERWRITE': <TokenType.OVERWRITE: 'OVERWRITE'>, 'PARTITION': <TokenType.PARTITION: 'PARTITION'>, 'PARTITION BY': <TokenType.PARTITION_BY: 'PARTITION_BY'>, 'PARTITIONED BY': <TokenType.PARTITION_BY: 'PARTITION_BY'>, 'PARTITIONED_BY': <TokenType.PARTITION_BY: 'PARTITION_BY'>, 'PERCENT': <TokenType.PERCENT: 'PERCENT'>, 'PIVOT': <TokenType.PIVOT: 'PIVOT'>, 'PRAGMA': <TokenType.PRAGMA: 'PRAGMA'>, 'PRIMARY KEY': <TokenType.PRIMARY_KEY: 'PRIMARY_KEY'>, 'PROCEDURE': <TokenType.PROCEDURE: 'PROCEDURE'>, 'QUALIFY': <TokenType.QUALIFY: 'QUALIFY'>, 'RANGE': <TokenType.RANGE: 'RANGE'>, 'RECURSIVE': <TokenType.RECURSIVE: 'RECURSIVE'>, 'REGEXP': <TokenType.RLIKE: 'RLIKE'>, 'REPLACE': <TokenType.REPLACE: 'REPLACE'>, 'RETURNING': <TokenType.RETURNING: 'RETURNING'>, 'REFERENCES': <TokenType.REFERENCES: 'REFERENCES'>, 'RIGHT': <TokenType.RIGHT: 'RIGHT'>, 'RLIKE': <TokenType.RLIKE: 'RLIKE'>, 'ROLLBACK': <TokenType.ROLLBACK: 'ROLLBACK'>, 'ROLLUP': <TokenType.ROLLUP: 'ROLLUP'>, 'ROW': <TokenType.ROW: 'ROW'>, 'ROWS': <TokenType.ROWS: 'ROWS'>, 'SCHEMA': <TokenType.SCHEMA: 'SCHEMA'>, 'SELECT': <TokenType.SELECT: 'SELECT'>, 'SEMI': <TokenType.SEMI: 'SEMI'>, 'SET': <TokenType.SET: 'SET'>, 'SETTINGS': <TokenType.SETTINGS: 'SETTINGS'>, 'SHOW': <TokenType.SHOW: 'SHOW'>, 'SIMILAR TO': <TokenType.SIMILAR_TO: 'SIMILAR_TO'>, 'SOME': <TokenType.SOME: 'SOME'>, 'SORT BY': <TokenType.SORT_BY: 'SORT_BY'>, 'START WITH': <TokenType.START_WITH: 'START_WITH'>, 'STRAIGHT_JOIN': <TokenType.STRAIGHT_JOIN: 'STRAIGHT_JOIN'>, 'TABLE': <TokenType.TABLE: 'TABLE'>, 'TABLESAMPLE': <TokenType.TABLE_SAMPLE: 'TABLE_SAMPLE'>, 'TEMP': <TokenType.TEMPORARY: 'TEMPORARY'>, 'TEMPORARY': <TokenType.TEMPORARY: 'TEMPORARY'>, 'THEN': <TokenType.THEN: 'THEN'>, 'TRUE': <TokenType.TRUE: 'TRUE'>, 'TRUNCATE': <TokenType.TRUNCATE: 'TRUNCATE'>, 'UNION': <TokenType.UNION: 'UNION'>, 'UNKNOWN': <TokenType.UNKNOWN: 'UNKNOWN'>, 'UNNEST': <TokenType.UNNEST: 'UNNEST'>, 'UNPIVOT': <TokenType.UNPIVOT: 'UNPIVOT'>, 'UPDATE': <TokenType.UPDATE: 'UPDATE'>, 'USE': <TokenType.USE: 'USE'>, 'USING': <TokenType.USING: 'USING'>, 'UUID': <TokenType.UUID: 'UUID'>, 'VALUES': <TokenType.VALUES: 'VALUES'>, 'VIEW': <TokenType.VIEW: 'VIEW'>, 'VOLATILE': <TokenType.VOLATILE: 'VOLATILE'>, 'WHEN': <TokenType.WHEN: 'WHEN'>, 'WHERE': <TokenType.WHERE: 'WHERE'>, 'WINDOW': <TokenType.WINDOW: 'WINDOW'>, 'WITH': <TokenType.WITH: 'WITH'>, 'APPLY': <TokenType.APPLY: 'APPLY'>, 'ARRAY': <TokenType.ARRAY: 'ARRAY'>, 'BIT': <TokenType.BIT: 'BIT'>, 'BOOL': <TokenType.BOOLEAN: 'BOOLEAN'>, 'BOOLEAN': <TokenType.BOOLEAN: 'BOOLEAN'>, 'BYTE': <TokenType.TINYINT: 'TINYINT'>, 'MEDIUMINT': <TokenType.MEDIUMINT: 'MEDIUMINT'>, 'INT1': <TokenType.TINYINT: 'TINYINT'>, 'TINYINT': <TokenType.TINYINT: 'TINYINT'>, 'INT16': <TokenType.SMALLINT: 'SMALLINT'>, 'SHORT': <TokenType.SMALLINT: 'SMALLINT'>, 'SMALLINT': <TokenType.SMALLINT: 'SMALLINT'>, 'INT128': <TokenType.INT128: 'INT128'>, 'HUGEINT': <TokenType.INT128: 'INT128'>, 'INT2': <TokenType.SMALLINT: 'SMALLINT'>, 'INTEGER': <TokenType.INT: 'INT'>, 'INT': <TokenType.INT: 'INT'>, 'INT4': <TokenType.INT: 'INT'>, 'INT32': <TokenType.INT: 'INT'>, 'INT64': <TokenType.BIGINT: 'BIGINT'>, 'LONG': <TokenType.BIGINT: 'BIGINT'>, 'BIGINT': <TokenType.BIGINT: 'BIGINT'>, 'INT8': <TokenType.BIGINT: 'BIGINT'>, 'UINT': <TokenType.UINT: 'UINT'>, 'DEC': <TokenType.DECIMAL: 'DECIMAL'>, 'DECIMAL': <TokenType.DECIMAL: 'DECIMAL'>, 'BIGDECIMAL': <TokenType.BIGDECIMAL: 'BIGDECIMAL'>, 'BIGNUMERIC': <TokenType.BIGDECIMAL: 'BIGDECIMAL'>, 'LIST': <TokenType.LIST: 'LIST'>, 'MAP': <TokenType.MAP: 'MAP'>, 'NULLABLE': <TokenType.NULLABLE: 'NULLABLE'>, 'NUMBER': <TokenType.DECIMAL: 'DECIMAL'>, 'NUMERIC': <TokenType.DECIMAL: 'DECIMAL'>, 'FIXED': <TokenType.DECIMAL: 'DECIMAL'>, 'REAL': <TokenType.FLOAT: 'FLOAT'>, 'FLOAT': <TokenType.DOUBLE: 'DOUBLE'>, 'FLOAT4': <TokenType.FLOAT: 'FLOAT'>, 'FLOAT8': <TokenType.DOUBLE: 'DOUBLE'>, 'DOUBLE': <TokenType.DOUBLE: 'DOUBLE'>, 'DOUBLE PRECISION': <TokenType.DOUBLE: 'DOUBLE'>, 'JSON': <TokenType.JSON: 'JSON'>, 'JSONB': <TokenType.JSONB: 'JSONB'>, 'CHAR': <TokenType.CHAR: 'CHAR'>, 'CHARACTER': <TokenType.CHAR: 'CHAR'>, 'NCHAR': <TokenType.NCHAR: 'NCHAR'>, 'VARCHAR': <TokenType.VARCHAR: 'VARCHAR'>, 'VARCHAR2': <TokenType.VARCHAR: 'VARCHAR'>, 'NVARCHAR': <TokenType.NVARCHAR: 'NVARCHAR'>, 'NVARCHAR2': <TokenType.NVARCHAR: 'NVARCHAR'>, 'BPCHAR': <TokenType.BPCHAR: 'BPCHAR'>, 'STR': <TokenType.TEXT: 'TEXT'>, 'STRING': <TokenType.TEXT: 'TEXT'>, 'TEXT': <TokenType.TEXT: 'TEXT'>, 'LONGTEXT': <TokenType.LONGTEXT: 'LONGTEXT'>, 'MEDIUMTEXT': <TokenType.MEDIUMTEXT: 'MEDIUMTEXT'>, 'TINYTEXT': <TokenType.TINYTEXT: 'TINYTEXT'>, 'CLOB': <TokenType.TEXT: 'TEXT'>, 'LONGVARCHAR': <TokenType.TEXT: 'TEXT'>, 'BINARY': <TokenType.BINARY: 'BINARY'>, 'BLOB': <TokenType.VARBINARY: 'VARBINARY'>, 'LONGBLOB': <TokenType.LONGBLOB: 'LONGBLOB'>, 'MEDIUMBLOB': <TokenType.MEDIUMBLOB: 'MEDIUMBLOB'>, 'TINYBLOB': <TokenType.TINYBLOB: 'TINYBLOB'>, 'BYTEA': <TokenType.VARBINARY: 'VARBINARY'>, 'VARBINARY': <TokenType.VARBINARY: 'VARBINARY'>, 'TIME': <TokenType.TIME: 'TIME'>, 'TIMETZ': <TokenType.TIMETZ: 'TIMETZ'>, 'TIMESTAMP': <TokenType.TIMESTAMP: 'TIMESTAMP'>, 'TIMESTAMPTZ': <TokenType.TIMESTAMPTZ: 'TIMESTAMPTZ'>, 'TIMESTAMPLTZ': <TokenType.TIMESTAMPLTZ: 'TIMESTAMPLTZ'>, 'TIMESTAMP_LTZ': <TokenType.TIMESTAMPLTZ: 'TIMESTAMPLTZ'>, 'TIMESTAMPNTZ': <TokenType.TIMESTAMPNTZ: 'TIMESTAMPNTZ'>, 'TIMESTAMP_NTZ': <TokenType.TIMESTAMPNTZ: 'TIMESTAMPNTZ'>, 'DATE': <TokenType.DATE: 'DATE'>, 'DATETIME': <TokenType.DATETIME: 'DATETIME'>, 'INT4RANGE': <TokenType.INT4RANGE: 'INT4RANGE'>, 'INT4MULTIRANGE': <TokenType.INT4MULTIRANGE: 'INT4MULTIRANGE'>, 'INT8RANGE': <TokenType.INT8RANGE: 'INT8RANGE'>, 'INT8MULTIRANGE': <TokenType.INT8MULTIRANGE: 'INT8MULTIRANGE'>, 'NUMRANGE': <TokenType.NUMRANGE: 'NUMRANGE'>, 'NUMMULTIRANGE': <TokenType.NUMMULTIRANGE: 'NUMMULTIRANGE'>, 'TSRANGE': <TokenType.TSRANGE: 'TSRANGE'>, 'TSMULTIRANGE': <TokenType.TSMULTIRANGE: 'TSMULTIRANGE'>, 'TSTZRANGE': <TokenType.TSTZRANGE: 'TSTZRANGE'>, 'TSTZMULTIRANGE': <TokenType.TSTZMULTIRANGE: 'TSTZMULTIRANGE'>, 'DATERANGE': <TokenType.DATERANGE: 'DATERANGE'>, 'DATEMULTIRANGE': <TokenType.DATEMULTIRANGE: 'DATEMULTIRANGE'>, 'UNIQUE': <TokenType.UNIQUE: 'UNIQUE'>, 'STRUCT': <TokenType.STRUCT: 'STRUCT'>, 'SEQUENCE': <TokenType.SEQUENCE: 'SEQUENCE'>, 'VARIANT': <TokenType.VARIANT: 'VARIANT'>, 'ALTER': <TokenType.ALTER: 'ALTER'>, 'ANALYZE': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'CALL': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'COMMENT': <TokenType.COMMENT: 'COMMENT'>, 'EXPLAIN': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'GRANT': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'OPTIMIZE': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'PREPARE': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'VACUUM': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'USER-DEFINED': <TokenType.USERDEFINED: 'USERDEFINED'>, 'FOR VERSION': <TokenType.VERSION_SNAPSHOT: 'VERSION_SNAPSHOT'>, 'FOR TIMESTAMP': <TokenType.TIMESTAMP_SNAPSHOT: 'TIMESTAMP_SNAPSHOT'>, '~~': <TokenType.LIKE: 'LIKE'>, '~~*': <TokenType.ILIKE: 'ILIKE'>, '~*': <TokenType.IRLIKE: 'IRLIKE'>, '~': <TokenType.RLIKE: 'RLIKE'>, '@@': <TokenType.DAT: 'DAT'>, '@>': <TokenType.AT_GT: 'AT_GT'>, '<@': <TokenType.LT_AT: 'LT_AT'>, '|/': <TokenType.PIPE_SLASH: 'PIPE_SLASH'>, '||/': <TokenType.DPIPE_SLASH: 'DPIPE_SLASH'>, 'BEGIN TRANSACTION': <TokenType.BEGIN: 'BEGIN'>, 'BIGSERIAL': <TokenType.BIGSERIAL: 'BIGSERIAL'>, 'CHARACTER VARYING': <TokenType.VARCHAR: 'VARCHAR'>, 'CONSTRAINT TRIGGER': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'CSTRING': <TokenType.PSEUDO_TYPE: 'PSEUDO_TYPE'>, 'DECLARE': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'DO': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'EXEC': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'HSTORE': <TokenType.HSTORE: 'HSTORE'>, 'MONEY': <TokenType.MONEY: 'MONEY'>, 'NAME': <TokenType.NAME: 'NAME'>, 'OID': <TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER: 'OBJECT_IDENTIFIER'>, 'ONLY': <TokenType.ONLY: 'ONLY'>, 'OPERATOR': <TokenType.OPERATOR: 'OPERATOR'>, 'REFRESH': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'REINDEX': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'RESET': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'REVOKE': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'SERIAL': <TokenType.SERIAL: 'SERIAL'>, 'SMALLSERIAL': <TokenType.SMALLSERIAL: 'SMALLSERIAL'>, 'REGCLASS': <TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER: 'OBJECT_IDENTIFIER'>, 'REGCOLLATION': <TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER: 'OBJECT_IDENTIFIER'>, 'REGCONFIG': <TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER: 'OBJECT_IDENTIFIER'>, 'REGDICTIONARY': <TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER: 'OBJECT_IDENTIFIER'>, 'REGNAMESPACE': <TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER: 'OBJECT_IDENTIFIER'>, 'REGOPER': <TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER: 'OBJECT_IDENTIFIER'>, 'REGOPERATOR': <TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER: 'OBJECT_IDENTIFIER'>, 'REGPROC': <TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER: 'OBJECT_IDENTIFIER'>, 'REGPROCEDURE': <TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER: 'OBJECT_IDENTIFIER'>, 'REGROLE': <TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER: 'OBJECT_IDENTIFIER'>, 'REGTYPE': <TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER: 'OBJECT_IDENTIFIER'>}
SINGLE_TOKENS = {'(': <TokenType.L_PAREN: 'L_PAREN'>, ')': <TokenType.R_PAREN: 'R_PAREN'>, '[': <TokenType.L_BRACKET: 'L_BRACKET'>, ']': <TokenType.R_BRACKET: 'R_BRACKET'>, '{': <TokenType.L_BRACE: 'L_BRACE'>, '}': <TokenType.R_BRACE: 'R_BRACE'>, '&': <TokenType.AMP: 'AMP'>, '^': <TokenType.CARET: 'CARET'>, ':': <TokenType.COLON: 'COLON'>, ',': <TokenType.COMMA: 'COMMA'>, '.': <TokenType.DOT: 'DOT'>, '-': <TokenType.DASH: 'DASH'>, '=': <TokenType.EQ: 'EQ'>, '>': <TokenType.GT: 'GT'>, '<': <TokenType.LT: 'LT'>, '%': <TokenType.MOD: 'MOD'>, '!': <TokenType.NOT: 'NOT'>, '|': <TokenType.PIPE: 'PIPE'>, '+': <TokenType.PLUS: 'PLUS'>, ';': <TokenType.SEMICOLON: 'SEMICOLON'>, '/': <TokenType.SLASH: 'SLASH'>, '\\': <TokenType.BACKSLASH: 'BACKSLASH'>, '*': <TokenType.STAR: 'STAR'>, '~': <TokenType.TILDA: 'TILDA'>, '?': <TokenType.PLACEHOLDER: 'PLACEHOLDER'>, '@': <TokenType.PARAMETER: 'PARAMETER'>, '#': <TokenType.HASH: 'HASH'>, "'": <TokenType.UNKNOWN: 'UNKNOWN'>, '`': <TokenType.UNKNOWN: 'UNKNOWN'>, '"': <TokenType.UNKNOWN: 'UNKNOWN'>, '$': <TokenType.HEREDOC_STRING: 'HEREDOC_STRING'>}
VAR_SINGLE_TOKENS = {'$'}
class Postgres.Parser(sqlglot.parser.Parser):
344    class Parser(parser.Parser):
345        PROPERTY_PARSERS = {
346            **parser.Parser.PROPERTY_PARSERS,
347            "SET": lambda self: self.expression(exp.SetConfigProperty, this=self._parse_set()),
348        }
349        PROPERTY_PARSERS.pop("INPUT")
350
351        FUNCTIONS = {
352            **parser.Parser.FUNCTIONS,
353            "DATE_TRUNC": build_timestamp_trunc,
354            "DIV": lambda args: exp.cast(
355                binary_from_function(exp.IntDiv)(args), exp.DataType.Type.DECIMAL
356            ),
357            "GENERATE_SERIES": _build_generate_series,
358            "JSON_EXTRACT_PATH": build_json_extract_path(exp.JSONExtract),
359            "JSON_EXTRACT_PATH_TEXT": build_json_extract_path(exp.JSONExtractScalar),
360            "MAKE_TIME": exp.TimeFromParts.from_arg_list,
361            "MAKE_TIMESTAMP": exp.TimestampFromParts.from_arg_list,
362            "NOW": exp.CurrentTimestamp.from_arg_list,
363            "REGEXP_REPLACE": _build_regexp_replace,
364            "TO_CHAR": build_formatted_time(exp.TimeToStr, "postgres"),
365            "TO_TIMESTAMP": _build_to_timestamp,
366            "UNNEST": exp.Explode.from_arg_list,
367            "SHA256": lambda args: exp.SHA2(this=seq_get(args, 0), length=exp.Literal.number(256)),
