Edit on GitHub

sqlglot.dialects.presto

  1from __future__ import annotations
  2
  3import typing as t
  4
  5from sqlglot import exp, generator, parser, tokens, transforms
  6from sqlglot.dialects.dialect import (
  7    Dialect,
  8    NormalizationStrategy,
  9    binary_from_function,
 10    bool_xor_sql,
 11    date_trunc_to_time,
 12    datestrtodate_sql,
 13    encode_decode_sql,
 14    build_formatted_time,
 15    if_sql,
 16    left_to_substring_sql,
 17    no_ilike_sql,
 18    no_pivot_sql,
 19    no_safe_divide_sql,
 20    no_timestamp_sql,
 21    regexp_extract_sql,
 22    rename_func,
 23    right_to_substring_sql,
 24    struct_extract_sql,
 25    timestamptrunc_sql,
 26    timestrtotime_sql,
 27    ts_or_ds_add_cast,
 28)
 29from sqlglot.dialects.mysql import MySQL
 30from sqlglot.helper import apply_index_offset, seq_get
 31from sqlglot.tokens import TokenType
 32
 33
 34def _explode_to_unnest_sql(self: Presto.Generator, expression: exp.Lateral) -> str:
 35    if isinstance(expression.this, exp.Explode):
 36        return self.sql(
 37            exp.Join(
 38                this=exp.Unnest(
 39                    expressions=[expression.this.this],
 40                    alias=expression.args.get("alias"),
 41                    offset=isinstance(expression.this, exp.Posexplode),
 42                ),
 43                kind="cross",
 44            )
 45        )
 46    return self.lateral_sql(expression)
 47
 48
 49def _initcap_sql(self: Presto.Generator, expression: exp.Initcap) -> str:
 50    regex = r"(\w)(\w*)"
 51    return f"REGEXP_REPLACE({self.sql(expression, 'this')}, '{regex}', x -> UPPER(x[1]) || LOWER(x[2]))"
 52
 53
 54def _no_sort_array(self: Presto.Generator, expression: exp.SortArray) -> str:
 55    if expression.args.get("asc") == exp.false():
 56        comparator = "(a, b) -> CASE WHEN a < b THEN 1 WHEN a > b THEN -1 ELSE 0 END"
 57    else:
 58        comparator = None
 59    return self.func("ARRAY_SORT", expression.this, comparator)
 60
 61
 62def _schema_sql(self: Presto.Generator, expression: exp.Schema) -> str:
 63    if isinstance(expression.parent, exp.Property):
 64        columns = ", ".join(f"'{c.name}'" for c in expression.expressions)
 65        return f"ARRAY[{columns}]"
 66
 67    if expression.parent:
 68        for schema in expression.parent.find_all(exp.Schema):
 69            column_defs = schema.find_all(exp.ColumnDef)
 70            if column_defs and isinstance(schema.parent, exp.Property):
 71                expression.expressions.extend(column_defs)
 72
 73    return self.schema_sql(expression)
 74
 75
 76def _quantile_sql(self: Presto.Generator, expression: exp.Quantile) -> str:
 77    self.unsupported("Presto does not support exact quantiles")
 78    return self.func("APPROX_PERCENTILE", expression.this, expression.args.get("quantile"))
 79
 80
 81def _str_to_time_sql(
 82    self: Presto.Generator, expression: exp.StrToDate | exp.StrToTime | exp.TsOrDsToDate
 83) -> str:
 84    return self.func("DATE_PARSE", expression.this, self.format_time(expression))
 85
 86
 87def _ts_or_ds_to_date_sql(self: Presto.Generator, expression: exp.TsOrDsToDate) -> str:
 88    time_format = self.format_time(expression)
 89    if time_format and time_format not in (Presto.TIME_FORMAT, Presto.DATE_FORMAT):
 90        return self.sql(exp.cast(_str_to_time_sql(self, expression), "DATE"))
 91    return self.sql(exp.cast(exp.cast(expression.this, "TIMESTAMP"), "DATE"))
 92
 93
 94def _ts_or_ds_add_sql(self: Presto.Generator, expression: exp.TsOrDsAdd) -> str:
 95    expression = ts_or_ds_add_cast(expression)
 96    unit = exp.Literal.string(expression.text("unit") or "DAY")
 97    return self.func("DATE_ADD", unit, expression.expression, expression.this)
 98
 99
100def _ts_or_ds_diff_sql(self: Presto.Generator, expression: exp.TsOrDsDiff) -> str:
101    this = exp.cast(expression.this, "TIMESTAMP")
102    expr = exp.cast(expression.expression, "TIMESTAMP")
103    unit = exp.Literal.string(expression.text("unit") or "DAY")
104    return self.func("DATE_DIFF", unit, expr, this)
105
106
107def _build_approx_percentile(args: t.List) -> exp.Expression:
108    if len(args) == 4:
109        return exp.ApproxQuantile(
110            this=seq_get(args, 0),
111            weight=seq_get(args, 1),
112            quantile=seq_get(args, 2),
113            accuracy=seq_get(args, 3),
114        )
115    if len(args) == 3:
116        return exp.ApproxQuantile(
117            this=seq_get(args, 0), quantile=seq_get(args, 1), accuracy=seq_get(args, 2)
118        )
119    return exp.ApproxQuantile.from_arg_list(args)
120
121
122def _build_from_unixtime(args: t.List) -> exp.Expression:
123    if len(args) == 3:
124        return exp.UnixToTime(
125            this=seq_get(args, 0),
126            hours=seq_get(args, 1),
127            minutes=seq_get(args, 2),
128        )
129    if len(args) == 2:
130        return exp.UnixToTime(this=seq_get(args, 0), zone=seq_get(args, 1))
131
132    return exp.UnixToTime.from_arg_list(args)
133
134
135def _unnest_sequence(expression: exp.Expression) -> exp.Expression:
136    if isinstance(expression, exp.Table):
137        if isinstance(expression.this, exp.GenerateSeries):
138            unnest = exp.Unnest(expressions=[expression.this])
139
140            if expression.alias:
141                return exp.alias_(unnest, alias="_u", table=[expression.alias], copy=False)
142            return unnest
143    return expression
144
145
146def _first_last_sql(self: Presto.Generator, expression: exp.Func) -> str:
147    """
148    Trino doesn't support FIRST / LAST as functions, but they're valid in the context
149    of MATCH_RECOGNIZE, so we need to preserve them in that case. In all other cases
150    they're converted into an ARBITRARY call.
151
152    Reference: https://trino.io/docs/current/sql/match-recognize.html#logical-navigation-functions
153    """
154    if isinstance(expression.find_ancestor(exp.MatchRecognize, exp.Select), exp.MatchRecognize):
155        return self.function_fallback_sql(expression)
156
157    return rename_func("ARBITRARY")(self, expression)
158
159
160def _unix_to_time_sql(self: Presto.Generator, expression: exp.UnixToTime) -> str:
161    scale = expression.args.get("scale")
162    timestamp = self.sql(expression, "this")
163    if scale in (None, exp.UnixToTime.SECONDS):
164        return rename_func("FROM_UNIXTIME")(self, expression)
165
166    return f"FROM_UNIXTIME(CAST({timestamp} AS DOUBLE) / POW(10, {scale}))"
167
168
169def _to_int(expression: exp.Expression) -> exp.Expression:
170    if not expression.type:
171        from sqlglot.optimizer.annotate_types import annotate_types
172
173        annotate_types(expression)
174    if expression.type and expression.type.this not in exp.DataType.INTEGER_TYPES:
175        return exp.cast(expression, to=exp.DataType.Type.BIGINT)
176    return expression
177
178
179def _build_to_char(args: t.List) -> exp.TimeToStr:
180    fmt = seq_get(args, 1)
181    if isinstance(fmt, exp.Literal):
182        # We uppercase this to match Teradata's format mapping keys
183        fmt.set("this", fmt.this.upper())
184
185    # We use "teradata" on purpose here, because the time formats are different in Presto.
186    # See https://prestodb.io/docs/current/functions/teradata.html?highlight=to_char#to_char
187    return build_formatted_time(exp.TimeToStr, "teradata")(args)
188
189
190class Presto(Dialect):
191    INDEX_OFFSET = 1
192    NULL_ORDERING = "nulls_are_last"
193    TIME_FORMAT = MySQL.TIME_FORMAT
194    TIME_MAPPING = MySQL.TIME_MAPPING
195    STRICT_STRING_CONCAT = True
196    SUPPORTS_SEMI_ANTI_JOIN = False
197    TYPED_DIVISION = True
198    TABLESAMPLE_SIZE_IS_PERCENT = True
199
200    # https://github.com/trinodb/trino/issues/17
201    # https://github.com/trinodb/trino/issues/12289
202    # https://github.com/prestodb/presto/issues/2863
203    NORMALIZATION_STRATEGY = NormalizationStrategy.CASE_INSENSITIVE
204
205    class Tokenizer(tokens.Tokenizer):
206        UNICODE_STRINGS = [
207            (prefix + q, q)
208            for q in t.cast(t.List[str], tokens.Tokenizer.QUOTES)
209            for prefix in ("U&", "u&")
210        ]
211
212        KEYWORDS = {
213            **tokens.Tokenizer.KEYWORDS,
214            "START": TokenType.BEGIN,
215            "MATCH_RECOGNIZE": TokenType.MATCH_RECOGNIZE,
216            "ROW": TokenType.STRUCT,
217            "IPADDRESS": TokenType.IPADDRESS,
218            "IPPREFIX": TokenType.IPPREFIX,
219        }
220
221    class Parser(parser.Parser):
222        VALUES_FOLLOWED_BY_PAREN = False
223
224        FUNCTIONS = {
225            **parser.Parser.FUNCTIONS,
226            "ARBITRARY": exp.AnyValue.from_arg_list,
227            "APPROX_DISTINCT": exp.ApproxDistinct.from_arg_list,
228            "APPROX_PERCENTILE": _build_approx_percentile,
229            "BITWISE_AND": binary_from_function(exp.BitwiseAnd),
230            "BITWISE_NOT": lambda args: exp.BitwiseNot(this=seq_get(args, 0)),
231            "BITWISE_OR": binary_from_function(exp.BitwiseOr),
232            "BITWISE_XOR": binary_from_function(exp.BitwiseXor),
233            "CARDINALITY": exp.ArraySize.from_arg_list,
234            "CONTAINS": exp.ArrayContains.from_arg_list,
235            "DATE_ADD": lambda args: exp.DateAdd(
236                this=seq_get(args, 2), expression=seq_get(args, 1), unit=seq_get(args, 0)
237            ),
238            "DATE_DIFF": lambda args: exp.DateDiff(
239                this=seq_get(args, 2), expression=seq_get(args, 1), unit=seq_get(args, 0)
240            ),
241            "DATE_FORMAT": build_formatted_time(exp.TimeToStr, "presto"),
242            "DATE_PARSE": build_formatted_time(exp.StrToTime, "presto"),
243            "DATE_TRUNC": date_trunc_to_time,
244            "ELEMENT_AT": lambda args: exp.Bracket(
245                this=seq_get(args, 0), expressions=[seq_get(args, 1)], offset=1, safe=True
246            ),
247            "FROM_HEX": exp.Unhex.from_arg_list,
248            "FROM_UNIXTIME": _build_from_unixtime,
249            "FROM_UTF8": lambda args: exp.Decode(