368            "SHA384": lambda args: exp.SHA2(this=seq_get(args, 0), length=exp.Literal.number(384)),
369            "SHA512": lambda args: exp.SHA2(this=seq_get(args, 0), length=exp.Literal.number(512)),
370        }
371
372        FUNCTION_PARSERS = {
373            **parser.Parser.FUNCTION_PARSERS,
374            "DATE_PART": lambda self: self._parse_date_part(),
375        }
376
377        BITWISE = {
378            **parser.Parser.BITWISE,
379            TokenType.HASH: exp.BitwiseXor,
380        }
381
382        EXPONENT = {
383            TokenType.CARET: exp.Pow,
384        }
385
386        RANGE_PARSERS = {
387            **parser.Parser.RANGE_PARSERS,
388            TokenType.AT_GT: binary_range_parser(exp.ArrayContainsAll),
389            TokenType.DAMP: binary_range_parser(exp.ArrayOverlaps),
390            TokenType.DAT: lambda self, this: self.expression(
391                exp.MatchAgainst, this=self._parse_bitwise(), expressions=[this]
392            ),
393            TokenType.LT_AT: binary_range_parser(exp.ArrayContainsAll, reverse_args=True),
394            TokenType.OPERATOR: lambda self, this: self._parse_operator(this),
395        }
396
397        STATEMENT_PARSERS = {
398            **parser.Parser.STATEMENT_PARSERS,
399            TokenType.END: lambda self: self._parse_commit_or_rollback(),
400        }
401
402        JSON_ARROWS_REQUIRE_JSON_TYPE = True
403
404        COLUMN_OPERATORS = {
405            **parser.Parser.COLUMN_OPERATORS,
406            TokenType.ARROW: lambda self, this, path: build_json_extract_path(
407                exp.JSONExtract, arrow_req_json_type=self.JSON_ARROWS_REQUIRE_JSON_TYPE
408            )([this, path]),
409            TokenType.DARROW: lambda self, this, path: build_json_extract_path(
410                exp.JSONExtractScalar, arrow_req_json_type=self.JSON_ARROWS_REQUIRE_JSON_TYPE
411            )([this, path]),
412        }
413
414        def _parse_operator(self, this: t.Optional[exp.Expression]) -> t.Optional[exp.Expression]:
415            while True:
416                if not self._match(TokenType.L_PAREN):
417                    break
418
419                op = ""
420                while self._curr and not self._match(TokenType.R_PAREN):
421                    op += self._curr.text
422                    self._advance()
423
424                this = self.expression(
425                    exp.Operator,
426                    comments=self._prev_comments,
427                    this=this,
428                    operator=op,
429                    expression=self._parse_bitwise(),
430                )
431
432                if not self._match(TokenType.OPERATOR):
433                    break
434
435            return this
436
437        def _parse_date_part(self) -> exp.Expression:
438            part = self._parse_type()
439            self._match(TokenType.COMMA)
440            value = self._parse_bitwise()
441
442            if part and part.is_string:
443                part = exp.var(part.name)
444
445            return self.expression(exp.Extract, this=part, expression=value)

Parser consumes a list of tokens produced by the Tokenizer and produces a parsed syntax tree.

Arguments:
  • error_level: The desired error level. Default: ErrorLevel.IMMEDIATE
  • error_message_context: The amount of context to capture from a query string when displaying the error message (in number of characters). Default: 100
  • max_errors: Maximum number of error messages to include in a raised ParseError. This is only relevant if error_level is ErrorLevel.RAISE. Default: 3
PROPERTY_PARSERS = {'ALLOWED_VALUES': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'ALGORITHM': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'AUTO': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'AUTO_INCREMENT': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'BACKUP': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'BLOCKCOMPRESSION': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'CHARSET': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'CHARACTER SET': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'CHECKSUM': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'CLUSTER BY': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'CLUSTERED': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'COLLATE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'COMMENT': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'CONTAINS': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'COPY': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'DATABLOCKSIZE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'DATA_DELETION': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'DEFINER': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'DETERMINISTIC': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'DISTKEY': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'DISTSTYLE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'ENGINE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'EXECUTE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'EXTERNAL': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'FALLBACK': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'FORMAT': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'FREESPACE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'GLOBAL': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'HEAP': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'ICEBERG': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'IMMUTABLE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'INHERITS': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'JOURNAL': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'LANGUAGE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'LAYOUT': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'LIFETIME': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'LIKE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'LOCATION': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'LOCK': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'LOCKING': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'LOG': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'MATERIALIZED': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'MERGEBLOCKRATIO': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'MODIFIES': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'MULTISET': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'NO': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'ON': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'ORDER BY': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'OUTPUT': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'PARTITION': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'PARTITION BY': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'PARTITIONED BY': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'PARTITIONED_BY': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'PRIMARY KEY': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'RANGE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'READS': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'REMOTE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'RETURNS': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'STRICT': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'ROW': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'ROW_FORMAT': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'SAMPLE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'SECURE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'SET': <function Postgres.Parser.<lambda>>, 'SETTINGS': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'SHARING': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'SORTKEY': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'SOURCE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'STABLE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'STORED': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'SYSTEM_VERSIONING': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'TBLPROPERTIES': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'TEMP': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'TEMPORARY': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'TO': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'TRANSIENT': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'TRANSFORM': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'TTL': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'USING': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'UNLOGGED': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'VOLATILE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'WITH': <function Parser.<lambda>>}
FUNCTIONS = {'ABS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Abs'>>, 'ADD_MONTHS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.AddMonths'>>, 'ANONYMOUS_AGG_FUNC': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.AnonymousAggFunc'>>, 'ANY_VALUE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.AnyValue'>>, 'APPROX_DISTINCT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ApproxDistinct'>>, 'APPROX_COUNT_DISTINCT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ApproxDistinct'>>, 'APPROX_QUANTILE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ApproxQuantile'>>, 'APPROX_TOP_K': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ApproxTopK'>>, 'ARG_MAX': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArgMax'>>, 'ARGMAX': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArgMax'>>, 'MAX_BY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArgMax'>>, 'ARG_MIN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArgMin'>>, 'ARGMIN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArgMin'>>, 'MIN_BY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArgMin'>>, 'ARRAY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Array'>>, 'ARRAY_AGG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayAgg'>>, 'ARRAY_ALL': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayAll'>>, 'ARRAY_ANY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayAny'>>, 'ARRAY_CONCAT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayConcat'>>, 'ARRAY_CAT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayConcat'>>, 'ARRAY_CONSTRUCT_COMPACT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayConstructCompact'>>, 'ARRAY_CONTAINS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayContains'>>, 'ARRAY_HAS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayContains'>>, 'ARRAY_CONTAINS_ALL': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayContainsAll'>>, 'ARRAY_HAS_ALL': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayContainsAll'>>, 'FILTER': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayFilter'>>, 'ARRAY_FILTER': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayFilter'>>, 'ARRAY_OVERLAPS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayOverlaps'>>, 'ARRAY_SIZE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArraySize'>>, 'ARRAY_LENGTH': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArraySize'>>, 'ARRAY_SORT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArraySort'>>, 'ARRAY_SUM': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArraySum'>>, 'ARRAY_TO_STRING': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayToString'>>, 'ARRAY_JOIN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayToString'>>, 'ARRAY_UNION_AGG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayUnionAgg'>>, 'ARRAY_UNIQUE_AGG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayUniqueAgg'>>, 'AVG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Avg'>>, 'CASE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Case'>>, 'CAST': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Cast'>>, 'CAST_TO_STR_TYPE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CastToStrType'>>, 'CBRT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Cbrt'>>, 