250                this=seq_get(args, 0), replace=seq_get(args, 1), charset=exp.Literal.string("utf-8")
251            ),
252            "NOW": exp.CurrentTimestamp.from_arg_list,
253            "REGEXP_EXTRACT": lambda args: exp.RegexpExtract(
254                this=seq_get(args, 0), expression=seq_get(args, 1), group=seq_get(args, 2)
255            ),
256            "REGEXP_REPLACE": lambda args: exp.RegexpReplace(
257                this=seq_get(args, 0),
258                expression=seq_get(args, 1),
259                replacement=seq_get(args, 2) or exp.Literal.string(""),
260            ),
261            "ROW": exp.Struct.from_arg_list,
262            "SEQUENCE": exp.GenerateSeries.from_arg_list,
263            "SET_AGG": exp.ArrayUniqueAgg.from_arg_list,
264            "SPLIT_TO_MAP": exp.StrToMap.from_arg_list,
265            "STRPOS": lambda args: exp.StrPosition(
266                this=seq_get(args, 0), substr=seq_get(args, 1), instance=seq_get(args, 2)
267            ),
268            "TO_CHAR": _build_to_char,
269            "TO_HEX": exp.Hex.from_arg_list,
270            "TO_UNIXTIME": exp.TimeToUnix.from_arg_list,
271            "TO_UTF8": lambda args: exp.Encode(
272                this=seq_get(args, 0), charset=exp.Literal.string("utf-8")
273            ),
274        }
275
276        FUNCTION_PARSERS = parser.Parser.FUNCTION_PARSERS.copy()
277        FUNCTION_PARSERS.pop("TRIM")
278
279    class Generator(generator.Generator):
280        INTERVAL_ALLOWS_PLURAL_FORM = False
281        JOIN_HINTS = False
282        TABLE_HINTS = False
283        QUERY_HINTS = False
284        IS_BOOL_ALLOWED = False
285        TZ_TO_WITH_TIME_ZONE = True
286        NVL2_SUPPORTED = False
287        STRUCT_DELIMITER = ("(", ")")
288        LIMIT_ONLY_LITERALS = True
289        SUPPORTS_SINGLE_ARG_CONCAT = False
290        LIKE_PROPERTY_INSIDE_SCHEMA = True
291        MULTI_ARG_DISTINCT = False
292
293        PROPERTIES_LOCATION = {
294            **generator.Generator.PROPERTIES_LOCATION,
295            exp.LocationProperty: exp.Properties.Location.UNSUPPORTED,
296            exp.VolatileProperty: exp.Properties.Location.UNSUPPORTED,
297        }
298
299        TYPE_MAPPING = {
300            **generator.Generator.TYPE_MAPPING,
301            exp.DataType.Type.INT: "INTEGER",
302            exp.DataType.Type.FLOAT: "REAL",
303            exp.DataType.Type.BINARY: "VARBINARY",
304            exp.DataType.Type.TEXT: "VARCHAR",
305            exp.DataType.Type.TIMETZ: "TIME",
306            exp.DataType.Type.TIMESTAMPTZ: "TIMESTAMP",
307            exp.DataType.Type.STRUCT: "ROW",
308            exp.DataType.Type.DATETIME: "TIMESTAMP",
309            exp.DataType.Type.DATETIME64: "TIMESTAMP",
310        }
311
312        TRANSFORMS = {
313            **generator.Generator.TRANSFORMS,
314            exp.AnyValue: rename_func("ARBITRARY"),
315            exp.ApproxDistinct: lambda self, e: self.func(
316                "APPROX_DISTINCT", e.this, e.args.get("accuracy")
317            ),
318            exp.ApproxQuantile: rename_func("APPROX_PERCENTILE"),
319            exp.ArgMax: rename_func("MAX_BY"),
320            exp.ArgMin: rename_func("MIN_BY"),
321            exp.Array: lambda self, e: f"ARRAY[{self.expressions(e, flat=True)}]",
322            exp.ArrayAny: rename_func("ANY_MATCH"),
323            exp.ArrayConcat: rename_func("CONCAT"),
324            exp.ArrayContains: rename_func("CONTAINS"),
325            exp.ArraySize: rename_func("CARDINALITY"),
326            exp.ArrayUniqueAgg: rename_func("SET_AGG"),
327            exp.AtTimeZone: rename_func("AT_TIMEZONE"),
328            exp.BitwiseAnd: lambda self, e: self.func("BITWISE_AND", e.this, e.expression),
329            exp.BitwiseLeftShift: lambda self, e: self.func(
330                "BITWISE_ARITHMETIC_SHIFT_LEFT", e.this, e.expression
331            ),
332            exp.BitwiseNot: lambda self, e: self.func("BITWISE_NOT", e.this),
333            exp.BitwiseOr: lambda self, e: self.func("BITWISE_OR", e.this, e.expression),
334            exp.BitwiseRightShift: lambda self, e: self.func(
335                "BITWISE_ARITHMETIC_SHIFT_RIGHT", e.this, e.expression
336            ),
337            exp.BitwiseXor: lambda self, e: self.func("BITWISE_XOR", e.this, e.expression),
338            exp.Cast: transforms.preprocess([transforms.epoch_cast_to_ts]),
339            exp.CurrentTimestamp: lambda *_: "CURRENT_TIMESTAMP",
340            exp.DateAdd: lambda self, e: self.func(
341                "DATE_ADD",
342                exp.Literal.string(e.text("unit") or "DAY"),
343                _to_int(e.expression),
344                e.this,
345            ),
346            exp.DateDiff: lambda self, e: self.func(
347                "DATE_DIFF", exp.Literal.string(e.text("unit") or "DAY"), e.expression, e.this
348            ),
349            exp.DateStrToDate: datestrtodate_sql,
350            exp.DateToDi: lambda self,
351            e: f"CAST(DATE_FORMAT({self.sql(e, 'this')}, {Presto.DATEINT_FORMAT}) AS INT)",
352            exp.DateSub: lambda self, e: self.func(
353                "DATE_ADD",
354                exp.Literal.string(e.text("unit") or "DAY"),
355                _to_int(e.expression * -1),
356                e.this,
357            ),
358            exp.Decode: lambda self, e: encode_decode_sql(self, e, "FROM_UTF8"),
359            exp.DiToDate: lambda self,
360            e: f"CAST(DATE_PARSE(CAST({self.sql(e, 'this')} AS VARCHAR), {Presto.DATEINT_FORMAT}) AS DATE)",
361            exp.Encode: lambda self, e: encode_decode_sql(self, e, "TO_UTF8"),
362            exp.FileFormatProperty: lambda self, e: f"FORMAT='{e.name.upper()}'",
363            exp.First: _first_last_sql,
364            exp.FirstValue: _first_last_sql,
365            exp.FromTimeZone: lambda self,
366            e: f"WITH_TIMEZONE({self.sql(e, 'this')}, {self.sql(e, 'zone')}) AT TIME ZONE 'UTC'",
367            exp.Group: transforms.preprocess([transforms.unalias_group]),
368            exp.GroupConcat: lambda self, e: self.func(
369                "ARRAY_JOIN", self.func("ARRAY_AGG", e.this), e.args.get("separator")
370            ),
371            exp.Hex: rename_func("TO_HEX"),
372            exp.If: if_sql(),
373            exp.ILike: no_ilike_sql,
374            exp.Initcap: _initcap_sql,
375            exp.ParseJSON: rename_func("JSON_PARSE"),
376            exp.Last: _first_last_sql,
377            exp.LastValue: _first_last_sql,
378            exp.LastDay: lambda self, e: self.func("LAST_DAY_OF_MONTH", e.this),
379            exp.Lateral: _explode_to_unnest_sql,
380            exp.Left: left_to_substring_sql,
381            exp.Levenshtein: rename_func("LEVENSHTEIN_DISTANCE"),
382            exp.LogicalAnd: rename_func("BOOL_AND"),
383            exp.LogicalOr: rename_func("BOOL_OR"),
384            exp.Pivot: no_pivot_sql,
385            exp.Quantile: _quantile_sql,
386            exp.RegexpExtract: regexp_extract_sql,
387            exp.Right: right_to_substring_sql,
388            exp.SafeDivide: no_safe_divide_sql,
389            exp.Schema: _schema_sql,
390            exp.SchemaCommentProperty: lambda self, e: self.naked_property(e),
391            exp.Select: transforms.preprocess(
392                [
393                    transforms.eliminate_qualify,
394                    transforms.eliminate_distinct_on,
395                    transforms.explode_to_unnest(1),
396                    transforms.eliminate_semi_and_anti_joins,
397                ]
398            ),
399            exp.SortArray: _no_sort_array,
400            exp.StrPosition: rename_func("STRPOS"),
401            exp.StrToDate: lambda self, e: f"CAST({_str_to_time_sql(self, e)} AS DATE)",
402            exp.StrToMap: rename_func("SPLIT_TO_MAP"),
403            exp.StrToTime: _str_to_time_sql,
404            exp.StrToUnix: lambda self, e: self.func(
405                "TO_UNIXTIME", self.func("DATE_PARSE", e.this, self.format_time(e))
406            ),
407            exp.StructExtract: struct_extract_sql,
408            exp.Table: transforms.preprocess([_unnest_sequence]),
409            exp.Timestamp: no_timestamp_sql,
410            exp.TimestampTrunc: timestamptrunc_sql,
411            exp.TimeStrToDate: timestrtotime_sql,
412            exp.TimeStrToTime: timestrtotime_sql,
413            exp.TimeStrToUnix: lambda self, e: self.func(
414                "TO_UNIXTIME", self.func("DATE_PARSE", e.this, Presto.TIME_FORMAT)
415            ),
416            exp.TimeToStr: lambda self, e: self.func("DATE_FORMAT", e.this, self.format_time(e)),
417            exp.TimeToUnix: rename_func("TO_UNIXTIME"),
418            exp.ToChar: lambda self, e: self.func("DATE_FORMAT", e.this, self.format_time(e)),
419            exp.TryCast: transforms.preprocess([transforms.epoch_cast_to_ts]),
420            exp.TsOrDiToDi: lambda self,
421            e: f"CAST(SUBSTR(REPLACE(CAST({self.sql(e, 'this')} AS VARCHAR), '-', ''), 1, 8) AS INT)",
422            exp.TsOrDsAdd: _ts_or_ds_add_sql,
423            exp.TsOrDsDiff: _ts_or_ds_diff_sql,
424            exp.TsOrDsToDate: _ts_or_ds_to_date_sql,
425            exp.Unhex: rename_func("FROM_HEX"),
426            exp.UnixToStr: lambda self,
427            e: f"DATE_FORMAT(FROM_UNIXTIME({self.sql(e, 'this')}), {self.format_time(e)})",
428            exp.UnixToTime: _unix_to_time_sql,
429            exp.UnixToTimeStr: lambda self,
430            e: f"CAST(FROM_UNIXTIME({self.sql(e, 'this')}) AS VARCHAR)",
431            exp.VariancePop: rename_func("VAR_POP"),
432            exp.With: transforms.preprocess([transforms.add_recursive_cte_column_names]),
433            exp.WithinGroup: transforms.preprocess(
434                [transforms.remove_within_group_for_percentiles]
435            ),
436            exp.Xor: bool_xor_sql,
437        }
438
439        def bracket_sql(self, expression: exp.Bracket) -> str:
440            if expression.args.get("safe"):
441                return self.func(
442                    "ELEMENT_AT",
443                    expression.this,
444                    seq_get(
445                        apply_index_offset(
446                            expression.this,
447                            expression.expressions,
448                            1 - expression.args.get("offset", 0),
449                        ),
450                        0,
451                    ),
452                )
453            return super().bracket_sql(expression)
454
455        def struct_sql(self, expression: exp.Struct) -> str:
456            from sqlglot.optimizer.annotate_types import annotate_types
457
458            expression = annotate_types(expression)
459            values: t.List[str] = []
460            schema: t.List[str] = []
461            unknown_type = False
462
463            for e in expression.expressions:
464                if isinstance(e, exp.PropertyEQ):
465                    if e.type and e.type.is_type(exp.DataType.Type.UNKNOWN):
466                        unknown_type = True
467                    else:
468                        schema.append(f"{self.sql(e, 'this')} {self.sql(e.type)}")
469                    values.append(self.sql(e, "expression"))
470                else:
471                    values.append(self.sql(e))
472
473            size = len(expression.expressions)
474
475            if not size or len(schema) != size:
476                if unknown_type:
477                    self.unsupported(
478                        "Cannot convert untyped key-value definitions (try annotate_types)."
479                    )
480                return self.func("ROW", *values)
481            return f"CAST(ROW({', '.join(values)}) AS ROW({', '.join(schema)}))"
482
483        def interval_sql(self, expression: exp.Interval) -> str:
484            unit = self.sql(expression, "unit")
485            if expression.this and unit.startswith("WEEK"):
486                return f"({expression.this.name} * INTERVAL '7' DAY)"
487            return super().interval_sql(expression)
488
489        def transaction_sql(self, expression: exp.Transaction) -> str:
490            modes = expression.args.get("modes")
491            modes = f" {', '.join(modes)}" if modes else ""
492            return f"START TRANSACTION{modes}"
493
494        def generateseries_sql(self, expression: exp.GenerateSeries) -> str:
495            start = expression.args["start"]
496            end = expression.args["end"]
497            step = expression.args.get("step")
498
499            if isinstance(start, exp.Cast):
500                target_type = start.to
501            elif isinstance(end, exp.Cast):
502                target_type = end.to
503            else:
504                target_type = None
505
506            if target_type and target_type.is_type("timestamp"):
507                if target_type is start.to:
508                    end = exp.cast(end, target_type)
509                else:
510                    start = exp.cast(start, target_type)
511
512            return self.func("SEQUENCE", start, end, step)
513
514        def offset_limit_modifiers(
515            self, expression: exp.Expression, fetch: bool, limit: t.Optional[exp.Fetch | exp.Limit]
516        ) -> t.List[str]:
517            return [
518                self.sql(expression, "offset"),
519                self.sql(limit),
520            ]
521
522        def create_sql(self, expression: exp.Create) -> str:
523            """
524            Presto doesn't support CREATE VIEW with expressions (ex: `CREATE VIEW x (cola)` then `(cola)` is the expression),
525            so we need to remove them
526            """
527            kind = expression.args["kind"]
528            schema = expression.this
529            if kind == "VIEW" and schema.expressions:
530                expression.this.set("expressions", None)
531            return super().create_sql(expression)
class Presto(sqlglot.dialects.dialect.Dialect):
191class Presto(Dialect):
192    INDEX_OFFSET = 1
193    NULL_ORDERING = "nulls_are_last"
194    TIME_FORMAT = MySQL.TIME_FORMAT
195    TIME_MAPPING = MySQL.TIME_MAPPING
196    STRICT_STRING_CONCAT = True
197    SUPPORTS_SEMI_ANTI_JOIN = False
198    TYPED_DIVISION = True
199    TABLESAMPLE_SIZE_IS_PERCENT = True
200
201    # https://github.com/trinodb/trino/issues/17
202    # https://github.com/trinodb/trino/issues/12289
203    # https://github.com/prestodb/presto/issues/2863
204    NORMALIZATION_STRATEGY = NormalizationStrategy.CASE_INSENSITIVE
205
206    class Tokenizer(tokens.Tokenizer):
207        UNICODE_STRINGS = [
208            (prefix + q, q)
209            for q in t.cast(t.List[str], tokens.Tokenizer.QUOTES)
210            for prefix in ("U&", "u&")
211        ]
212
213        KEYWORDS = {
214            **tokens.Tokenizer.KEYWORDS,
215            "START": TokenType.BEGIN,
216            "MATCH_RECOGNIZE": TokenType.MATCH_RECOGNIZE,
217            "ROW": TokenType.STRUCT,
218            "IPADDRESS": TokenType.IPADDRESS,
219            "IPPREFIX": TokenType.IPPREFIX,
220        }
221
222    class Parser(parser.Parser):
223        VALUES_FOLLOWED_BY_PAREN = False
224
225        FUNCTIONS = {
226            **parser.Parser.FUNCTIONS,
227            "ARBITRARY": exp.AnyValue.from_arg_list,
228            "APPROX_DISTINCT": exp.ApproxDistinct.from_arg_list,
229            "APPROX_PERCENTILE": _build_approx_percentile,
230            "BITWISE_AND": binary_from_function(exp.BitwiseAnd),
231            "BITWISE_NOT": lambda args: exp.BitwiseNot(this=seq_get(args, 0)),
232            "BITWISE_OR": binary_from_function(exp.BitwiseOr),
233            "BITWISE_XOR": binary_from_function(exp.BitwiseXor),
234            "CARDINALITY": exp.ArraySize.from_arg_list,
235            "CONTAINS": exp.ArrayContains.from_arg_list,
236            "DATE_ADD": lambda args: exp.DateAdd(
237                this=seq_get(args, 2), expression=seq_get(args, 1), unit=seq_get(args, 0)
238            ),
239            "DATE_DIFF": lambda args: exp.DateDiff(
240                this=seq_get(args, 2), expression=seq_get(args, 1), unit=seq_get(args, 0)
241            ),
242            "DATE_FORMAT": build_formatted_time(exp.TimeToStr, "presto"),
243            "DATE_PARSE": build_formatted_time(exp.StrToTime, "presto"),
244            "DATE_TRUNC": date_trunc_to_time,
245            "ELEMENT_AT": lambda args: exp.Bracket(
246                this=seq_get(args, 0), expressions=[seq_get(args, 1)], offset=1, safe=True
247            ),
248            "FROM_HEX": exp.Unhex.from_arg_list,
249            "FROM_UNIXTIME": _build_from_unixtime,
250            "FROM_UTF8": lambda args: exp.Decode(
251                this=seq_get(args, 0), replace=seq_get(args, 1), charset=exp.Literal.string("utf-8")
252            ),
253            "NOW": exp.CurrentTimestamp.from_arg_list,
254            "REGEXP_EXTRACT": lambda args: exp.RegexpExtract(
255                this=seq_get(args, 0), expression=seq_get(args, 1), group=seq_get(args, 2)
256            ),
257            "REGEXP_REPLACE": lambda args: exp.RegexpReplace(
258                this=seq_get(args, 0),
259                expression=seq_get(args, 1),
260                replacement=seq_get(args, 2) or exp.Literal.string(""),
261            ),
262            "ROW": exp.Struct.from_arg_list,
263            "SEQUENCE": exp.GenerateSeries.from_arg_list,
264            "SET_AGG": exp.ArrayUniqueAgg.from_arg_list,
265            "SPLIT_TO_MAP": exp.StrToMap.from_arg_list,
266            "STRPOS": lambda args: exp.StrPosition(
267                this=seq_get(args, 0), substr=seq_get(args, 1), instance=seq_get(args, 2)
268            ),
269            "TO_CHAR": _build_to_char,
270            "TO_HEX": exp.Hex.from_arg_list,
271            "TO_UNIXTIME": exp.TimeToUnix.from_arg_list,
272            "TO_UTF8": lambda args: exp.Encode(
273                this=seq_get(args, 0), charset=exp.Literal.string("utf-8")
274            ),
275        }
276
277        FUNCTION_PARSERS = parser.Parser.FUNCTION_PARSERS.copy()
278        FUNCTION_PARSERS.pop("TRIM")
279
280    class Generator(generator.Generator):
281        INTERVAL_ALLOWS_PLURAL_FORM = False
282        JOIN_HINTS = False
283        TABLE_HINTS = False
284        QUERY_HINTS = False
285        IS_BOOL_ALLOWED = False
286        TZ_TO_WITH_TIME_ZONE = True
287        NVL2_SUPPORTED = False
288        STRUCT_DELIMITER = ("(", ")")
289        LIMIT_ONLY_LITERALS = True
290        SUPPORTS_SINGLE_ARG_CONCAT = False
291        LIKE_PROPERTY_INSIDE_SCHEMA = True
292        MULTI_ARG_DISTINCT = False
293
294        PROPERTIES_LOCATION = {
295            **generator.Generator.PROPERTIES_LOCATION,
296            exp.LocationProperty: exp.Properties.Location.UNSUPPORTED,
297            exp.VolatileProperty: exp.Properties.Location.UNSUPPORTED,
298        }
299
300        TYPE_MAPPING = {
301            **generator.Generator.TYPE_MAPPING,
302            exp.DataType.Type.INT: "INTEGER",
303            exp.DataType.Type.FLOAT: "REAL",
304            exp.DataType.Type.BINARY: "VARBINARY",
305            exp.DataType.Type.TEXT: "VARCHAR",
306            exp.DataType.Type.TIMETZ: "TIME",
307            exp.DataType.Type.TIMESTAMPTZ: "TIMESTAMP",
308            exp.DataType.Type.STRUCT: "ROW",
309            exp.DataType.Type.DATETIME: "TIMESTAMP",
310            exp.DataType.Type.DATETIME64: "TIMESTAMP",
311        }
312
313        TRANSFORMS = {
314            **generator.Generator.TRANSFORMS,
315            exp.AnyValue: rename_func("ARBITRARY"),
316            exp.ApproxDistinct: lambda self, e: self.func(
317                "APPROX_DISTINCT", e.this, e.args.get("accuracy")
318            ),
319            exp.ApproxQuantile: rename_func("APPROX_PERCENTILE"),
320            exp.ArgMax: rename_func("MAX_BY"),
321            exp.ArgMin: rename_func("MIN_BY"),
322            exp.Array: lambda self, e: f"ARRAY[{self.expressions(e, flat=True)}]",
323            exp.ArrayAny: rename_func("ANY_MATCH"),
324            exp.ArrayConcat: rename_func("CONCAT"),
325            exp.ArrayContains: rename_func("CONTAINS"),
326            exp.ArraySize: rename_func("CARDINALITY"),
327            exp.ArrayUniqueAgg: rename_func("SET_AGG"),
328            exp.AtTimeZone: rename_func("AT_TIMEZONE"),
329            exp.BitwiseAnd: lambda self, e: self.func("BITWISE_AND", e.this, e.expression),