'CEIL': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Ceil'>>, 'CEILING': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Ceil'>>, 'CHR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Chr'>>, 'CHAR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Chr'>>, 'COALESCE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Coalesce'>>, 'IFNULL': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Coalesce'>>, 'NVL': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Coalesce'>>, 'COLLATE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Collate'>>, 'COMBINED_AGG_FUNC': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CombinedAggFunc'>>, 'COMBINED_PARAMETERIZED_AGG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CombinedParameterizedAgg'>>, 'CONCAT': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'CONCAT_WS': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'CONNECT_BY_ROOT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ConnectByRoot'>>, 'CONVERT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Convert'>>, 'CORR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Corr'>>, 'COUNT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Count'>>, 'COUNT_IF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CountIf'>>, 'COUNTIF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CountIf'>>, 'COVAR_POP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CovarPop'>>, 'COVAR_SAMP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CovarSamp'>>, 'CURRENT_DATE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CurrentDate'>>, 'CURRENT_DATETIME': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CurrentDatetime'>>, 'CURRENT_TIME': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CurrentTime'>>, 'CURRENT_TIMESTAMP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CurrentTimestamp'>>, 'CURRENT_USER': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CurrentUser'>>, 'DATE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Date'>>, 'DATE_ADD': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateAdd'>>, 'DATEDIFF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateDiff'>>, 'DATE_DIFF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateDiff'>>, 'DATE_FROM_PARTS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateFromParts'>>, 'DATEFROMPARTS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateFromParts'>>, 'DATE_STR_TO_DATE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateStrToDate'>>, 'DATE_SUB': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateSub'>>, 'DATE_TO_DATE_STR': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'DATE_TO_DI': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateToDi'>>, 'DATE_TRUNC': <function build_timestamp_trunc>, 'DATETIME': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Datetime'>>, 'DATETIME_ADD': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DatetimeAdd'>>, 'DATETIME_DIFF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DatetimeDiff'>>, 'DATETIME_SUB': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DatetimeSub'>>, 'DATETIME_TRUNC': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DatetimeTrunc'>>, 'DAY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Day'>>, 'DAY_OF_MONTH': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DayOfMonth'>>, 'DAYOFMONTH': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DayOfMonth'>>, 'DAY_OF_WEEK': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DayOfWeek'>>, 'DAYOFWEEK': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DayOfWeek'>>, 'DAY_OF_YEAR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DayOfYear'>>, 'DAYOFYEAR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DayOfYear'>>, 'DECODE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Decode'>>, 'DI_TO_DATE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DiToDate'>>, 'ENCODE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Encode'>>, 'EXP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Exp'>>, 'EXPLODE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Explode'>>, 'EXPLODE_OUTER': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ExplodeOuter'>>, 'EXTRACT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Extract'>>, 'FIRST': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.First'>>, 'FIRST_VALUE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.FirstValue'>>, 'FLATTEN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Flatten'>>, 'FLOOR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Floor'>>, 'FROM_BASE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.FromBase'>>, 'FROM_BASE64': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.FromBase64'>>, 'GAP_FILL': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.GapFill'>>, 'GENERATE_DATE_ARRAY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.GenerateDateArray'>>, 'GENERATE_SERIES': <function _build_generate_series>, 'GREATEST': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Greatest'>>, 'GROUP_CONCAT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.GroupConcat'>>, 'HEX': <function build_hex>, 'HLL': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Hll'>>, 'IF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.If'>>, 'IIF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.If'>>, 'INITCAP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Initcap'>>, 'IS_INF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.IsInf'>>, 'ISINF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.IsInf'>>, 'IS_NAN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.IsNan'>>, 'ISNAN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.IsNan'>>, 'J_S_O_N_ARRAY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONArray'>>, 'J_S_O_N_ARRAY_AGG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONArrayAgg'>>, 'JSON_ARRAY_CONTAINS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONArrayContains'>>, 'JSONB_CONTAINS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONBContains'>>, 'JSONB_EXTRACT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONBExtract'>>, 'JSONB_EXTRACT_SCALAR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONBExtractScalar'>>, 'JSON_EXTRACT': <function build_extract_json_with_path.<locals>._builder>, 'JSON_EXTRACT_SCALAR': <function build_extract_json_with_path.<locals>._builder>, 'JSON_FORMAT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONFormat'>>, 'J_S_O_N_OBJECT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONObject'>>, 'J_S_O_N_OBJECT_AGG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONObjectAgg'>>, 'J_S_O_N_TABLE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONTable'>>, 'LAG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Lag'>>, 'LAST': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Last'>>, 'LAST_DAY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LastDay'>>, 'LAST_DAY_OF_MONTH': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LastDay'>>, 'LAST_VALUE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LastValue'>>, 'LEAD': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Lead'>>, 'LEAST': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Least'>>, 'LEFT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Left'>>, 'LENGTH': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Length'>>, 'LEN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Length'>>, 'LEVENSHTEIN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Levenshtein'>>, 'LIST': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.List'>>, 'LN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Ln'>>, 'LOG': <function build_logarithm>, 'LOGICAL_AND': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LogicalAnd'>>, 'BOOL_AND': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LogicalAnd'>>, 'BOOLAND_AGG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LogicalAnd'>>, 'LOGICAL_OR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LogicalOr'>>, 'BOOL_OR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LogicalOr'>>, 'BOOLOR_AGG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LogicalOr'>>, 'LOWER': <function build_lower>, 'LCASE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Lower'>>, 'LOWER_HEX': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LowerHex'>>, 'MD5': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.MD5'>>, 'MD5_DIGEST': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.MD5Digest'>>, 'MAP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Map'>>, 'MAP_FROM_ENTRIES': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.MapFromEntries'>>, 'MATCH_AGAINST': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.MatchAgainst'>>, 'MAX': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Max'>>, 'MIN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Min'>>, 'MONTH': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Month'>>, 'MONTHS_BETWEEN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.MonthsBetween'>>, 'NEXT_VALUE_FOR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.NextValueFor'>>, 'NTH_VALUE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.NthValue'>>, 'NULLIF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Nullif'>>, 'NUMBER_TO_STR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.NumberToStr'>>, 'NVL2': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Nvl2'>>, 'OPEN_J_S_O_N': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.OpenJSON'>>, 'PARAMETERIZED_AGG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ParameterizedAgg'>>, 'PARSE_JSON': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ParseJSON'>>, 'JSON_PARSE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ParseJSON'>>, 'PERCENTILE_CONT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.PercentileCont'>>, 'PERCENTILE_DISC': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.PercentileDisc'>>, 'POSEXPLODE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Posexplode'>>, 'POSEXPLODE_OUTER': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.PosexplodeOuter'>>, 'POWER': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Pow'>>, 'POW': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Pow'>>, 'PREDICT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Predict'>>, 'QUANTILE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Quantile'>>, 'QUARTER': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Quarter'>>, 'RAND': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Rand'>>, 'RANDOM': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Rand'>>, 'RANDN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Randn'>>, 'RANGE_N': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RangeN'>>, 'READ_CSV': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ReadCSV'>>, 'REDUCE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Reduce'>>, 'REGEXP_EXTRACT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RegexpExtract'>>, 'REGEXP_I_LIKE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RegexpILike'>>, 'REGEXP_LIKE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RegexpLike'>>, 'REGEXP_REPLACE': <function _build_regexp_replace>, 'REGEXP_SPLIT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RegexpSplit'>>, 'REPEAT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Repeat'>>, 'RIGHT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Right'>>, 'ROUND': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Round'>>, 'ROW_NUMBER': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RowNumber'>>, 'SHA': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SHA'>>, 'SHA1': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SHA'>>, 'SHA2': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SHA2'>>, 'SAFE_DIVIDE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SafeDivide'>>, 'SIGN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Sign'>>, 'SIGNUM': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Sign'>>, 'SORT_ARRAY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SortArray'>>, 