330            exp.BitwiseLeftShift: lambda self, e: self.func(
331                "BITWISE_ARITHMETIC_SHIFT_LEFT", e.this, e.expression
332            ),
333            exp.BitwiseNot: lambda self, e: self.func("BITWISE_NOT", e.this),
334            exp.BitwiseOr: lambda self, e: self.func("BITWISE_OR", e.this, e.expression),
335            exp.BitwiseRightShift: lambda self, e: self.func(
336                "BITWISE_ARITHMETIC_SHIFT_RIGHT", e.this, e.expression
337            ),
338            exp.BitwiseXor: lambda self, e: self.func("BITWISE_XOR", e.this, e.expression),
339            exp.Cast: transforms.preprocess([transforms.epoch_cast_to_ts]),
340            exp.CurrentTimestamp: lambda *_: "CURRENT_TIMESTAMP",
341            exp.DateAdd: lambda self, e: self.func(
342                "DATE_ADD",
343                exp.Literal.string(e.text("unit") or "DAY"),
344                _to_int(e.expression),
345                e.this,
346            ),
347            exp.DateDiff: lambda self, e: self.func(
348                "DATE_DIFF", exp.Literal.string(e.text("unit") or "DAY"), e.expression, e.this
349            ),
350            exp.DateStrToDate: datestrtodate_sql,
351            exp.DateToDi: lambda self,
352            e: f"CAST(DATE_FORMAT({self.sql(e, 'this')}, {Presto.DATEINT_FORMAT}) AS INT)",
353            exp.DateSub: lambda self, e: self.func(
354                "DATE_ADD",
355                exp.Literal.string(e.text("unit") or "DAY"),
356                _to_int(e.expression * -1),
357                e.this,
358            ),
359            exp.Decode: lambda self, e: encode_decode_sql(self, e, "FROM_UTF8"),
360            exp.DiToDate: lambda self,
361            e: f"CAST(DATE_PARSE(CAST({self.sql(e, 'this')} AS VARCHAR), {Presto.DATEINT_FORMAT}) AS DATE)",
362            exp.Encode: lambda self, e: encode_decode_sql(self, e, "TO_UTF8"),
363            exp.FileFormatProperty: lambda self, e: f"FORMAT='{e.name.upper()}'",
364            exp.First: _first_last_sql,
365            exp.FirstValue: _first_last_sql,
366            exp.FromTimeZone: lambda self,
367            e: f"WITH_TIMEZONE({self.sql(e, 'this')}, {self.sql(e, 'zone')}) AT TIME ZONE 'UTC'",
368            exp.Group: transforms.preprocess([transforms.unalias_group]),
369            exp.GroupConcat: lambda self, e: self.func(
370                "ARRAY_JOIN", self.func("ARRAY_AGG", e.this), e.args.get("separator")
371            ),
372            exp.Hex: rename_func("TO_HEX"),
373            exp.If: if_sql(),
374            exp.ILike: no_ilike_sql,
375            exp.Initcap: _initcap_sql,
376            exp.ParseJSON: rename_func("JSON_PARSE"),
377            exp.Last: _first_last_sql,
378            exp.LastValue: _first_last_sql,
379            exp.LastDay: lambda self, e: self.func("LAST_DAY_OF_MONTH", e.this),
380            exp.Lateral: _explode_to_unnest_sql,
381            exp.Left: left_to_substring_sql,
382            exp.Levenshtein: rename_func("LEVENSHTEIN_DISTANCE"),
383            exp.LogicalAnd: rename_func("BOOL_AND"),
384            exp.LogicalOr: rename_func("BOOL_OR"),
385            exp.Pivot: no_pivot_sql,
386            exp.Quantile: _quantile_sql,
387            exp.RegexpExtract: regexp_extract_sql,
388            exp.Right: right_to_substring_sql,
389            exp.SafeDivide: no_safe_divide_sql,
390            exp.Schema: _schema_sql,
391            exp.SchemaCommentProperty: lambda self, e: self.naked_property(e),
392            exp.Select: transforms.preprocess(
393                [
394                    transforms.eliminate_qualify,
395                    transforms.eliminate_distinct_on,
396                    transforms.explode_to_unnest(1),
397                    transforms.eliminate_semi_and_anti_joins,
398                ]
399            ),
400            exp.SortArray: _no_sort_array,
401            exp.StrPosition: rename_func("STRPOS"),
402            exp.StrToDate: lambda self, e: f"CAST({_str_to_time_sql(self, e)} AS DATE)",
403            exp.StrToMap: rename_func("SPLIT_TO_MAP"),
404            exp.StrToTime: _str_to_time_sql,
405            exp.StrToUnix: lambda self, e: self.func(
406                "TO_UNIXTIME", self.func("DATE_PARSE", e.this, self.format_time(e))
407            ),
408            exp.StructExtract: struct_extract_sql,
409            exp.Table: transforms.preprocess([_unnest_sequence]),
410            exp.Timestamp: no_timestamp_sql,
411            exp.TimestampTrunc: timestamptrunc_sql,
412            exp.TimeStrToDate: timestrtotime_sql,
413            exp.TimeStrToTime: timestrtotime_sql,
414            exp.TimeStrToUnix: lambda self, e: self.func(
415                "TO_UNIXTIME", self.func("DATE_PARSE", e.this, Presto.TIME_FORMAT)
416            ),
417            exp.TimeToStr: lambda self, e: self.func("DATE_FORMAT", e.this, self.format_time(e)),
418            exp.TimeToUnix: rename_func("TO_UNIXTIME"),
419            exp.ToChar: lambda self, e: self.func("DATE_FORMAT", e.this, self.format_time(e)),
420            exp.TryCast: transforms.preprocess([transforms.epoch_cast_to_ts]),
421            exp.TsOrDiToDi: lambda self,
422            e: f"CAST(SUBSTR(REPLACE(CAST({self.sql(e, 'this')} AS VARCHAR), '-', ''), 1, 8) AS INT)",
423            exp.TsOrDsAdd: _ts_or_ds_add_sql,
424            exp.TsOrDsDiff: _ts_or_ds_diff_sql,
425            exp.TsOrDsToDate: _ts_or_ds_to_date_sql,
426            exp.Unhex: rename_func("FROM_HEX"),
427            exp.UnixToStr: lambda self,
428            e: f"DATE_FORMAT(FROM_UNIXTIME({self.sql(e, 'this')}), {self.format_time(e)})",
429            exp.UnixToTime: _unix_to_time_sql,
430            exp.UnixToTimeStr: lambda self,
431            e: f"CAST(FROM_UNIXTIME({self.sql(e, 'this')}) AS VARCHAR)",
432            exp.VariancePop: rename_func("VAR_POP"),
433            exp.With: transforms.preprocess([transforms.add_recursive_cte_column_names]),
434            exp.WithinGroup: transforms.preprocess(
435                [transforms.remove_within_group_for_percentiles]
436            ),
437            exp.Xor: bool_xor_sql,
438        }
439
440        def bracket_sql(self, expression: exp.Bracket) -> str:
441            if expression.args.get("safe"):
442                return self.func(
443                    "ELEMENT_AT",
444                    expression.this,
445                    seq_get(
446                        apply_index_offset(
447                            expression.this,
448                            expression.expressions,
449                            1 - expression.args.get("offset", 0),
450                        ),
451                        0,
452                    ),
453                )
454            return super().bracket_sql(expression)
455
456        def struct_sql(self, expression: exp.Struct) -> str:
457            from sqlglot.optimizer.annotate_types import annotate_types
458
459            expression = annotate_types(expression)
460            values: t.List[str] = []
461            schema: t.List[str] = []
462            unknown_type = False
463
464            for e in expression.expressions:
465                if isinstance(e, exp.PropertyEQ):
466                    if e.type and e.type.is_type(exp.DataType.Type.UNKNOWN):
467                        unknown_type = True
468                    else:
469                        schema.append(f"{self.sql(e, 'this')} {self.sql(e.type)}")
470                    values.append(self.sql(e, "expression"))
471                else:
472                    values.append(self.sql(e))
473
474            size = len(expression.expressions)
475
476            if not size or len(schema) != size:
477                if unknown_type:
478                    self.unsupported(
479                        "Cannot convert untyped key-value definitions (try annotate_types)."
480                    )
481                return self.func("ROW", *values)
482            return f"CAST(ROW({', '.join(values)}) AS ROW({', '.join(schema)}))"
483
484        def interval_sql(self, expression: exp.Interval) -> str:
485            unit = self.sql(expression, "unit")
486            if expression.this and unit.startswith("WEEK"):
487                return f"({expression.this.name} * INTERVAL '7' DAY)"
488            return super().interval_sql(expression)
489
490        def transaction_sql(self, expression: exp.Transaction) -> str:
491            modes = expression.args.get("modes")
492            modes = f" {', '.join(modes)}" if modes else ""
493            return f"START TRANSACTION{modes}"
494
495        def generateseries_sql(self, expression: exp.GenerateSeries) -> str:
496            start = expression.args["start"]
497            end = expression.args["end"]
498            step = expression.args.get("step")
499
500            if isinstance(start, exp.Cast):
501                target_type = start.to
502            elif isinstance(end, exp.Cast):
503                target_type = end.to
504            else:
505                target_type = None
506
507            if target_type and target_type.is_type("timestamp"):
508                if target_type is start.to:
509                    end = exp.cast(end, target_type)
510                else:
511                    start = exp.cast(start, target_type)
512
513            return self.func("SEQUENCE", start, end, step)
514
515        def offset_limit_modifiers(
516            self, expression: exp.Expression, fetch: bool, limit: t.Optional[exp.Fetch | exp.Limit]
517        ) -> t.List[str]:
518            return [
519                self.sql(expression, "offset"),
520                self.sql(limit),
521            ]
522
523        def create_sql(self, expression: exp.Create) -> str:
524            """
525            Presto doesn't support CREATE VIEW with expressions (ex: `CREATE VIEW x (cola)` then `(cola)` is the expression),
526            so we need to remove them
527            """
528            kind = expression.args["kind"]
529            schema = expression.this
530            if kind == "VIEW" and schema.expressions:
531                expression.this.set("expressions", None)
532            return super().create_sql(expression)
INDEX_OFFSET = 1

The base index offset for arrays.

NULL_ORDERING = 'nulls_are_last'

Default NULL ordering method to use if not explicitly set. Possible values: "nulls_are_small", "nulls_are_large", "nulls_are_last"

TIME_FORMAT = "'%Y-%m-%d %T'"
TIME_MAPPING: Dict[str, str] = {'%M': '%B', '%c': '%-m', '%e': '%-d', '%h': '%I', '%i': '%M', '%s': '%S', '%u': '%W', '%k': '%-H', '%l': '%-I', '%T': '%H:%M:%S', '%W': '%a'}

Associates this dialect's time formats with their equivalent Python strftime formats.

STRICT_STRING_CONCAT = True

Whether CONCAT's arguments must be strings.

SUPPORTS_SEMI_ANTI_JOIN = False

Whether SEMI or ANTI joins are supported.

TYPED_DIVISION = True

Whether the behavior of a / b depends on the types of a and b. False means a / b is always float division. True means a / b is integer division if both a and b are integers.

TABLESAMPLE_SIZE_IS_PERCENT = True

Whether a size in the table sample clause represents percentage.

NORMALIZATION_STRATEGY = <NormalizationStrategy.CASE_INSENSITIVE: 'CASE_INSENSITIVE'>

Specifies the strategy according to which identifiers should be normalized.