'SPLIT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Split'>>, 'SQRT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Sqrt'>>, 'STANDARD_HASH': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StandardHash'>>, 'STAR_MAP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StarMap'>>, 'STARTS_WITH': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StartsWith'>>, 'STARTSWITH': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StartsWith'>>, 'STDDEV': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Stddev'>>, 'STDDEV_POP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StddevPop'>>, 'STDDEV_SAMP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StddevSamp'>>, 'STR_POSITION': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StrPosition'>>, 'STR_TO_DATE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StrToDate'>>, 'STR_TO_MAP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StrToMap'>>, 'STR_TO_TIME': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StrToTime'>>, 'STR_TO_UNIX': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StrToUnix'>>, 'STRING_TO_ARRAY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StringToArray'>>, 'SPLIT_BY_STRING': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StringToArray'>>, 'STRUCT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Struct'>>, 'STRUCT_EXTRACT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StructExtract'>>, 'STUFF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Stuff'>>, 'INSERT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Stuff'>>, 'SUBSTRING': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Substring'>>, 'SUM': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Sum'>>, 'TIME': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Time'>>, 'TIME_ADD': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeAdd'>>, 'TIME_DIFF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeDiff'>>, 'TIME_FROM_PARTS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeFromParts'>>, 'TIMEFROMPARTS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeFromParts'>>, 'TIME_STR_TO_DATE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeStrToDate'>>, 'TIME_STR_TO_TIME': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeStrToTime'>>, 'TIME_STR_TO_UNIX': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeStrToUnix'>>, 'TIME_SUB': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeSub'>>, 'TIME_TO_STR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeToStr'>>, 'TIME_TO_TIME_STR': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'TIME_TO_UNIX': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeToUnix'>>, 'TIME_TRUNC': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeTrunc'>>, 'TIMESTAMP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Timestamp'>>, 'TIMESTAMP_ADD': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimestampAdd'>>, 'TIMESTAMPDIFF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimestampDiff'>>, 'TIMESTAMP_DIFF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimestampDiff'>>, 'TIMESTAMP_FROM_PARTS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimestampFromParts'>>, 'TIMESTAMPFROMPARTS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimestampFromParts'>>, 'TIMESTAMP_SUB': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimestampSub'>>, 'TIMESTAMP_TRUNC': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimestampTrunc'>>, 'TO_ARRAY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ToArray'>>, 'TO_BASE64': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ToBase64'>>, 'TO_CHAR': <function build_formatted_time.<locals>._builder>, 'TO_DAYS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ToDays'>>, 'TO_MAP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ToMap'>>, 'TO_NUMBER': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ToNumber'>>, 'TRANSFORM': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Transform'>>, 'TRIM': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Trim'>>, 'TRY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Try'>>, 'TRY_CAST': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TryCast'>>, 'TS_OR_DI_TO_DI': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TsOrDiToDi'>>, 'TS_OR_DS_ADD': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TsOrDsAdd'>>, 'TS_OR_DS_DIFF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TsOrDsDiff'>>, 'TS_OR_DS_TO_DATE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TsOrDsToDate'>>, 'TS_OR_DS_TO_DATE_STR': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'TS_OR_DS_TO_TIME': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TsOrDsToTime'>>, 'TS_OR_DS_TO_TIMESTAMP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TsOrDsToTimestamp'>>, 'UNHEX': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Unhex'>>, 'UNIX_DATE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.UnixDate'>>, 'UNIX_TO_STR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.UnixToStr'>>, 'UNIX_TO_TIME': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.UnixToTime'>>, 'UNIX_TO_TIME_STR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.UnixToTimeStr'>>, 'UNNEST': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Explode'>>, 'UPPER': <function build_upper>, 'UCASE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Upper'>>, 'VAR_MAP': <function build_var_map>, 'VARIANCE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Variance'>>, 'VARIANCE_SAMP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Variance'>>, 'VAR_SAMP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Variance'>>, 'VARIANCE_POP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.VariancePop'>>, 'VAR_POP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.VariancePop'>>, 'WEEK': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Week'>>, 'WEEK_OF_YEAR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.WeekOfYear'>>, 'WEEKOFYEAR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.WeekOfYear'>>, 'WHEN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.When'>>, 'X_M_L_TABLE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.XMLTable'>>, 'XOR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Xor'>>, 'YEAR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Year'>>, 'GLOB': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'JSON_EXTRACT_PATH_TEXT': <function build_json_extract_path.<locals>._builder>, 'LIKE': <function build_like>, 'LOG2': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'LOG10': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'MOD': <function build_mod>, 'TO_HEX': <function build_hex>, 'DIV': <function Postgres.Parser.<lambda>>, 'JSON_EXTRACT_PATH': <function build_json_extract_path.<locals>._builder>, 'MAKE_TIME': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeFromParts'>>, 'MAKE_TIMESTAMP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimestampFromParts'>>, 'NOW': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CurrentTimestamp'>>, 'TO_TIMESTAMP': <function _build_to_timestamp>, 'SHA256': <function Postgres.Parser.<lambda>>, 'SHA384': <function Postgres.Parser.<lambda>>, 'SHA512': <function Postgres.Parser.<lambda>>}
FUNCTION_PARSERS = {'CAST': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'CONVERT': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'DECODE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'EXTRACT': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'GAP_FILL': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'JSON_OBJECT': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'JSON_OBJECTAGG': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'JSON_TABLE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'MATCH': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'OPENJSON': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'POSITION': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'PREDICT': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'SAFE_CAST': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'STRING_AGG': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'SUBSTRING': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'TRIM': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'TRY_CAST': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'TRY_CONVERT': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'DATE_PART': <function Postgres.Parser.<lambda>>}
BITWISE = {<TokenType.AMP: 'AMP'>: <class 'sqlglot.expressions.BitwiseAnd'>, <TokenType.CARET: 'CARET'>: <class 'sqlglot.expressions.BitwiseXor'>, <TokenType.PIPE: 'PIPE'>: <class 'sqlglot.expressions.BitwiseOr'>, <TokenType.HASH: 'HASH'>: <class 'sqlglot.expressions.BitwiseXor'>}
EXPONENT = {<TokenType.CARET: 'CARET'>: <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Pow'>}
RANGE_PARSERS = {<TokenType.BETWEEN: 'BETWEEN'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.GLOB: 'GLOB'>: <function binary_range_parser.<locals>._parse_binary_range>, <TokenType.ILIKE: 'ILIKE'>: <function binary_range_parser.<locals>._parse_binary_range>, <TokenType.IN: 'IN'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.IRLIKE: 'IRLIKE'>: <function binary_range_parser.<locals>._parse_binary_range>, <TokenType.IS: 'IS'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.LIKE: 'LIKE'>: <function binary_range_parser.<locals>._parse_binary_range>, <TokenType.OVERLAPS: 'OVERLAPS'>: <function binary_range_parser.<locals>._parse_binary_range>, <TokenType.RLIKE: 'RLIKE'>: <function binary_range_parser.<locals>._parse_binary_range>, <TokenType.SIMILAR_TO: 'SIMILAR_TO'>: <function binary_range_parser.<locals>._parse_binary_range>, <TokenType.FOR: 'FOR'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.AT_GT: 'AT_GT'>: <function binary_range_parser.<locals>._parse_binary_range>, <TokenType.DAMP: 'DAMP'>: <function binary_range_parser.<locals>._parse_binary_range>, <TokenType.DAT: 'DAT'>: <function Postgres.Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.LT_AT: 'LT_AT'>: <function binary_range_parser.<locals>._parse_binary_range>, <TokenType.OPERATOR: 'OPERATOR'>: <function Postgres.Parser.<lambda>>}
STATEMENT_PARSERS = {<TokenType.ALTER: 'ALTER'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.BEGIN: 'BEGIN'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.CACHE: 'CACHE'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.COMMENT: 'COMMENT'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.COMMIT: 'COMMIT'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.COPY: 'COPY'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.CREATE: 'CREATE'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.DELETE: 'DELETE'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.DESC: 'DESC'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.DESCRIBE: 'DESCRIBE'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.DROP: 'DROP'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.INSERT: 'INSERT'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.KILL: 'KILL'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.LOAD: 'LOAD'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.MERGE: 'MERGE'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.PIVOT: 'PIVOT'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.PRAGMA: 'PRAGMA'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.REFRESH: 'REFRESH'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.ROLLBACK: 'ROLLBACK'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.SET: 'SET'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.TRUNCATE: 'TRUNCATE'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.UNCACHE: 'UNCACHE'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.UPDATE: 'UPDATE'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.USE: 'USE'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.SEMICOLON: 'SEMICOLON'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.END: 'END'>: <function Postgres.Parser.<lambda>>}
JSON_ARROWS_REQUIRE_JSON_TYPE = True