tokenizer_class = <class 'Presto.Tokenizer'>
parser_class = <class 'Presto.Parser'>
generator_class = <class 'Presto.Generator'>
TIME_TRIE: Dict = {'%': {'M': {0: True}, 'c': {0: True}, 'e': {0: True}, 'h': {0: True}, 'i': {0: True}, 's': {0: True}, 'u': {0: True}, 'k': {0: True}, 'l': {0: True}, 'T': {0: True}, 'W': {0: True}}}
FORMAT_TRIE: Dict = {'%': {'M': {0: True}, 'c': {0: True}, 'e': {0: True}, 'h': {0: True}, 'i': {0: True}, 's': {0: True}, 'u': {0: True}, 'k': {0: True}, 'l': {0: True}, 'T': {0: True}, 'W': {0: True}}}
INVERSE_TIME_MAPPING: Dict[str, str] = {'%B': '%M', '%-m': '%c', '%-d': '%e', '%I': '%h', '%M': '%i', '%S': '%s', '%W': '%u', '%-H': '%k', '%-I': '%l', '%H:%M:%S': '%T', '%a': '%W'}
INVERSE_TIME_TRIE: Dict = {'%': {'B': {0: True}, '-': {'m': {0: True}, 'd': {0: True}, 'H': {0: True}, 'I': {0: True}}, 'I': {0: True}, 'M': {0: True}, 'S': {0: True}, 'W': {0: True}, 'H': {':': {'%': {'M': {':': {'%': {'S': {0: True}}}}}}}, 'a': {0: True}}}
INVERSE_ESCAPE_SEQUENCES: Dict[str, str] = {}
QUOTE_START = "'"
QUOTE_END = "'"
IDENTIFIER_START = '"'
IDENTIFIER_END = '"'
BIT_START: Optional[str] = None
BIT_END: Optional[str] = None
HEX_START: Optional[str] = None
HEX_END: Optional[str] = None
BYTE_START: Optional[str] = None
BYTE_END: Optional[str] = None
UNICODE_START: Optional[str] = "U&'"
UNICODE_END: Optional[str] = "'"
class Presto.Tokenizer(sqlglot.tokens.Tokenizer):
206    class Tokenizer(tokens.Tokenizer):
207        UNICODE_STRINGS = [
208            (prefix + q, q)
209            for q in t.cast(t.List[str], tokens.Tokenizer.QUOTES)
210            for prefix in ("U&", "u&")
211        ]
212
213        KEYWORDS = {
214            **tokens.Tokenizer.KEYWORDS,
215            "START": TokenType.BEGIN,
216            "MATCH_RECOGNIZE": TokenType.MATCH_RECOGNIZE,
217            "ROW": TokenType.STRUCT,
218            "IPADDRESS": TokenType.IPADDRESS,
219            "IPPREFIX": TokenType.IPPREFIX,
220        }
UNICODE_STRINGS = [("U&'", "'"), ("u&'", "'")]
KEYWORDS = {'{%': <TokenType.BLOCK_START: 'BLOCK_START'>, '{%+': <TokenType.BLOCK_START: 'BLOCK_START'>, '{%-': <TokenType.BLOCK_START: 'BLOCK_START'>, '%}': <TokenType.BLOCK_END: 'BLOCK_END'>, '+%}': <TokenType.BLOCK_END: 'BLOCK_END'>, '-%}': <TokenType.BLOCK_END: 'BLOCK_END'>, '{{+': <TokenType.BLOCK_START: 'BLOCK_START'>, '{{-': <TokenType.BLOCK_START: 'BLOCK_START'>, '+}}': <TokenType.BLOCK_END: 'BLOCK_END'>, '-}}': <TokenType.BLOCK_END: 'BLOCK_END'>, '/*+': <TokenType.HINT: 'HINT'>, '==': <TokenType.EQ: 'EQ'>, '::': <TokenType.DCOLON: 'DCOLON'>, '||': <TokenType.DPIPE: 'DPIPE'>, '>=': <TokenType.GTE: 'GTE'>, '<=': <TokenType.LTE: 'LTE'>, '<>': <TokenType.NEQ: 'NEQ'>, '!=': <TokenType.NEQ: 'NEQ'>, ':=': <TokenType.COLON_EQ: 'COLON_EQ'>, '<=>': <TokenType.NULLSAFE_EQ: 'NULLSAFE_EQ'>, '->': <TokenType.ARROW: 'ARROW'>, '->>': <TokenType.DARROW: 'DARROW'>, '=>': <TokenType.FARROW: 'FARROW'>, '#>': <TokenType.HASH_ARROW: 'HASH_ARROW'>, '#>>': <TokenType.DHASH_ARROW: 'DHASH_ARROW'>, '<->': <TokenType.LR_ARROW: 'LR_ARROW'>, '&&': <TokenType.DAMP: 'DAMP'>, '??': <TokenType.DQMARK: 'DQMARK'>, 'ALL': <TokenType.ALL: 'ALL'>, 'ALWAYS': <TokenType.ALWAYS: 'ALWAYS'>, 'AND': <TokenType.AND: 'AND'>, 'ANTI': <TokenType.ANTI: 'ANTI'>, 'ANY': <TokenType.ANY: 'ANY'>, 'ASC': <TokenType.ASC: 'ASC'>, 'AS': <TokenType.ALIAS: 'ALIAS'>, 'ASOF': <TokenType.ASOF: 'ASOF'>, 'AUTOINCREMENT': <TokenType.AUTO_INCREMENT: 'AUTO_INCREMENT'>, 'AUTO_INCREMENT': <TokenType.AUTO_INCREMENT: 'AUTO_INCREMENT'>, 'BEGIN': <TokenType.BEGIN: 'BEGIN'>, 'BETWEEN': <TokenType.BETWEEN: 'BETWEEN'>, 'CACHE': <TokenType.CACHE: 'CACHE'>, 'UNCACHE': <TokenType.UNCACHE: 'UNCACHE'>, 'CASE': <TokenType.CASE: 'CASE'>, 'CHARACTER SET': <TokenType.CHARACTER_SET: 'CHARACTER_SET'>, 'CLUSTER BY': <TokenType.CLUSTER_BY: 'CLUSTER_BY'>, 'COLLATE': <TokenType.COLLATE: 'COLLATE'>, 'COLUMN': <TokenType.COLUMN: 'COLUMN'>, 'COMMIT': <TokenType.COMMIT: 'COMMIT'>, 'CONNECT BY': <TokenType.CONNECT_BY: 'CONNECT_BY'>, 'CONSTRAINT': <TokenType.CONSTRAINT: 'CONSTRAINT'>, 'CREATE': <TokenType.CREATE: 'CREATE'>, 'CROSS': <TokenType.CROSS: 'CROSS'>, 'CUBE': <TokenType.CUBE: 'CUBE'>, 'CURRENT_DATE': <TokenType.CURRENT_DATE: 'CURRENT_DATE'>, 'CURRENT_TIME': <TokenType.CURRENT_TIME: 'CURRENT_TIME'>, 'CURRENT_TIMESTAMP': <TokenType.CURRENT_TIMESTAMP: 'CURRENT_TIMESTAMP'>, 'CURRENT_USER': <TokenType.CURRENT_USER: 'CURRENT_USER'>, 'DATABASE': <TokenType.DATABASE: 'DATABASE'>, 'DEFAULT': <TokenType.DEFAULT: 'DEFAULT'>, 'DELETE': <TokenType.DELETE: 'DELETE'>, 'DESC': <TokenType.DESC: 'DESC'>, 'DESCRIBE': <TokenType.DESCRIBE: 'DESCRIBE'>, 'DISTINCT': <TokenType.DISTINCT: 'DISTINCT'>, 'DISTRIBUTE BY': <TokenType.DISTRIBUTE_BY: 'DISTRIBUTE_BY'>, 'DIV': <TokenType.DIV: 'DIV'>, 'DROP': <TokenType.DROP: 'DROP'>, 'ELSE': <TokenType.ELSE: 'ELSE'>, 'END': <TokenType.END: 'END'>, 'ENUM': <TokenType.ENUM: 'ENUM'>, 'ESCAPE': <TokenType.ESCAPE: 'ESCAPE'>, 'EXCEPT': <TokenType.EXCEPT: 'EXCEPT'>, 'EXECUTE': <TokenType.EXECUTE: 'EXECUTE'>, 'EXISTS': <TokenType.EXISTS: 'EXISTS'>, 'FALSE': <TokenType.FALSE: 'FALSE'>, 'FETCH': <TokenType.FETCH: 'FETCH'>, 'FILTER': <TokenType.FILTER: 'FILTER'>, 'FIRST': <TokenType.FIRST: 'FIRST'>, 'FULL': <TokenType.FULL: 'FULL'>, 'FUNCTION': <TokenType.FUNCTION: 'FUNCTION'>, 'FOR': <TokenType.FOR: 'FOR'>, 'FOREIGN KEY': <TokenType.FOREIGN_KEY: 'FOREIGN_KEY'>, 'FORMAT': <TokenType.FORMAT: 'FORMAT'>, 'FROM': <TokenType.FROM: 'FROM'>, 'GEOGRAPHY': <TokenType.GEOGRAPHY: 'GEOGRAPHY'>, 'GEOMETRY': <TokenType.GEOMETRY: 'GEOMETRY'>, 'GLOB': <TokenType.GLOB: 'GLOB'>, 'GROUP BY': <TokenType.GROUP_BY: 'GROUP_BY'>, 'GROUPING SETS': <TokenType.GROUPING_SETS: 'GROUPING_SETS'>, 'HAVING': <TokenType.HAVING: 'HAVING'>, 'ILIKE': <TokenType.ILIKE: 'ILIKE'>, 'IN': <TokenType.IN: 'IN'>, 'INDEX': <TokenType.INDEX: 'INDEX'>, 'INET': <TokenType.INET: 'INET'>, 'INNER': <TokenType.INNER: 'INNER'>, 'INSERT': <TokenType.INSERT: 'INSERT'>, 'INTERVAL': <TokenType.INTERVAL: 'INTERVAL'>, 'INTERSECT': <TokenType.INTERSECT: 'INTERSECT'>, 'INTO': <TokenType.INTO: 'INTO'>, 'IS': <TokenType.IS: 'IS'>, 'ISNULL': <TokenType.ISNULL: 'ISNULL'>, 'JOIN': <TokenType.JOIN: 'JOIN'>, 'KEEP': <TokenType.KEEP: 'KEEP'>, 'KILL': <TokenType.KILL: 'KILL'>, 'LATERAL': <TokenType.LATERAL: 'LATERAL'>, 'LEFT': <TokenType.LEFT: 'LEFT'>, 'LIKE': <TokenType.LIKE: 'LIKE'>, 'LIMIT': <TokenType.LIMIT: 'LIMIT'>, 'LOAD': <TokenType.LOAD: 'LOAD'>, 'LOCK': <TokenType.LOCK: 'LOCK'>, 'MERGE': <TokenType.MERGE: 'MERGE'>, 'NATURAL': <TokenType.NATURAL: 'NATURAL'>, 'NEXT': <TokenType.NEXT: 'NEXT'>, 'NOT': <TokenType.NOT: 'NOT'>, 'NOTNULL': <TokenType.NOTNULL: 'NOTNULL'>, 'NULL': <TokenType.NULL: 'NULL'>, 'OBJECT': <TokenType.OBJECT: 'OBJECT'>, 'OFFSET': <TokenType.OFFSET: 'OFFSET'>, 'ON': <TokenType.ON: 'ON'>, 'OR': <TokenType.OR: 'OR'>, 'XOR': <TokenType.XOR: 'XOR'>, 'ORDER BY': <TokenType.ORDER_BY: 'ORDER_BY'>, 'ORDINALITY': <TokenType.ORDINALITY: 'ORDINALITY'>, 'OUTER': <TokenType.OUTER: 'OUTER'>, 'OVER': <TokenType.OVER: 'OVER'>, 'OVERLAPS': <TokenType.OVERLAPS: 'OVERLAPS'>, 'OVERWRITE': <TokenType.OVERWRITE: 'OVERWRITE'>, 'PARTITION': <TokenType.PARTITION: 'PARTITION'>, 'PARTITION BY': <TokenType.PARTITION_BY: 'PARTITION_BY'>, 'PARTITIONED BY': <TokenType.PARTITION_BY: 'PARTITION_BY'>, 'PARTITIONED_BY': <TokenType.PARTITION_BY: 'PARTITION_BY'>, 'PERCENT': <TokenType.PERCENT: 'PERCENT'>, 'PIVOT': <TokenType.PIVOT: 'PIVOT'>, 'PRAGMA': <TokenType.PRAGMA: 'PRAGMA'>, 'PRIMARY KEY': <TokenType.PRIMARY_KEY: 'PRIMARY_KEY'>, 'PROCEDURE': <TokenType.PROCEDURE: 'PROCEDURE'>, 'QUALIFY': <TokenType.QUALIFY: 'QUALIFY'>, 'RANGE': <TokenType.RANGE: 'RANGE'>, 'RECURSIVE': <TokenType.RECURSIVE: 'RECURSIVE'>, 'REGEXP': <TokenType.RLIKE: 'RLIKE'>, 'REPLACE': <TokenType.REPLACE: 'REPLACE'>, 'RETURNING': <TokenType.RETURNING: 'RETURNING'>, 'REFERENCES': <TokenType.REFERENCES: 'REFERENCES'>, 'RIGHT': <TokenType.RIGHT: 'RIGHT'>, 'RLIKE': <TokenType.RLIKE: 'RLIKE'>, 'ROLLBACK': <TokenType.ROLLBACK: 'ROLLBACK'>, 'ROLLUP': <TokenType.ROLLUP: 'ROLLUP'>, 'ROW': <TokenType.STRUCT: 'STRUCT'>, 'ROWS': <TokenType.ROWS: 'ROWS'>, 'SCHEMA': <TokenType.SCHEMA: 'SCHEMA'>, 'SELECT': <TokenType.SELECT: 'SELECT'>, 'SEMI': <TokenType.SEMI: 'SEMI'>, 'SET': <TokenType.SET: 'SET'>, 'SETTINGS': <TokenType.SETTINGS: 'SETTINGS'>, 'SHOW': <TokenType.SHOW: 'SHOW'>, 'SIMILAR TO': <TokenType.SIMILAR_TO: 'SIMILAR_TO'>, 'SOME': <TokenType.SOME: 'SOME'>, 'SORT BY': <TokenType.SORT_BY: 'SORT_BY'>, 'START WITH': <TokenType.START_WITH: 'START_WITH'>, 'TABLE': <TokenType.TABLE: 'TABLE'>, 'TABLESAMPLE': <TokenType.TABLE_SAMPLE: 'TABLE_SAMPLE'>, 'TEMP': <TokenType.TEMPORARY: 'TEMPORARY'>, 'TEMPORARY': <TokenType.TEMPORARY: 'TEMPORARY'>, 'THEN': <TokenType.THEN: 'THEN'>, 'TRUE': <TokenType.TRUE: 'TRUE'>, 'TRUNCATE': <TokenType.TRUNCATE: 'TRUNCATE'>, 'UNION': <TokenType.UNION: 'UNION'>, 'UNKNOWN': <TokenType.UNKNOWN: 'UNKNOWN'>, 'UNNEST': <TokenType.UNNEST: 'UNNEST'>, 'UNPIVOT': <TokenType.UNPIVOT: 'UNPIVOT'>, 'UPDATE': <TokenType.UPDATE: 'UPDATE'>, 'USE': <TokenType.USE: 'USE'>, 'USING': <TokenType.USING: 'USING'>, 'UUID': <TokenType.UUID: 'UUID'>, 'VALUES': <TokenType.VALUES: 'VALUES'>, 'VIEW': <TokenType.VIEW: 'VIEW'>, 'VOLATILE': <TokenType.VOLATILE: 'VOLATILE'>, 'WHEN': <TokenType.WHEN: 'WHEN'>, 'WHERE': <TokenType.WHERE: 'WHERE'>, 'WINDOW': <TokenType.WINDOW: 'WINDOW'>, 'WITH': <TokenType.WITH: 'WITH'>, 'APPLY': <TokenType.APPLY: 'APPLY'>, 'ARRAY': <TokenType.ARRAY: 'ARRAY'>, 'BIT': <TokenType.BIT: 'BIT'>, 'BOOL': <TokenType.BOOLEAN: 'BOOLEAN'>, 'BOOLEAN': <TokenType.BOOLEAN: 'BOOLEAN'>, 'BYTE': <TokenType.TINYINT: 'TINYINT'>, 'MEDIUMINT': <TokenType.MEDIUMINT: 'MEDIUMINT'>, 'INT1': <TokenType.TINYINT: 'TINYINT'>, 'TINYINT': <TokenType.TINYINT: 'TINYINT'>, 'INT16': <TokenType.SMALLINT: 'SMALLINT'>, 'SHORT': <TokenType.SMALLINT: 'SMALLINT'>, 'SMALLINT': <TokenType.SMALLINT: 'SMALLINT'>, 'INT128': <TokenType.INT128: 'INT128'>, 'HUGEINT': <TokenType.INT128: 'INT128'>, 'INT2': <TokenType.SMALLINT: 'SMALLINT'>, 'INTEGER': <TokenType.INT: 'INT'>, 'INT': <TokenType.INT: 'INT'>, 'INT4': <TokenType.INT: 'INT'>, 'INT32': <TokenType.INT: 'INT'>, 'INT64': <TokenType.BIGINT: 'BIGINT'>, 'LONG': <TokenType.BIGINT: 'BIGINT'>, 'BIGINT': <TokenType.BIGINT: 'BIGINT'>, 'INT8': <TokenType.TINYINT: 'TINYINT'>, 'DEC': <TokenType.DECIMAL: 'DECIMAL'>, 'DECIMAL': <TokenType.DECIMAL: 'DECIMAL'>, 'BIGDECIMAL': <TokenType.BIGDECIMAL: 'BIGDECIMAL'>, 'BIGNUMERIC': <TokenType.BIGDECIMAL: 'BIGDECIMAL'>, 'MAP': <TokenType.MAP: 'MAP'>, 'NULLABLE': <TokenType.NULLABLE: 'NULLABLE'>, 'NUMBER': <TokenType.DECIMAL: 'DECIMAL'>, 'NUMERIC': <TokenType.DECIMAL: 'DECIMAL'>, 'FIXED': <TokenType.DECIMAL: 'DECIMAL'>, 'REAL': <TokenType.FLOAT: 'FLOAT'>, 'FLOAT': <TokenType.FLOAT: 'FLOAT'>, 'FLOAT4': <TokenType.FLOAT: 'FLOAT'>, 'FLOAT8': <TokenType.DOUBLE: 'DOUBLE'>, 'DOUBLE': <TokenType.DOUBLE: 'DOUBLE'>, 'DOUBLE PRECISION': <TokenType.DOUBLE: 'DOUBLE'>, 'JSON': <TokenType.JSON: 'JSON'>, 'CHAR': <TokenType.CHAR: 'CHAR'>, 'CHARACTER': <TokenType.CHAR: 'CHAR'>, 'NCHAR': <TokenType.NCHAR: 'NCHAR'>, 'VARCHAR': <TokenType.VARCHAR: 'VARCHAR'>, 'VARCHAR2': <TokenType.VARCHAR: 'VARCHAR'>, 'NVARCHAR': <TokenType.NVARCHAR: 'NVARCHAR'>, 'NVARCHAR2': <TokenType.NVARCHAR: 'NVARCHAR'>, 'BPCHAR': <TokenType.BPCHAR: 'BPCHAR'>, 'STR': <TokenType.TEXT: 'TEXT'>, 'STRING': <TokenType.TEXT: 'TEXT'>, 'TEXT': <TokenType.TEXT: 'TEXT'>, 'LONGTEXT': <TokenType.LONGTEXT: 'LONGTEXT'>, 'MEDIUMTEXT': <TokenType.MEDIUMTEXT: 'MEDIUMTEXT'>, 'TINYTEXT': <TokenType.TINYTEXT: 'TINYTEXT'>, 'CLOB': <TokenType.TEXT: 'TEXT'>, 'LONGVARCHAR': <TokenType.TEXT: 'TEXT'>, 'BINARY': <TokenType.BINARY: 'BINARY'>, 'BLOB': <TokenType.VARBINARY: 'VARBINARY'>, 'LONGBLOB': <TokenType.LONGBLOB: 'LONGBLOB'>, 'MEDIUMBLOB': <TokenType.MEDIUMBLOB: 'MEDIUMBLOB'>, 'TINYBLOB': <TokenType.TINYBLOB: 'TINYBLOB'>, 'BYTEA': <TokenType.VARBINARY: 'VARBINARY'>, 'VARBINARY': <TokenType.VARBINARY: 'VARBINARY'>, 'TIME': <TokenType.TIME: 'TIME'>, 'TIMETZ': <TokenType.TIMETZ: 'TIMETZ'>, 'TIMESTAMP': <TokenType.TIMESTAMP: 'TIMESTAMP'>, 'TIMESTAMPTZ': <TokenType.TIMESTAMPTZ: 'TIMESTAMPTZ'>, 'TIMESTAMPLTZ': <TokenType.TIMESTAMPLTZ: 'TIMESTAMPLTZ'>, 'DATE': <TokenType.DATE: 'DATE'>, 'DATETIME': <TokenType.DATETIME: 'DATETIME'>, 'INT4RANGE': <TokenType.INT4RANGE: 'INT4RANGE'>, 'INT4MULTIRANGE': <TokenType.INT4MULTIRANGE: 'INT4MULTIRANGE'>, 'INT8RANGE': <TokenType.INT8RANGE: 'INT8RANGE'>, 'INT8MULTIRANGE': <TokenType.INT8MULTIRANGE: 'INT8MULTIRANGE'>, 'NUMRANGE': <TokenType.NUMRANGE: 'NUMRANGE'>, 'NUMMULTIRANGE': <TokenType.NUMMULTIRANGE: 'NUMMULTIRANGE'>, 'TSRANGE': <TokenType.TSRANGE: 'TSRANGE'>, 'TSMULTIRANGE': <TokenType.TSMULTIRANGE: 'TSMULTIRANGE'>, 'TSTZRANGE': <TokenType.TSTZRANGE: 'TSTZRANGE'>, 'TSTZMULTIRANGE': <TokenType.TSTZMULTIRANGE: 'TSTZMULTIRANGE'>, 'DATERANGE': <TokenType.DATERANGE: 'DATERANGE'>, 'DATEMULTIRANGE': <TokenType.DATEMULTIRANGE: 'DATEMULTIRANGE'>, 'UNIQUE': <TokenType.UNIQUE: 'UNIQUE'>, 'STRUCT': <TokenType.STRUCT: 'STRUCT'>, 'VARIANT': <TokenType.VARIANT: 'VARIANT'>, 'ALTER': <TokenType.ALTER: 'ALTER'>, 'ANALYZE': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'CALL': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'COMMENT': <TokenType.COMMENT: 'COMMENT'>, 'COPY': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'EXPLAIN': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'GRANT': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'OPTIMIZE': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'PREPARE': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'VACUUM': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'USER-DEFINED': <TokenType.USERDEFINED: 'USERDEFINED'>, 'FOR VERSION': <TokenType.VERSION_SNAPSHOT: 'VERSION_SNAPSHOT'>, 'FOR TIMESTAMP': <TokenType.TIMESTAMP_SNAPSHOT: 'TIMESTAMP_SNAPSHOT'>, 'START': <TokenType.BEGIN: 'BEGIN'>, 'MATCH_RECOGNIZE': <TokenType.MATCH_RECOGNIZE: 'MATCH_RECOGNIZE'>, 'IPADDRESS': <TokenType.IPADDRESS: 'IPADDRESS'>, 'IPPREFIX': <TokenType.IPPREFIX: 'IPPREFIX'>}
class Presto.Parser(sqlglot.parser.Parser):
222    class Parser(parser.Parser):
223        VALUES_FOLLOWED_BY_PAREN = False
224
225        FUNCTIONS = {
226            **parser.Parser.FUNCTIONS,
227            "ARBITRARY": exp.AnyValue.from_arg_list,
228            "APPROX_DISTINCT": exp.ApproxDistinct.from_arg_list,
229            "APPROX_PERCENTILE": _build_approx_percentile,
230            "BITWISE_AND": binary_from_function(exp.BitwiseAnd),
231            "BITWISE_NOT": lambda args: exp.BitwiseNot(this=seq_get(args, 0)),
232            "BITWISE_OR": binary_from_function(exp.BitwiseOr),
233            "BITWISE_XOR": binary_from_function(exp.BitwiseXor),
234            "CARDINALITY": exp.ArraySize.from_arg_list,
235            "CONTAINS": exp.ArrayContains.from_arg_list,
236            "DATE_ADD": lambda args: exp.DateAdd(
237                this=seq_get(args, 2), expression=seq_get(args, 1), unit=seq_get(args, 0)
238            ),
239            "DATE_DIFF": lambda args: exp.DateDiff(
240                this=seq_get(args, 2), expression=seq_get(args, 1), unit=seq_get(args, 0)
241            ),
242            "DATE_FORMAT": build_formatted_time(exp.TimeToStr, "presto"),
243            "DATE_PARSE": build_formatted_time(exp.StrToTime, "presto"),
244            "DATE_TRUNC": date_trunc_to_time,
245            "ELEMENT_AT": lambda args: exp.Bracket(
246                this=seq_get(args, 0), expressions=[seq_get(args, 1)], offset=1, safe=True
247            ),
248            "FROM_HEX": exp.Unhex.from_arg_list,
249            "FROM_UNIXTIME": _build_from_unixtime,
250            "FROM_UTF8": lambda args: exp.Decode(
251                this=seq_get(args, 0), replace=seq_get(args, 1), charset=exp.Literal.string("utf-8")
252            ),
253            "NOW": exp.CurrentTimestamp.from_arg_list,
254            "REGEXP_EXTRACT": lambda args: exp.RegexpExtract(
255                this=seq_get(args, 0), expression=seq_get(args, 1), group=seq_get(args, 2)
256            ),
257            "REGEXP_REPLACE": lambda args: exp.RegexpReplace(
258                this=seq_get(args, 0),
259                expression=seq_get(args, 1),
260                replacement=seq_get(args, 2) or exp.Literal.string(""),
261            ),
262            "ROW": exp.Struct.from_arg_list,
263            "SEQUENCE": exp.GenerateSeries.from_arg_list,
264            "SET_AGG": exp.ArrayUniqueAgg.from_arg_list,
265            "SPLIT_TO_MAP": exp.StrToMap.from_arg_list,
266            "STRPOS": lambda args: exp.StrPosition(
267                this=seq_get(args, 0), substr=seq_get(args, 1), instance=seq_get(args, 2)
268            ),
269            "TO_CHAR": _build_to_char,
270            "TO_HEX": exp.Hex.from_arg_list,
271            "TO_UNIXTIME": exp.TimeToUnix.from_arg_list,
272            "TO_UTF8": lambda args: exp.Encode(
273                this=seq_get(args, 0), charset=exp.Literal.string("utf-8")
274            ),
275        }
276
277        FUNCTION_PARSERS = parser.Parser.FUNCTION_PARSERS.copy()
278        FUNCTION_PARSERS.pop("TRIM")