COLUMN_OPERATORS = {<TokenType.DOT: 'DOT'>: None, <TokenType.DCOLON: 'DCOLON'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.ARROW: 'ARROW'>: <function Postgres.Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.DARROW: 'DARROW'>: <function Postgres.Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.HASH_ARROW: 'HASH_ARROW'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.DHASH_ARROW: 'DHASH_ARROW'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>, <TokenType.PLACEHOLDER: 'PLACEHOLDER'>: <function Parser.<lambda>>}
ID_VAR_TOKENS = {<TokenType.SERIAL: 'SERIAL'>, <TokenType.TSMULTIRANGE: 'TSMULTIRANGE'>, <TokenType.MAP: 'MAP'>, <TokenType.GEOGRAPHY: 'GEOGRAPHY'>, <TokenType.COMMIT: 'COMMIT'>, <TokenType.NESTED: 'NESTED'>, <TokenType.CURRENT_USER: 'CURRENT_USER'>, <TokenType.DICTIONARY: 'DICTIONARY'>, <TokenType.SMALLINT: 'SMALLINT'>, <TokenType.TABLE: 'TABLE'>, <TokenType.LOAD: 'LOAD'>, <TokenType.EXISTS: 'EXISTS'>, <TokenType.ESCAPE: 'ESCAPE'>, <TokenType.TDIGEST: 'TDIGEST'>, <TokenType.SIMPLEAGGREGATEFUNCTION: 'SIMPLEAGGREGATEFUNCTION'>, <TokenType.DECIMAL: 'DECIMAL'>, <TokenType.INT4MULTIRANGE: 'INT4MULTIRANGE'>, <TokenType.BIT: 'BIT'>, <TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER: 'OBJECT_IDENTIFIER'>, <TokenType.DATE32: 'DATE32'>, <TokenType.CURRENT_TIME: 'CURRENT_TIME'>, <TokenType.TIME: 'TIME'>, <TokenType.CURRENT_TIMESTAMP: 'CURRENT_TIMESTAMP'>, <TokenType.SMALLSERIAL: 'SMALLSERIAL'>, <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, <TokenType.TINYBLOB: 'TINYBLOB'>, <TokenType.SUPER: 'SUPER'>, <TokenType.PERCENT: 'PERCENT'>, <TokenType.USMALLINT: 'USMALLINT'>, <TokenType.TRUNCATE: 'TRUNCATE'>, <TokenType.NCHAR: 'NCHAR'>, <TokenType.HLLSKETCH: 'HLLSKETCH'>, <TokenType.CONSTRAINT: 'CONSTRAINT'>, <TokenType.CACHE: 'CACHE'>, <TokenType.BIGSERIAL: 'BIGSERIAL'>, <TokenType.OFFSET: 'OFFSET'>, <TokenType.VIEW: 'VIEW'>, <TokenType.FALSE: 'FALSE'>, <TokenType.WINDOW: 'WINDOW'>, <TokenType.FIRST: 'FIRST'>, <TokenType.JSONB: 'JSONB'>, <TokenType.NULL: 'NULL'>, <TokenType.UINT: 'UINT'>, <TokenType.INET: 'INET'>, <TokenType.UNIQUE: 'UNIQUE'>, <TokenType.SCHEMA: 'SCHEMA'>, <TokenType.DESCRIBE: 'DESCRIBE'>, <TokenType.FILTER: 'FILTER'>, <TokenType.NULLABLE: 'NULLABLE'>, <TokenType.DATETIME: 'DATETIME'>, <TokenType.VARIANT: 'VARIANT'>, <TokenType.USE: 'USE'>, <TokenType.FIXEDSTRING: 'FIXEDSTRING'>, <TokenType.INT: 'INT'>, <TokenType.IPV6: 'IPV6'>, <TokenType.FLOAT: 'FLOAT'>, <TokenType.STORAGE_INTEGRATION: 'STORAGE_INTEGRATION'>, <TokenType.CASE: 'CASE'>, <TokenType.INT8RANGE: 'INT8RANGE'>, <TokenType.DESC: 'DESC'>, <TokenType.CURRENT_DATETIME: 'CURRENT_DATETIME'>, <TokenType.BEGIN: 'BEGIN'>, <TokenType.INT8MULTIRANGE: 'INT8MULTIRANGE'>, <TokenType.KILL: 'KILL'>, <TokenType.TSRANGE: 'TSRANGE'>, <TokenType.IPPREFIX: 'IPPREFIX'>, <TokenType.TINYINT: 'TINYINT'>, <TokenType.STRUCT: 'STRUCT'>, <TokenType.OPERATOR: 'OPERATOR'>, <TokenType.FINAL: 'FINAL'>, <TokenType.REPLACE: 'REPLACE'>, <TokenType.ENUM8: 'ENUM8'>, <TokenType.INT4RANGE: 'INT4RANGE'>, <TokenType.BOOLEAN: 'BOOLEAN'>, <TokenType.DELETE: 'DELETE'>, <TokenType.VAR: 'VAR'>, <TokenType.NVARCHAR: 'NVARCHAR'>, <TokenType.TEXT: 'TEXT'>, <TokenType.TIMESTAMP_NS: 'TIMESTAMP_NS'>, <TokenType.UPDATE: 'UPDATE'>, <TokenType.BIGDECIMAL: 'BIGDECIMAL'>, <TokenType.ROW: 'ROW'>, <TokenType.NAME: 'NAME'>, <TokenType.UINT128: 'UINT128'>, <TokenType.UNIQUEIDENTIFIER: 'UNIQUEIDENTIFIER'>, <TokenType.TRUE: 'TRUE'>, <TokenType.PRAGMA: 'PRAGMA'>, <TokenType.WAREHOUSE: 'WAREHOUSE'>, <TokenType.NUMMULTIRANGE: 'NUMMULTIRANGE'>, <TokenType.JSON: 'JSON'>, <TokenType.OVERLAPS: 'OVERLAPS'>, <TokenType.ALL: 'ALL'>, <TokenType.TIMETZ: 'TIMETZ'>, <TokenType.MEDIUMTEXT: 'MEDIUMTEXT'>, <TokenType.UDECIMAL: 'UDECIMAL'>, <TokenType.ROWS: 'ROWS'>, <TokenType.XML: 'XML'>, <TokenType.UBIGINT: 'UBIGINT'>, <TokenType.PSEUDO_TYPE: 'PSEUDO_TYPE'>, <TokenType.NEXT: 'NEXT'>, <TokenType.UNKNOWN: 'UNKNOWN'>, <TokenType.ROWVERSION: 'ROWVERSION'>, <TokenType.ANY: 'ANY'>, <TokenType.MONEY: 'MONEY'>, <TokenType.TIMESTAMP_MS: 'TIMESTAMP_MS'>, <TokenType.OVERWRITE: 'OVERWRITE'>, <TokenType.OBJECT: 'OBJECT'>, <TokenType.LONGTEXT: 'LONGTEXT'>, <TokenType.UINT256: 'UINT256'>, <TokenType.REFRESH: 'REFRESH'>, <TokenType.LIST: 'LIST'>, <TokenType.STREAMLIT: 'STREAMLIT'>, <TokenType.VARCHAR: 'VARCHAR'>, <TokenType.DATE: 'DATE'>, <TokenType.INT256: 'INT256'>, <TokenType.PIVOT: 'PIVOT'>, <TokenType.TIMESTAMPTZ: 'TIMESTAMPTZ'>, <TokenType.TOP: 'TOP'>, <TokenType.LOWCARDINALITY: 'LOWCARDINALITY'>, <TokenType.CURRENT_DATE: 'CURRENT_DATE'>, <TokenType.SEQUENCE: 'SEQUENCE'>, <TokenType.PROCEDURE: 'PROCEDURE'>, <TokenType.FOREIGN_KEY: 'FOREIGN_KEY'>, <TokenType.ENUM: 'ENUM'>, <TokenType.IDENTIFIER: 'IDENTIFIER'>, <TokenType.FULL: 'FULL'>, <TokenType.MEDIUMINT: 'MEDIUMINT'>, <TokenType.IPADDRESS: 'IPADDRESS'>, <TokenType.ANTI: 'ANTI'>, <TokenType.COPY: 'COPY'>, <TokenType.DATEMULTIRANGE: 'DATEMULTIRANGE'>, <TokenType.VARBINARY: 'VARBINARY'>, <TokenType.YEAR: 'YEAR'>, <TokenType.TSTZRANGE: 'TSTZRANGE'>, <TokenType.DIV: 'DIV'>, <TokenType.FUNCTION: 'FUNCTION'>, <TokenType.COLLATE: 'COLLATE'>, <TokenType.ENUM16: 'ENUM16'>, <TokenType.RANGE: 'RANGE'>, <TokenType.INT128: 'INT128'>, <TokenType.UTINYINT: 'UTINYINT'>, <TokenType.AUTO_INCREMENT: 'AUTO_INCREMENT'>, <TokenType.ASC: 'ASC'>, <TokenType.ROLLUP: 'ROLLUP'>, <TokenType.DATERANGE: 'DATERANGE'>, <TokenType.EXECUTE: 'EXECUTE'>, <TokenType.ASOF: 'ASOF'>, <TokenType.DATABASE: 'DATABASE'>, <TokenType.REFERENCES: 'REFERENCES'>, <TokenType.TSTZMULTIRANGE: 'TSTZMULTIRANGE'>, <TokenType.TIMESTAMPNTZ: 'TIMESTAMPNTZ'>, <TokenType.UNNEST: 'UNNEST'>, <TokenType.DOUBLE: 'DOUBLE'>, <TokenType.TINYTEXT: 'TINYTEXT'>, <TokenType.MERGE: 'MERGE'>, <TokenType.TIMESTAMP_S: 'TIMESTAMP_S'>, <TokenType.USERDEFINED: 'USERDEFINED'>, <TokenType.SEMI: 'SEMI'>, <TokenType.IMAGE: 'IMAGE'>, <TokenType.RIGHT: 'RIGHT'>, <TokenType.COMMENT: 'COMMENT'>, <TokenType.KEEP: 'KEEP'>, <TokenType.HSTORE: 'HSTORE'>, <TokenType.AGGREGATEFUNCTION: 'AGGREGATEFUNCTION'>, <TokenType.NATURAL: 'NATURAL'>, <TokenType.TAG: 'TAG'>, <TokenType.SOME: 'SOME'>, <TokenType.LONGBLOB: 'LONGBLOB'>, <TokenType.MODEL: 'MODEL'>, <TokenType.GEOMETRY: 'GEOMETRY'>, <TokenType.BIGINT: 'BIGINT'>, <TokenType.TIMESTAMP: 'TIMESTAMP'>, <TokenType.SMALLMONEY: 'SMALLMONEY'>, <TokenType.IPV4: 'IPV4'>, <TokenType.RECURSIVE: 'RECURSIVE'>, <TokenType.PARTITION: 'PARTITION'>, <TokenType.APPLY: 'APPLY'>, <TokenType.BINARY: 'BINARY'>, <TokenType.ISNULL: 'ISNULL'>, <TokenType.SHOW: 'SHOW'>, <TokenType.UNPIVOT: 'UNPIVOT'>, <TokenType.SET: 'SET'>, <TokenType.STRAIGHT_JOIN: 'STRAIGHT_JOIN'>, <TokenType.BPCHAR: 'BPCHAR'>, <TokenType.NUMRANGE: 'NUMRANGE'>, <TokenType.MEDIUMBLOB: 'MEDIUMBLOB'>, <TokenType.COLUMN: 'COLUMN'>, <TokenType.END: 'END'>, <TokenType.CHAR: 'CHAR'>, <TokenType.FORMAT: 'FORMAT'>, <TokenType.LEFT: 'LEFT'>, <TokenType.ORDINALITY: 'ORDINALITY'>, <TokenType.INDEX: 'INDEX'>, <TokenType.INTERVAL: 'INTERVAL'>, <TokenType.ARRAY: 'ARRAY'>, <TokenType.UUID: 'UUID'>, <TokenType.DEFAULT: 'DEFAULT'>, <TokenType.TIMESTAMPLTZ: 'TIMESTAMPLTZ'>, <TokenType.DATETIME64: 'DATETIME64'>, <TokenType.IS: 'IS'>, <TokenType.TEMPORARY: 'TEMPORARY'>, <TokenType.VOLATILE: 'VOLATILE'>, <TokenType.SETTINGS: 'SETTINGS'>, <TokenType.UMEDIUMINT: 'UMEDIUMINT'>}
TABLE_ALIAS_TOKENS = {<TokenType.SERIAL: 'SERIAL'>, <TokenType.TSMULTIRANGE: 'TSMULTIRANGE'>, <TokenType.MAP: 'MAP'>, <TokenType.GEOGRAPHY: 'GEOGRAPHY'>, <TokenType.COMMIT: 'COMMIT'>, <TokenType.NESTED: 'NESTED'>, <TokenType.CURRENT_USER: 'CURRENT_USER'>, <TokenType.DICTIONARY: 'DICTIONARY'>, <TokenType.SMALLINT: 'SMALLINT'>, <TokenType.TABLE: 'TABLE'>, <TokenType.LOAD: 'LOAD'>, <TokenType.EXISTS: 'EXISTS'>, <TokenType.ESCAPE: 'ESCAPE'>, <TokenType.TDIGEST: 'TDIGEST'>, <TokenType.SIMPLEAGGREGATEFUNCTION: 'SIMPLEAGGREGATEFUNCTION'>, <TokenType.DECIMAL: 'DECIMAL'>, <TokenType.INT4MULTIRANGE: 'INT4MULTIRANGE'>, <TokenType.BIT: 'BIT'>, <TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER: 'OBJECT_IDENTIFIER'>, <TokenType.DATE32: 'DATE32'>, <TokenType.CURRENT_TIME: 'CURRENT_TIME'>, <TokenType.TIME: 'TIME'>, <TokenType.CURRENT_TIMESTAMP: 'CURRENT_TIMESTAMP'>, <TokenType.SMALLSERIAL: 'SMALLSERIAL'>, <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, <TokenType.TINYBLOB: 'TINYBLOB'>, <TokenType.SUPER: 'SUPER'>, <TokenType.PERCENT: 'PERCENT'>, <TokenType.USMALLINT: 'USMALLINT'>, <TokenType.TRUNCATE: 'TRUNCATE'>, <TokenType.NCHAR: 'NCHAR'>, <TokenType.HLLSKETCH: 'HLLSKETCH'>, <TokenType.CONSTRAINT: 'CONSTRAINT'>, <TokenType.CACHE: 'CACHE'>, <TokenType.BIGSERIAL: 'BIGSERIAL'>, <TokenType.VIEW: 'VIEW'>, <TokenType.FALSE: 'FALSE'>, <TokenType.JSONB: 'JSONB'>, <TokenType.FIRST: 'FIRST'>, <TokenType.NULL: 'NULL'>, <TokenType.UINT: 'UINT'>, <TokenType.INET: 'INET'>, <TokenType.UNIQUE: 'UNIQUE'>, <TokenType.SCHEMA: 'SCHEMA'>, <TokenType.DESCRIBE: 'DESCRIBE'>, <TokenType.FILTER: 'FILTER'>, <TokenType.NULLABLE: 'NULLABLE'>, <TokenType.DATETIME: 'DATETIME'>, <TokenType.VARIANT: 'VARIANT'>, <TokenType.USE: 'USE'>, <TokenType.FIXEDSTRING: 'FIXEDSTRING'>, <TokenType.INT: 'INT'>, <TokenType.IPV6: 'IPV6'>, <TokenType.FLOAT: 'FLOAT'>, <TokenType.STORAGE_INTEGRATION: 'STORAGE_INTEGRATION'>, <TokenType.CASE: 'CASE'>, <TokenType.INT8RANGE: 'INT8RANGE'>, <TokenType.DESC: 'DESC'>, <TokenType.CURRENT_DATETIME: 'CURRENT_DATETIME'>, <TokenType.BEGIN: 'BEGIN'>, <TokenType.INT8MULTIRANGE: 'INT8MULTIRANGE'>, <TokenType.KILL: 'KILL'>, <TokenType.TSRANGE: 'TSRANGE'>, <TokenType.IPPREFIX: 'IPPREFIX'>, <TokenType.TINYINT: 'TINYINT'>, <TokenType.STRUCT: 'STRUCT'>, <TokenType.OPERATOR: 'OPERATOR'>, <TokenType.FINAL: 'FINAL'>, <TokenType.REPLACE: 'REPLACE'>, <TokenType.ENUM8: 'ENUM8'>, <TokenType.INT4RANGE: 'INT4RANGE'>, <TokenType.BOOLEAN: 'BOOLEAN'>, <TokenType.DELETE: 'DELETE'>, <TokenType.VAR: 'VAR'>, <TokenType.NVARCHAR: 'NVARCHAR'>, <TokenType.TEXT: 'TEXT'>, <TokenType.TIMESTAMP_NS: 'TIMESTAMP_NS'>, <TokenType.UPDATE: 'UPDATE'>, <TokenType.BIGDECIMAL: 'BIGDECIMAL'>, <TokenType.ROW: 'ROW'>, <TokenType.NAME: 'NAME'>, <TokenType.UINT128: 'UINT128'>, <TokenType.UNIQUEIDENTIFIER: 'UNIQUEIDENTIFIER'>, <TokenType.TRUE: 'TRUE'>, <TokenType.PRAGMA: 'PRAGMA'>, <TokenType.WAREHOUSE: 'WAREHOUSE'>, <TokenType.NUMMULTIRANGE: 'NUMMULTIRANGE'>, <TokenType.JSON: 'JSON'>, <TokenType.OVERLAPS: 'OVERLAPS'>, <TokenType.ALL: 'ALL'>, <TokenType.TIMETZ: 'TIMETZ'>, <TokenType.MEDIUMTEXT: 'MEDIUMTEXT'>, <TokenType.UDECIMAL: 'UDECIMAL'>, <TokenType.ROWS: 'ROWS'>, <TokenType.XML: 'XML'>, <TokenType.UBIGINT: 'UBIGINT'>, <TokenType.PSEUDO_TYPE: 'PSEUDO_TYPE'>, <TokenType.NEXT: 'NEXT'>, <TokenType.UNKNOWN: 'UNKNOWN'>, <TokenType.ROWVERSION: 'ROWVERSION'>, <TokenType.ANY: 'ANY'>, <TokenType.MONEY: 'MONEY'>, <TokenType.TIMESTAMP_MS: 'TIMESTAMP_MS'>, <TokenType.OVERWRITE: 'OVERWRITE'>, <TokenType.OBJECT: 'OBJECT'>, <TokenType.LONGTEXT: 'LONGTEXT'>, <TokenType.UINT256: 'UINT256'>, <TokenType.REFRESH: 'REFRESH'>, <TokenType.LIST: 'LIST'>, <TokenType.STREAMLIT: 'STREAMLIT'>, <TokenType.VARCHAR: 'VARCHAR'>, <TokenType.INT256: 'INT256'>, <TokenType.PIVOT: 'PIVOT'>, <TokenType.TIMESTAMPTZ: 'TIMESTAMPTZ'>, <TokenType.TOP: 'TOP'>, <TokenType.LOWCARDINALITY: 'LOWCARDINALITY'>, <TokenType.CURRENT_DATE: 'CURRENT_DATE'>, <TokenType.SEQUENCE: 'SEQUENCE'>, <TokenType.PROCEDURE: 'PROCEDURE'>, <TokenType.FOREIGN_KEY: 'FOREIGN_KEY'>, <TokenType.ENUM: 'ENUM'>, <TokenType.IDENTIFIER: 'IDENTIFIER'>, <TokenType.MEDIUMINT: 'MEDIUMINT'>, <TokenType.IPADDRESS: 'IPADDRESS'>, <TokenType.COPY: 'COPY'>, <TokenType.DATEMULTIRANGE: 'DATEMULTIRANGE'>, <TokenType.VARBINARY: 'VARBINARY'>, <TokenType.YEAR: 'YEAR'>, <TokenType.TSTZRANGE: 'TSTZRANGE'>, <TokenType.DIV: 'DIV'>, <TokenType.FUNCTION: 'FUNCTION'>, <TokenType.COLLATE: 'COLLATE'>, <TokenType.ENUM16: 'ENUM16'>, <TokenType.RANGE: 'RANGE'>, <TokenType.INT128: 'INT128'>, <TokenType.UTINYINT: 'UTINYINT'>, <TokenType.AUTO_INCREMENT: 'AUTO_INCREMENT'>, <TokenType.ASC: 'ASC'>, <TokenType.ROLLUP: 'ROLLUP'>, <TokenType.DATERANGE: 'DATERANGE'>, <TokenType.EXECUTE: 'EXECUTE'>, <TokenType.DATABASE: 'DATABASE'>, <TokenType.REFERENCES: 'REFERENCES'>, <TokenType.TSTZMULTIRANGE: 'TSTZMULTIRANGE'>, <TokenType.TIMESTAMPNTZ: 'TIMESTAMPNTZ'>, <TokenType.UNNEST: 'UNNEST'>, <TokenType.DOUBLE: 'DOUBLE'>, <TokenType.TINYTEXT: 'TINYTEXT'>, <TokenType.MERGE: 'MERGE'>, <TokenType.TIMESTAMP_S: 'TIMESTAMP_S'>, <TokenType.USERDEFINED: 'USERDEFINED'>, <TokenType.IMAGE: 'IMAGE'>, <TokenType.COMMENT: 'COMMENT'>, <TokenType.KEEP: 'KEEP'>, <TokenType.HSTORE: 'HSTORE'>, <TokenType.AGGREGATEFUNCTION: 'AGGREGATEFUNCTION'>, <TokenType.TAG: 'TAG'>, <TokenType.SOME: 'SOME'>, <TokenType.LONGBLOB: 'LONGBLOB'>, <TokenType.MODEL: 'MODEL'>, <TokenType.GEOMETRY: 'GEOMETRY'>, <TokenType.BIGINT: 'BIGINT'>, <TokenType.TIMESTAMP: 'TIMESTAMP'>, <TokenType.SMALLMONEY: 'SMALLMONEY'>, <TokenType.IPV4: 'IPV4'>, <TokenType.RECURSIVE: 'RECURSIVE'>, <TokenType.PARTITION: 'PARTITION'>, <TokenType.BINARY: 'BINARY'>, <TokenType.ISNULL: 'ISNULL'>, <TokenType.SHOW: 'SHOW'>, <TokenType.UNPIVOT: 'UNPIVOT'>, <TokenType.SET: 'SET'>, <TokenType.STRAIGHT_JOIN: 'STRAIGHT_JOIN'>, <TokenType.BPCHAR: 'BPCHAR'>, <TokenType.NUMRANGE: 'NUMRANGE'>, <TokenType.MEDIUMBLOB: 'MEDIUMBLOB'>, <TokenType.COLUMN: 'COLUMN'>, <TokenType.VOLATILE: 'VOLATILE'>, <TokenType.END: 'END'>, <TokenType.CHAR: 'CHAR'>, <TokenType.FORMAT: 'FORMAT'>, <TokenType.ORDINALITY: 'ORDINALITY'>, <TokenType.INDEX: 'INDEX'>, <TokenType.INTERVAL: 'INTERVAL'>, <TokenType.ARRAY: 'ARRAY'>, <TokenType.UUID: 'UUID'>, <TokenType.DEFAULT: 'DEFAULT'>, <TokenType.TIMESTAMPLTZ: 'TIMESTAMPLTZ'>, <TokenType.DATETIME64: 'DATETIME64'>, <TokenType.IS: 'IS'>, <TokenType.TEMPORARY: 'TEMPORARY'>, <TokenType.DATE: 'DATE'>, <TokenType.SETTINGS: 'SETTINGS'>, <TokenType.UMEDIUMINT: 'UMEDIUMINT'>}
SHOW_TRIE: Dict = {}
SET_TRIE: Dict = {'GLOBAL': {0: True}, 'LOCAL': {0: True}, 'SESSION': {0: True}, 'TRANSACTION': {0: True}}
Inherited Members
sqlglot.parser.Parser
Parser
NO_PAREN_FUNCTIONS
STRUCT_TYPE_TOKENS
NESTED_TYPE_TOKENS
ENUM_TYPE_TOKENS
AGGREGATE_TYPE_TOKENS
TYPE_TOKENS
SIGNED_TO_UNSIGNED_TYPE_TOKEN
SUBQUERY_PREDICATES
RESERVED_TOKENS
DB_CREATABLES
CREATABLES
INTERVAL_VARS
ALIAS_TOKENS
ARRAY_CONSTRUCTORS
COMMENT_TABLE_ALIAS_TOKENS
UPDATE_ALIAS_TOKENS
TRIM_TYPES
FUNC_TOKENS
CONJUNCTION
ASSIGNMENT
DISJUNCTION
EQUALITY
COMPARISON
TERM
FACTOR
TIMES
TIMESTAMPS
SET_OPERATIONS
JOIN_METHODS
JOIN_SIDES
JOIN_KINDS
JOIN_HINTS
LAMBDAS
EXPRESSION_PARSERS
UNARY_PARSERS
STRING_PARSERS
NUMERIC_PARSERS
PRIMARY_PARSERS
PLACEHOLDER_PARSERS
CONSTRAINT_PARSERS
ALTER_PARSERS
ALTER_ALTER_PARSERS
SCHEMA_UNNAMED_CONSTRAINTS
NO_PAREN_FUNCTION_PARSERS
INVALID_FUNC_NAME_TOKENS
FUNCTIONS_WITH_ALIASED_ARGS
KEY_VALUE_DEFINITIONS
QUERY_MODIFIER_PARSERS
SET_PARSERS
SHOW_PARSERS
TYPE_LITERAL_PARSERS
TYPE_CONVERTERS
DDL_SELECT_TOKENS
PRE_VOLATILE_TOKENS
TRANSACTION_KIND
TRANSACTION_CHARACTERISTICS
CONFLICT_ACTIONS
CREATE_SEQUENCE
ISOLATED_LOADING_OPTIONS
USABLES
CAST_ACTIONS
INSERT_ALTERNATIVES
CLONE_KEYWORDS
HISTORICAL_DATA_KIND
OPCLASS_FOLLOW_KEYWORDS
OPTYPE_FOLLOW_TOKENS
TABLE_INDEX_HINT_TOKENS
VIEW_ATTRIBUTES
WINDOW_ALIAS_TOKENS
WINDOW_BEFORE_PAREN_TOKENS
WINDOW_SIDES
JSON_KEY_VALUE_SEPARATOR_TOKENS
FETCH_TOKENS
ADD_CONSTRAINT_TOKENS
DISTINCT_TOKENS
NULL_TOKENS
UNNEST_OFFSET_ALIAS_TOKENS
SELECT_START_TOKENS
COPY_INTO_VARLEN_OPTIONS
STRICT_CAST
PREFIXED_PIVOT_COLUMNS
IDENTIFY_PIVOT_STRINGS
LOG_DEFAULTS_TO_LN
ALTER_TABLE_ADD_REQUIRED_FOR_EACH_COLUMN
TABLESAMPLE_CSV
DEFAULT_SAMPLING_METHOD
SET_REQUIRES_ASSIGNMENT_DELIMITER
TRIM_PATTERN_FIRST
STRING_ALIASES
MODIFIERS_ATTACHED_TO_SET_OP
SET_OP_MODIFIERS
NO_PAREN_IF_COMMANDS
COLON_IS_JSON_EXTRACT
VALUES_FOLLOWED_BY_PAREN
SUPPORTS_IMPLICIT_UNNEST
INTERVAL_SPANS
SUPPORTS_PARTITION_SELECTION
error_level
error_message_context
max_errors
dialect
reset
parse
parse_into
check_errors
raise_error
expression
validate_expression
errors
sql
class Postgres.Generator(sqlglot.generator.Generator):
447    class Generator(generator.Generator):
448        SINGLE_STRING_INTERVAL = True
449        RENAME_TABLE_WITH_DB = False
450        LOCKING_READS_SUPPORTED = True
451        JOIN_HINTS = False
452        TABLE_HINTS = False
453        QUERY_HINTS = False
454        NVL2_SUPPORTED = False
455        PARAMETER_TOKEN = "$"
456        TABLESAMPLE_SIZE_IS_ROWS = False
457        TABLESAMPLE_SEED_KEYWORD = "REPEATABLE"
458        SUPPORTS_SELECT_INTO = True
459        JSON_TYPE_REQUIRED_FOR_EXTRACTION = True
460        SUPPORTS_UNLOGGED_TABLES = True
461        LIKE_PROPERTY_INSIDE_SCHEMA = True
462        MULTI_ARG_DISTINCT = False
463        CAN_IMPLEMENT_ARRAY_ANY = True
464        COPY_HAS_INTO_KEYWORD = False
465
466        SUPPORTED_JSON_PATH_PARTS = {
467            exp.JSONPathKey,
468            exp.JSONPathRoot,
469            exp.JSONPathSubscript,
470        }
471
472        TYPE_MAPPING = {
473            **generator.Generator.TYPE_MAPPING,
474            exp.DataType.Type.TINYINT: "SMALLINT",
475            exp.DataType.Type.FLOAT: "REAL",
476            exp.DataType.Type.DOUBLE: "DOUBLE PRECISION",
477            exp.DataType.Type.BINARY: "BYTEA",
478            exp.DataType.Type.VARBINARY: "BYTEA",
479            exp.DataType.Type.ROWVERSION: "BYTEA",
480            exp.DataType.Type.DATETIME: "TIMESTAMP",
481        }
482
483        TRANSFORMS = {
484            **generator.Generator.TRANSFORMS,
485            exp.AnyValue: any_value_to_max_sql,
486            exp.Array: lambda self, e: (
487                f"{self.normalize_func('ARRAY')}({self.sql(e.expressions[0])})"
488                if isinstance(seq_get(e.expressions, 0), exp.Select)
489                else f"{self.normalize_func('ARRAY')}[{self.expressions(e, flat=True)}]"
490            ),
491            exp.ArrayConcat: rename_func("ARRAY_CAT"),
492            exp.ArrayContainsAll: lambda self, e: self.binary(e, "@>"),
493            exp.ArrayOverlaps: lambda self, e: self.binary(e, "&&"),
494            exp.ArrayFilter: filter_array_using_unnest,
495            exp.ArraySize: lambda self, e: self.func("ARRAY_LENGTH", e.this, e.expression or "1"),
496            exp.BitwiseXor: lambda self, e: self.binary(e, "#"),
497            exp.ColumnDef: transforms.preprocess([_auto_increment_to_serial, _serial_to_generated]),
498            exp.CurrentDate: no_paren_current_date_sql,
499            exp.CurrentTimestamp: lambda *_: "CURRENT_TIMESTAMP",
500            exp.CurrentUser: lambda *_: "CURRENT_USER",
501            exp.DateAdd: _date_add_sql("+"),
502            exp.DateDiff: _date_diff_sql,
503            exp.DateStrToDate: datestrtodate_sql,
504            exp.DateSub: _date_add_sql("-"),
505            exp.Explode: rename_func("UNNEST"),
506            exp.GroupConcat: _string_agg_sql,
507            exp.IntDiv: rename_func("DIV"),
508            exp.JSONExtract: _json_extract_sql("JSON_EXTRACT_PATH", "->"),
509            exp.JSONExtractScalar: _json_extract_sql("JSON_EXTRACT_PATH_TEXT", "->>"),
510            exp.JSONBExtract: lambda self, e: self.binary(e, "#>"),
511            exp.JSONBExtractScalar: lambda self, e: self.binary(e, "#>>"),
512            exp.JSONBContains: lambda self, e: self.binary(e, "?"),
513            exp.ParseJSON: lambda self, e: self.sql(exp.cast(e.this, exp.DataType.Type.JSON)),
514            exp.JSONPathKey: json_path_key_only_name,
515            exp.JSONPathRoot: lambda *_: "",
516            exp.JSONPathSubscript: lambda self, e: self.json_path_part(e.this),
517            exp.LastDay: no_last_day_sql,
518            exp.LogicalOr: rename_func("BOOL_OR"),
519            exp.LogicalAnd: rename_func("BOOL_AND"),
520            exp.Max: max_or_greatest,
521            exp.MapFromEntries: no_map_from_entries_sql,
522            exp.Min: min_or_least,
523            exp.Merge: merge_without_target_sql,
524            exp.PartitionedByProperty: lambda self, e: f"PARTITION BY {self.sql(e, 'this')}",
525            exp.PercentileCont: transforms.preprocess(
526                [transforms.add_within_group_for_percentiles]
527            ),
528            exp.PercentileDisc: transforms.preprocess(
529                [transforms.add_within_group_for_percentiles]
530            ),
531            exp.Pivot: no_pivot_sql,
532            exp.Pow: lambda self, e: self.binary(e, "^"),
533            exp.Rand: rename_func("RANDOM"),
534            exp.RegexpLike: lambda self, e: self.binary(e, "~"),
535            exp.RegexpILike: lambda self, e: self.binary(e, "~*"),
536            exp.Select: transforms.preprocess(
537                [
538                    transforms.eliminate_semi_and_anti_joins,
539                    transforms.eliminate_qualify,
540                ]
541            ),
542            exp.SHA2: sha256_sql,
543            exp.StrPosition: str_position_sql,
544            exp.StrToDate: lambda self, e: self.func("TO_DATE", e.this, self.format_time(e)),
545            exp.StrToTime: lambda self, e: self.func("TO_TIMESTAMP", e.this, self.format_time(e)),
546            exp.StructExtract: struct_extract_sql,
547            exp.Substring: _substring_sql,
548            exp.TimeFromParts: rename_func("MAKE_TIME"),
549            exp.TimestampFromParts: rename_func("MAKE_TIMESTAMP"),
550            exp.TimestampTrunc: timestamptrunc_sql(zone=True),
551            exp.TimeStrToTime: timestrtotime_sql,
552            exp.TimeToStr: lambda self, e: self.func("TO_CHAR", e.this, self.format_time(e)),
553            exp.ToChar: lambda self, e: self.function_fallback_sql(e),
554            exp.Trim: trim_sql,
555            exp.TryCast: no_trycast_sql,
556            exp.TsOrDsAdd: _date_add_sql("+"),
557            exp.TsOrDsDiff: _date_diff_sql,
558            exp.UnixToTime: lambda self, e: self.func("TO_TIMESTAMP", e.this),
559            exp.TimeToUnix: lambda self, e: self.func(
560                "DATE_PART", exp.Literal.string("epoch"), e.this
561            ),
562            exp.VariancePop: rename_func("VAR_POP"),
563            exp.Variance: rename_func("VAR_SAMP"),
564            exp.Xor: bool_xor_sql,
565            exp.UnixToTime: _unix_to_time_sql,
566        }
567        TRANSFORMS.pop(exp.CommentColumnConstraint)
568
569        PROPERTIES_LOCATION = {
570            **generator.Generator.PROPERTIES_LOCATION,
571            exp.PartitionedByProperty: exp.Properties.Location.POST_SCHEMA,
572            exp.TransientProperty: exp.Properties.Location.UNSUPPORTED,
573            exp.VolatileProperty: exp.Properties.Location.UNSUPPORTED,
574        }
575
576        def schemacommentproperty_sql(self, expression: exp.SchemaCommentProperty) -> str:
577            self.unsupported("Table comments are not supported in the CREATE statement")
578            return ""
579
580        def commentcolumnconstraint_sql(self, expression: exp.CommentColumnConstraint) -> str:
581            self.unsupported("Column comments are not supported in the CREATE statement")
582            return ""
583
584        def unnest_sql(self, expression: exp.Unnest) -> str:
585            if len(expression.expressions) == 1:
586                from sqlglot.optimizer.annotate_types import annotate_types
587
588                this = annotate_types(expression.expressions[0])
589                if this.is_type("array<json>"):
590                    while isinstance(this, exp.Cast):
591                        this = this.this
592
593                    arg = self.sql(exp.cast(this, exp.DataType.Type.JSON))
594                    alias = self.sql(expression, "alias")
595                    alias = f" AS {alias}" if alias else ""
596
597                    if expression.args.get("offset"):
598                        self.unsupported("Unsupported JSON_ARRAY_ELEMENTS with offset")
599
600                    return f"JSON_ARRAY_ELEMENTS({arg}){alias}"
601
602            return super().unnest_sql(expression)
603
604        def bracket_sql(self, expression: exp.Bracket) -> str:
605            """Forms like ARRAY[1, 2, 3][3] aren't allowed; we need to wrap the ARRAY."""
606            if isinstance(expression.this, exp.Array):
607                expression.set("this", exp.paren(expression.this, copy=False))
608
609            return super().bracket_sql(expression)
610
611        def matchagainst_sql(self, expression: exp.MatchAgainst) -> str:
612            this = self.sql(expression, "this")
613            expressions = [f"{self.sql(e)} @@ {this}" for e in expression.expressions]
614            sql = " OR ".join(expressions)
615            return f"({sql})" if len(expressions) > 1 else sql
616
617        def alterset_sql(self, expression: exp.AlterSet) -> str:
618            exprs = self.expressions(expression, flat=True)
619            exprs = f"({exprs})" if exprs else ""
620
621            access_method = self.sql(expression, "access_method")
622            access_method = f"ACCESS METHOD {access_method}" if access_method else ""
623            tablespace = self.sql(expression, "tablespace")
624            tablespace = f"TABLESPACE {tablespace}" if tablespace else ""
625            option = self.sql(expression, "option")
626
627            return f"SET {exprs}{access_method}{tablespace}{option}"
628
629        def datatype_sql(self, expression: exp.DataType) -> str:
630            if expression.is_type(exp.DataType.Type.ARRAY):
631                if expression.expressions:
632                    values = self.expressions(expression, key="values", flat=True)
633                    return f"{self.expressions(expression, flat=True)}[{values}]"
634                return "ARRAY"
635            return super().datatype_sql(expression)
636
637        def cast_sql(self, expression: exp.Cast, safe_prefix: t.Optional[str] = None) -> str:
638            this = expression.this
639
640            # Postgres casts DIV() to decimal for transpilation but when roundtripping it's superfluous
641            if isinstance(this, exp.IntDiv) and expression.to == exp.DataType.build("decimal"):
642                return self.sql(this)
643
644            return super().cast_sql(expression, safe_prefix=safe_prefix)

Generator converts a given syntax tree to the corresponding SQL string.

Arguments:
  • pretty: Whether to format the produced SQL string. Default: False.
  • identify: Determines when an identifier should be quoted. Possible values are: False (default): Never quote, except in cases where it's mandatory by the dialect. True or 'always': Always quote. 'safe': Only quote identifiers that are case insensitive.
  • normalize: Whether to normalize identifiers to lowercase. Default: False.
  • pad: The pad size in a formatted string. For example, this affects the indentation of a projection in a query, relative to its nesting level. Default: 2.
  • indent: The indentation size in a formatted string. For example, this affects the indentation of subqueries and filters under a WHERE clause. Default: 2.
  • normalize_functions: How to normalize function names. Possible values are: "upper" or True (default): Convert names to uppercase. "lower": Convert names to lowercase. False: Disables function name normalization.
  • unsupported_level: Determines the generator's behavior when it encounters unsupported expressions. Default ErrorLevel.WARN.
  • max_unsupported: Maximum number of unsupported messages to include in a raised UnsupportedError. This is only relevant if unsupported_level is ErrorLevel.RAISE. Default: 3
  • leading_comma: Whether the comma is leading or trailing in select expressions. This is only relevant when generating in pretty mode. Default: False
  • max_text_width: The max number of characters in a segment before creating new lines in pretty mode. The default is on the smaller end because the length only represents a segment and not the true line length. Default: 80
  • comments: Whether to preserve comments in the output SQL code. Default: True
SINGLE_STRING_INTERVAL = True
RENAME_TABLE_WITH_DB = False
LOCKING_READS_SUPPORTED = True
JOIN_HINTS = False
TABLE_HINTS = False
QUERY_HINTS = False
NVL2_SUPPORTED = False
PARAMETER_TOKEN = '$'
TABLESAMPLE_SIZE_IS_ROWS = False
TABLESAMPLE_SEED_KEYWORD = 'REPEATABLE'
SUPPORTS_SELECT_INTO = True
JSON_TYPE_REQUIRED_FOR_EXTRACTION = True
SUPPORTS_UNLOGGED_TABLES = True
LIKE_PROPERTY_INSIDE_SCHEMA = True
MULTI_ARG_DISTINCT = False
CAN_IMPLEMENT_ARRAY_ANY = True
COPY_HAS_INTO_KEYWORD = False
TYPE_MAPPING = {<Type.NCHAR: 'NCHAR'>: 'CHAR', <Type.NVARCHAR: 'NVARCHAR'>: 'VARCHAR', <Type.MEDIUMTEXT: 'MEDIUMTEXT'>: 'TEXT', <Type.LONGTEXT: 'LONGTEXT'>: 'TEXT', <Type.TINYTEXT: 'TINYTEXT'>: 'TEXT', <Type.MEDIUMBLOB: 'MEDIUMBLOB'>: 'BLOB', <Type.LONGBLOB: 'LONGBLOB'>: 'BLOB', <Type.TINYBLOB: 'TINYBLOB'>: 'BLOB', <Type.INET: 'INET'>: 'INET', <Type.ROWVERSION: 'ROWVERSION'>: 'BYTEA', <Type.TINYINT: 'TINYINT'>: 'SMALLINT', <Type.FLOAT: 'FLOAT'>: 'REAL', <Type.DOUBLE: 'DOUBLE'>: 'DOUBLE PRECISION', <Type.BINARY: 'BINARY'>: 'BYTEA', <Type.VARBINARY: 'VARBINARY'>: 'BYTEA', <Type.DATETIME: 'DATETIME'>: 'TIMESTAMP'}
TRANSFORMS = {<class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONPathKey'>: <function json_path_key_only_name>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONPathRoot'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONPathSubscript'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.AllowedValuesProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.AutoRefreshProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.BackupProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CaseSpecificColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CharacterSetColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CharacterSetProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ClusteredColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CollateColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CopyGrantsProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateFormatColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DefaultColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.EncodeColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.EphemeralColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ExcludeColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ExecuteAsProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ExternalProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.GlobalProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.HeapProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.IcebergProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.InheritsProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.InlineLengthColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.InputModelProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.IntervalSpan'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONExtract'>: <function _json_extract_sql.<locals>._generate>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONExtractScalar'>: <function _json_extract_sql.<locals>._generate>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LanguageProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LocationProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LogProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.MaterializedProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.NonClusteredColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.NoPrimaryIndexProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.NotForReplicationColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.OnCommitProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.OnProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.OnUpdateColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.OutputModelProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.PathColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ProjectionPolicyColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RemoteWithConnectionModelProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ReturnsProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SampleProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SecureProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SetConfigProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SetProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SettingsProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SharingProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SqlReadWriteProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SqlSecurityProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StabilityProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StrictProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TemporaryProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TagColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TitleColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Timestamp'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ToMap'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ToTableProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TransformModelProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TransientProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.UppercaseColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.UnloggedProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.VarMap'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ViewAttributeProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.VolatileProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.WithJournalTableProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.WithOperator'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.AnyValue'>: <function any_value_to_max_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Array'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayConcat'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayContainsAll'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayOverlaps'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayFilter'>: <function filter_array_using_unnest>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArraySize'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.BitwiseXor'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ColumnDef'>: <function preprocess.<locals>._to_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CurrentDate'>: <function no_paren_current_date_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CurrentTimestamp'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CurrentUser'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateAdd'>: <function _date_add_sql.<locals>.func>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateDiff'>: <function _date_diff_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateStrToDate'>: <function datestrtodate_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateSub'>: <function _date_add_sql.<locals>.func>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Explode'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.GroupConcat'>: <function _string_agg_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.IntDiv'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONBExtract'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONBExtractScalar'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONBContains'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ParseJSON'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LastDay'>: <function no_last_day_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LogicalOr'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LogicalAnd'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Max'>: <function max_or_greatest>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.MapFromEntries'>: <function no_map_from_entries_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Min'>: <function min_or_least>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Merge'>: <function merge_without_target_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.PartitionedByProperty'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.PercentileCont'>: <function preprocess.<locals>._to_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.PercentileDisc'>: <function preprocess.<locals>._to_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Pivot'>: <function no_pivot_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Pow'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Rand'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RegexpLike'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RegexpILike'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Select'>: <function preprocess.<locals>._to_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SHA2'>: <function sha256_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StrPosition'>: <function str_position_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StrToDate'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StrToTime'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StructExtract'>: <function struct_extract_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Substring'>: <function _substring_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeFromParts'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimestampFromParts'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimestampTrunc'>: <function timestamptrunc_sql.<locals>._timestamptrunc_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeStrToTime'>: <function timestrtotime_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeToStr'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ToChar'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Trim'>: <function trim_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TryCast'>: <function no_trycast_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TsOrDsAdd'>: <function _date_add_sql.<locals>.func>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TsOrDsDiff'>: <function _date_diff_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.UnixToTime'>: <function _unix_to_time_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeToUnix'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.VariancePop'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Variance'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Xor'>: <function bool_xor_sql>}
PROPERTIES_LOCATION = {<class 'sqlglot.expressions.AllowedValuesProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.AlgorithmProperty'>: <Location.POST_CREATE: 'POST_CREATE'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.AutoIncrementProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.AutoRefreshProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.BackupProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.BlockCompressionProperty'>: <Location.POST_NAME: 'POST_NAME'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CharacterSetProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ChecksumProperty'>: <Location.POST_NAME: 'POST_NAME'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CollateProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CopyGrantsProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Cluster'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ClusteredByProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DataBlocksizeProperty'>: <Location.POST_NAME: 'POST_NAME'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DataDeletionProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DefinerProperty'>: <Location.POST_CREATE: 'POST_CREATE'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DictRange'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DictProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DistKeyProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DistStyleProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.EngineProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ExecuteAsProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ExternalProperty'>: <Location.POST_CREATE: 'POST_CREATE'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.FallbackProperty'>: <Location.POST_NAME: 'POST_NAME'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.FileFormatProperty'>: <Location.POST_WITH: 'POST_WITH'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.FreespaceProperty'>: <Location.POST_NAME: 'POST_NAME'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.GlobalProperty'>: <Location.POST_CREATE: 'POST_CREATE'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.HeapProperty'>: <Location.POST_WITH: 'POST_WITH'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.InheritsProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.IcebergProperty'>: <Location.POST_CREATE: 'POST_CREATE'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.InputModelProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.IsolatedLoadingProperty'>: <Location.POST_NAME: 'POST_NAME'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JournalProperty'>: <Location.POST_NAME: 'POST_NAME'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LanguageProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LikeProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LocationProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LockProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LockingProperty'>: <Location.POST_ALIAS: 'POST_ALIAS'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LogProperty'>: <Location.POST_NAME: 'POST_NAME'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.MaterializedProperty'>: <Location.POST_CREATE: 'POST_CREATE'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.MergeBlockRatioProperty'>: <Location.POST_NAME: 'POST_NAME'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.NoPrimaryIndexProperty'>: <Location.POST_EXPRESSION: 'POST_EXPRESSION'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.OnProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.OnCommitProperty'>: <Location.POST_EXPRESSION: 'POST_EXPRESSION'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Order'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.OutputModelProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.PartitionedByProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.PartitionedOfProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.PrimaryKey'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Property'>: <Location.POST_WITH: 'POST_WITH'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RemoteWithConnectionModelProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ReturnsProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RowFormatProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RowFormatDelimitedProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RowFormatSerdeProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SampleProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SchemaCommentProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SecureProperty'>: <Location.POST_CREATE: 'POST_CREATE'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SerdeProperties'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Set'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SettingsProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SetProperty'>: <Location.POST_CREATE: 'POST_CREATE'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SetConfigProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SharingProperty'>: <Location.POST_EXPRESSION: 'POST_EXPRESSION'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SequenceProperties'>: <Location.POST_EXPRESSION: 'POST_EXPRESSION'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SortKeyProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SqlReadWriteProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SqlSecurityProperty'>: <Location.POST_CREATE: 'POST_CREATE'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StabilityProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StrictProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TemporaryProperty'>: <Location.POST_CREATE: 'POST_CREATE'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ToTableProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TransientProperty'>: <Location.UNSUPPORTED: 'UNSUPPORTED'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TransformModelProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.MergeTreeTTL'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.UnloggedProperty'>: <Location.POST_CREATE: 'POST_CREATE'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ViewAttributeProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.VolatileProperty'>: <Location.UNSUPPORTED: 'UNSUPPORTED'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.WithDataProperty'>: <Location.POST_EXPRESSION: 'POST_EXPRESSION'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.WithJournalTableProperty'>: <Location.POST_NAME: 'POST_NAME'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.WithSystemVersioningProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>}
def schemacommentproperty_sql(self, expression: sqlglot.expressions.SchemaCommentProperty) -> str:
576        def schemacommentproperty_sql(self, expression: exp.SchemaCommentProperty) -> str:
577            self.unsupported("Table comments are not supported in the CREATE statement")
578            return ""
def commentcolumnconstraint_sql(self, expression: sqlglot.expressions.CommentColumnConstraint) -> str:
580        def commentcolumnconstraint_sql(self, expression: exp.CommentColumnConstraint) -> str:
581            self.unsupported("Column comments are not supported in the CREATE statement")
582            return ""
def unnest_sql(self, expression: sqlglot.expressions.Unnest) -> str:
584        def unnest_sql(self, expression: exp.Unnest) -> str:
585            if len(expression.expressions) == 1:
586                from sqlglot.optimizer.annotate_types import annotate_types
587
588                this = annotate_types(expression.expressions[0])
589                if this.is_type("array<json>"):
590                    while isinstance(this, exp.Cast):
591                        this = this.this
592
593                    arg = self.sql(exp.cast(this, exp.DataType.Type.JSON))
594                    alias = self.sql(expression, "alias")
595                    alias = f" AS {alias}" if alias else ""
596
597                    if expression.args.get("offset"):
598                        self.unsupported("Unsupported JSON_ARRAY_ELEMENTS with offset")
599
600                    return f"JSON_ARRAY_ELEMENTS({arg}){alias}"
601
602            return super().unnest_sql(expression)
def bracket_sql(self, expression: sqlglot.expressions.Bracket) -> str:
604        def bracket_sql(self, expression: exp.Bracket) -> str:
605            """Forms like ARRAY[1, 2, 3][3] aren't allowed; we need to wrap the ARRAY."""
606            if isinstance(expression.this, exp.Array):
607                expression.set("this", exp.paren(expression.this, copy=False))
608
609            return super().bracket_sql(expression)

Forms like ARRAY[1, 2, 3][3] aren't allowed; we need to wrap the ARRAY.

def matchagainst_sql(self, expression: sqlglot.expressions.MatchAgainst) -> str:
611        def matchagainst_sql(self, expression: exp.MatchAgainst) -> str:
612            this = self.sql(expression, "this")
613            expressions = [f"{self.sql(e)} @@ {this}" for e in expression.expressions]
614            sql = " OR ".join(expressions)
615            return f"({sql})" if len(expressions) > 1 else sql
def alterset_sql(self, expression: sqlglot.expressions.AlterSet) -> str:
617        def alterset_sql(self, expression: exp.AlterSet) -> str:
618            exprs = self.expressions(expression, flat=True)
619            exprs = f"({exprs})" if exprs else ""
620
621            access_method = self.sql(expression, "access_method")
622            access_method = f"ACCESS METHOD {access_method}" if access_method else ""
623            tablespace = self.sql(expression, "tablespace")
624            tablespace = f"TABLESPACE {tablespace}" if tablespace else ""
625            option = self.sql(expression, "option")
626
627            return f"SET {exprs}{access_method}{tablespace}{option}"
def datatype_sql(self, expression: sqlglot.expressions.DataType) -> str:
629        def datatype_sql(self, expression: exp.DataType) -> str:
630            if expression.is_type(exp.DataType.Type.ARRAY):
631                if expression.expressions:
632                    values = self.expressions(expression, key="values", flat=True)
633                    return f"{self.expressions(expression, flat=True)}[{values}]"
634                return "ARRAY"
635            return super().datatype_sql(expression)
def cast_sql( self, expression: sqlglot.expressions.Cast, safe_prefix: Optional[str] = None) -> str:
637        def cast_sql(self, expression: exp.Cast, safe_prefix: t.Optional[str] = None) -> str:
638            this = expression.this
639
640            # Postgres casts DIV() to decimal for transpilation but when roundtripping it's superfluous
641            if isinstance(this, exp.IntDiv) and expression.to == exp.DataType.build("decimal"):
642                return self.sql(this)
643
644            return super().cast_sql(expression, safe_prefix=safe_prefix)
SELECT_KINDS: Tuple[str, ...] = ()
TRY_SUPPORTED = False
SUPPORTS_UESCAPE = False
AFTER_HAVING_MODIFIER_TRANSFORMS = {'qualify': <function Generator.<lambda>>, 'windows': <function Generator.<lambda>>}
Inherited Members
sqlglot.generator.Generator
Generator
NULL_ORDERING_SUPPORTED
IGNORE_NULLS_IN_FUNC
EXPLICIT_SET_OP
WRAP_DERIVED_VALUES
CREATE_FUNCTION_RETURN_AS
MATCHED_BY_SOURCE
INTERVAL_ALLOWS_PLURAL_FORM
LIMIT_FETCH
LIMIT_ONLY_LITERALS
GROUPINGS_SEP
INDEX_ON
QUERY_HINT_SEP
IS_BOOL_ALLOWED
DUPLICATE_KEY_UPDATE_WITH_SET
LIMIT_IS_TOP
RETURNING_END
EXTRACT_ALLOWS_QUOTES
TZ_TO_WITH_TIME_ZONE
VALUES_AS_TABLE
ALTER_TABLE_INCLUDE_COLUMN_KEYWORD
UNNEST_WITH_ORDINALITY
AGGREGATE_FILTER_SUPPORTED
SEMI_ANTI_JOIN_WITH_SIDE
COMPUTED_COLUMN_WITH_TYPE
SUPPORTS_TABLE_COPY
TABLESAMPLE_REQUIRES_PARENS
TABLESAMPLE_KEYWORDS
TABLESAMPLE_WITH_METHOD
COLLATE_IS_FUNC
DATA_TYPE_SPECIFIERS_ALLOWED
ENSURE_BOOLS
CTE_RECURSIVE_KEYWORD_REQUIRED
SUPPORTS_SINGLE_ARG_CONCAT
LAST_DAY_SUPPORTS_DATE_PART
SUPPORTS_TABLE_ALIAS_COLUMNS
UNPIVOT_ALIASES_ARE_IDENTIFIERS
JSON_KEY_VALUE_PAIR_SEP
INSERT_OVERWRITE
SUPPORTS_CREATE_TABLE_LIKE
JSON_PATH_BRACKETED_KEY_SUPPORTED
JSON_PATH_SINGLE_QUOTE_ESCAPE
SUPPORTS_TO_NUMBER
SET_OP_MODIFIERS
COPY_PARAMS_ARE_WRAPPED
COPY_PARAMS_EQ_REQUIRED
STAR_EXCEPT
HEX_FUNC
WITH_PROPERTIES_PREFIX
QUOTE_JSON_PATH
TIME_PART_SINGULARS
TOKEN_MAPPING
STRUCT_DELIMITER
NAMED_PLACEHOLDER_TOKEN
RESERVED_KEYWORDS
WITH_SEPARATED_COMMENTS
EXCLUDE_COMMENTS
UNWRAPPED_INTERVAL_VALUES
PARAMETERIZABLE_TEXT_TYPES
EXPRESSIONS_WITHOUT_NESTED_CTES
SENTINEL_LINE_BREAK
pretty
identify
normalize
pad
unsupported_level
max_unsupported
leading_comma
max_text_width
comments
dialect
normalize_functions
unsupported_messages
generate
preprocess
unsupported
sep
seg
pad_comment
maybe_comment
wrap
no_identify
normalize_func
indent
sql
uncache_sql
cache_sql
characterset_sql
column_parts
column_sql
columnposition_sql
columndef_sql
columnconstraint_sql
computedcolumnconstraint_sql
autoincrementcolumnconstraint_sql
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generatedasidentitycolumnconstraint_sql
generatedasrowcolumnconstraint_sql
periodforsystemtimeconstraint_sql
notnullcolumnconstraint_sql
transformcolumnconstraint_sql
primarykeycolumnconstraint_sql
uniquecolumnconstraint_sql
createable_sql
create_sql
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clone_sql
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intersect_op
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offset_sql
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null_sql
boolean_sql
order_sql
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cluster_sql
distribute_sql
sort_sql
ordered_sql
matchrecognizemeasure_sql
matchrecognize_sql
query_modifiers
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offset_limit_modifiers
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select_sql
schema_sql
schema_columns_sql
star_sql
parameter_sql
sessionparameter_sql
placeholder_sql
subquery_sql
qualify_sql
set_operations
union_sql
union_op
prewhere_sql
where_sql
window_sql
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windowspec_sql
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all_sql
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extract_sql
trim_sql
convert_concat_args
concat_sql
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check_sql
foreignkey_sql
primarykey_sql
if_sql
jsonkeyvalue_sql
jsonpath_sql
json_path_part
formatjson_sql
jsonobject_sql
jsonobjectagg_sql
jsonarray_sql
jsonarrayagg_sql
jsoncolumndef_sql
jsonschema_sql
jsontable_sql
openjsoncolumndef_sql
openjson_sql
in_sql
in_unnest_op
interval_sql
return_sql
reference_sql
anonymous_sql
paren_sql
neg_sql
not_sql
alias_sql
pivotalias_sql
aliases_sql
atindex_sql
attimezone_sql
fromtimezone_sql
add_sql
and_sql
or_sql
xor_sql
connector_sql
bitwiseand_sql
bitwiseleftshift_sql
bitwisenot_sql
bitwiseor_sql
bitwiserightshift_sql
bitwisexor_sql
currentdate_sql
currenttimestamp_sql
collate_sql
command_sql
comment_sql
mergetreettlaction_sql
mergetreettl_sql
transaction_sql
commit_sql
rollback_sql
altercolumn_sql
alterdiststyle_sql
altersortkey_sql
renametable_sql
renamecolumn_sql
altertable_sql
add_column_sql
droppartition_sql
addconstraint_sql
distinct_sql
ignorenulls_sql
respectnulls_sql
havingmax_sql
intdiv_sql
dpipe_sql
div_sql
overlaps_sql
distance_sql
dot_sql
eq_sql
propertyeq_sql
escape_sql
glob_sql
gt_sql
gte_sql
ilike_sql
ilikeany_sql
is_sql
like_sql
likeany_sql
similarto_sql
lt_sql
lte_sql
mod_sql
mul_sql
neq_sql
nullsafeeq_sql
nullsafeneq_sql
slice_sql
sub_sql
trycast_sql
try_sql
log_sql
use_sql
binary
function_fallback_sql
func
format_args
too_wide
format_time
expressions
op_expressions
naked_property
tag_sql
token_sql
userdefinedfunction_sql
joinhint_sql
kwarg_sql
when_sql
merge_sql
tochar_sql
tonumber_sql
dictproperty_sql
dictrange_sql
dictsubproperty_sql
oncluster_sql
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anyvalue_sql
querytransform_sql
indexconstraintoption_sql
checkcolumnconstraint_sql
indexcolumnconstraint_sql
nvl2_sql
comprehension_sql
columnprefix_sql
opclass_sql
predict_sql
forin_sql
refresh_sql
operator_sql
toarray_sql
tsordstotime_sql
tsordstotimestamp_sql
tsordstodate_sql
unixdate_sql
lastday_sql
dateadd_sql
arrayany_sql
generateseries_sql
struct_sql
partitionrange_sql
truncatetable_sql
convert_sql
copyparameter_sql
credentials_sql
copy_sql
semicolon_sql
datadeletionproperty_sql
maskingpolicycolumnconstraint_sql
gapfill_sql