Parser consumes a list of tokens produced by the Tokenizer and produces a parsed syntax tree.

Arguments:
  • error_level: The desired error level. Default: ErrorLevel.IMMEDIATE
  • error_message_context: The amount of context to capture from a query string when displaying the error message (in number of characters). Default: 100
  • max_errors: Maximum number of error messages to include in a raised ParseError. This is only relevant if error_level is ErrorLevel.RAISE. Default: 3
VALUES_FOLLOWED_BY_PAREN = False
FUNCTIONS = {'ABS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Abs'>>, 'ADD_MONTHS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.AddMonths'>>, 'ANONYMOUS_AGG_FUNC': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.AnonymousAggFunc'>>, 'ANY_VALUE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.AnyValue'>>, 'APPROX_DISTINCT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ApproxDistinct'>>, 'APPROX_COUNT_DISTINCT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ApproxDistinct'>>, 'APPROX_QUANTILE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ApproxQuantile'>>, 'APPROX_TOP_K': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ApproxTopK'>>, 'ARG_MAX': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArgMax'>>, 'ARGMAX': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArgMax'>>, 'MAX_BY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArgMax'>>, 'ARG_MIN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArgMin'>>, 'ARGMIN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArgMin'>>, 'MIN_BY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArgMin'>>, 'ARRAY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Array'>>, 'ARRAY_AGG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayAgg'>>, 'ARRAY_ALL': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayAll'>>, 'ARRAY_ANY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayAny'>>, 'ARRAY_CONCAT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayConcat'>>, 'ARRAY_CAT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayConcat'>>, 'ARRAY_CONTAINS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayContains'>>, 'FILTER': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayFilter'>>, 'ARRAY_FILTER': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayFilter'>>, 'ARRAY_JOIN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayJoin'>>, 'ARRAY_OVERLAPS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayOverlaps'>>, 'ARRAY_SIZE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArraySize'>>, 'ARRAY_LENGTH': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArraySize'>>, 'ARRAY_SORT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArraySort'>>, 'ARRAY_SUM': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArraySum'>>, 'ARRAY_UNION_AGG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayUnionAgg'>>, 'ARRAY_UNIQUE_AGG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayUniqueAgg'>>, 'AVG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Avg'>>, 'CASE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Case'>>, 'CAST': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Cast'>>, 'CAST_TO_STR_TYPE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CastToStrType'>>, 'CBRT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Cbrt'>>, 'CEIL': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Ceil'>>, 'CEILING': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Ceil'>>, 'CHR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Chr'>>, 'CHAR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Chr'>>, 'COALESCE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Coalesce'>>, 'IFNULL': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Coalesce'>>, 'NVL': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Coalesce'>>, 'COLLATE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Collate'>>, 'COMBINED_AGG_FUNC': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CombinedAggFunc'>>, 'COMBINED_PARAMETERIZED_AGG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CombinedParameterizedAgg'>>, 'CONCAT': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'CONCAT_WS': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'CONNECT_BY_ROOT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ConnectByRoot'>>, 'CONVERT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Convert'>>, 'COUNT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Count'>>, 'COUNT_IF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CountIf'>>, 'COUNTIF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CountIf'>>, 'CURRENT_DATE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CurrentDate'>>, 'CURRENT_DATETIME': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CurrentDatetime'>>, 'CURRENT_TIME': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CurrentTime'>>, 'CURRENT_TIMESTAMP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CurrentTimestamp'>>, 'CURRENT_USER': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CurrentUser'>>, 'DATE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Date'>>, 'DATE_ADD': <function Presto.Parser.<lambda>>, 'DATEDIFF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateDiff'>>, 'DATE_DIFF': <function Presto.Parser.<lambda>>, 'DATE_FROM_PARTS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateFromParts'>>, 'DATEFROMPARTS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateFromParts'>>, 'DATE_STR_TO_DATE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateStrToDate'>>, 'DATE_SUB': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateSub'>>, 'DATE_TO_DATE_STR': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'DATE_TO_DI': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateToDi'>>, 'DATE_TRUNC': <function date_trunc_to_time>, 'DATETIME_ADD': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DatetimeAdd'>>, 'DATETIME_DIFF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DatetimeDiff'>>, 'DATETIME_SUB': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DatetimeSub'>>, 'DATETIME_TRUNC': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DatetimeTrunc'>>, 'DAY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Day'>>, 'DAY_OF_MONTH': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DayOfMonth'>>, 'DAYOFMONTH': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DayOfMonth'>>, 'DAY_OF_WEEK': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DayOfWeek'>>, 'DAYOFWEEK': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DayOfWeek'>>, 'DAY_OF_YEAR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DayOfYear'>>, 'DAYOFYEAR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DayOfYear'>>, 'DECODE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Decode'>>, 'DI_TO_DATE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DiToDate'>>, 'ENCODE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Encode'>>, 'EXP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Exp'>>, 'EXPLODE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Explode'>>, 'EXPLODE_OUTER': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ExplodeOuter'>>, 'EXTRACT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Extract'>>, 'FIRST': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.First'>>, 'FIRST_VALUE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.FirstValue'>>, 'FLATTEN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Flatten'>>, 'FLOOR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Floor'>>, 'FROM_BASE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.FromBase'>>, 'FROM_BASE64': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.FromBase64'>>, 'GENERATE_SERIES': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.GenerateSeries'>>, 'GREATEST': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Greatest'>>, 'GROUP_CONCAT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.GroupConcat'>>, 'HEX': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Hex'>>, 'HLL': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Hll'>>, 'IF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.If'>>, 'IIF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.If'>>, 'INITCAP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Initcap'>>, 'IS_INF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.IsInf'>>, 'ISINF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.IsInf'>>, 'IS_NAN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.IsNan'>>, 'ISNAN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.IsNan'>>, 'J_S_O_N_ARRAY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONArray'>>, 'J_S_O_N_ARRAY_AGG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONArrayAgg'>>, 'JSON_ARRAY_CONTAINS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONArrayContains'>>, 'JSONB_EXTRACT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONBExtract'>>, 'JSONB_EXTRACT_SCALAR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONBExtractScalar'>>, 'JSON_EXTRACT': <function build_extract_json_with_path.<locals>._builder>, 'JSON_EXTRACT_SCALAR': <function build_extract_json_with_path.<locals>._builder>, 'JSON_FORMAT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONFormat'>>, 'J_S_O_N_OBJECT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONObject'>>, 'J_S_O_N_OBJECT_AGG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONObjectAgg'>>, 'J_S_O_N_TABLE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONTable'>>, 'LAG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Lag'>>, 'LAST': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Last'>>, 'LAST_DAY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LastDay'>>, 'LAST_DAY_OF_MONTH': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LastDay'>>, 'LAST_VALUE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LastValue'>>, 'LEAD': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Lead'>>, 'LEAST': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Least'>>, 'LEFT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Left'>>, 'LENGTH': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Length'>>, 'LEN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Length'>>, 'LEVENSHTEIN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Levenshtein'>>, 'LN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Ln'>>, 'LOG': <function build_logarithm>, 'LOG10': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Log10'>>, 'LOG2': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Log2'>>, 'LOGICAL_AND': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LogicalAnd'>>, 'BOOL_AND': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LogicalAnd'>>, 'BOOLAND_AGG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LogicalAnd'>>, 'LOGICAL_OR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LogicalOr'>>, 'BOOL_OR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LogicalOr'>>, 'BOOLOR_AGG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LogicalOr'>>, 'LOWER': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Lower'>>, 'LCASE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Lower'>>, 'MD5': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.MD5'>>, 'MD5_DIGEST': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.MD5Digest'>>, 'MAP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Map'>>, 'MAP_FROM_ENTRIES': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.MapFromEntries'>>, 'MATCH_AGAINST': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.MatchAgainst'>>, 'MAX': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Max'>>, 'MIN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Min'>>, 'MONTH': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Month'>>, 'MONTHS_BETWEEN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.MonthsBetween'>>, 'NEXT_VALUE_FOR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.NextValueFor'>>, 'NTH_VALUE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.NthValue'>>, 'NULLIF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Nullif'>>, 'NUMBER_TO_STR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.NumberToStr'>>, 'NVL2': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Nvl2'>>, 'OPEN_J_S_O_N': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.OpenJSON'>>, 'PARAMETERIZED_AGG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ParameterizedAgg'>>, 'PARSE_JSON': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ParseJSON'>>, 'JSON_PARSE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ParseJSON'>>, 'PERCENTILE_CONT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.PercentileCont'>>, 'PERCENTILE_DISC': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.PercentileDisc'>>, 'POSEXPLODE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Posexplode'>>, 'POSEXPLODE_OUTER': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.PosexplodeOuter'>>, 'POWER': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Pow'>>, 'POW': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Pow'>>, 'PREDICT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Predict'>>, 'QUANTILE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Quantile'>>, 'RAND': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Rand'>>, 'RANDOM': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Rand'>>, 'RANDN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Randn'>>, 'RANGE_N': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RangeN'>>, 'READ_CSV': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ReadCSV'>>, 'REDUCE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Reduce'>>, 'REGEXP_EXTRACT': <function Presto.Parser.<lambda>>, 'REGEXP_I_LIKE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RegexpILike'>>, 'REGEXP_LIKE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RegexpLike'>>, 'REGEXP_REPLACE': <function Presto.Parser.<lambda>>, 'REGEXP_SPLIT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RegexpSplit'>>, 'REPEAT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Repeat'>>, 'RIGHT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Right'>>, 'ROUND': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Round'>>, 'ROW_NUMBER': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RowNumber'>>, 'SHA': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SHA'>>, 'SHA1': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SHA'>>, 'SHA2': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SHA2'>>, 'SAFE_DIVIDE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SafeDivide'>>, 'SIGN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Sign'>>, 'SIGNUM': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Sign'>>, 'SORT_ARRAY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SortArray'>>, 'SPLIT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Split'>>, 'SQRT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Sqrt'>>, 'STANDARD_HASH': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StandardHash'>>, 'STAR_MAP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StarMap'>>, 'STARTS_WITH': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StartsWith'>>, 'STARTSWITH': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StartsWith'>>, 'STDDEV': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Stddev'>>, 'STDDEV_POP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StddevPop'>>, 'STDDEV_SAMP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StddevSamp'>>, 'STR_POSITION': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StrPosition'>>, 'STR_TO_DATE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StrToDate'>>, 'STR_TO_MAP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StrToMap'>>, 'STR_TO_TIME': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StrToTime'>>, 'STR_TO_UNIX': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StrToUnix'>>, 'STRUCT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Struct'>>, 'STRUCT_EXTRACT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StructExtract'>>, 'STUFF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Stuff'>>, 'INSERT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Stuff'>>, 'SUBSTRING': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Substring'>>, 'SUM': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Sum'>>, 'TIME_ADD': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeAdd'>>, 'TIME_DIFF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeDiff'>>, 'TIME_FROM_PARTS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeFromParts'>>, 'TIMEFROMPARTS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeFromParts'>>, 'TIME_STR_TO_DATE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeStrToDate'>>, 'TIME_STR_TO_TIME': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeStrToTime'>>, 'TIME_STR_TO_UNIX': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeStrToUnix'>>, 'TIME_SUB': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeSub'>>, 'TIME_TO_STR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeToStr'>>, 'TIME_TO_TIME_STR': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'TIME_TO_UNIX': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeToUnix'>>, 'TIME_TRUNC': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeTrunc'>>, 'TIMESTAMP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Timestamp'>>, 'TIMESTAMP_ADD': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimestampAdd'>>, 'TIMESTAMPDIFF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimestampDiff'>>, 'TIMESTAMP_DIFF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimestampDiff'>>, 'TIMESTAMP_FROM_PARTS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimestampFromParts'>>, 'TIMESTAMPFROMPARTS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimestampFromParts'>>, 'TIMESTAMP_SUB': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimestampSub'>>, 'TIMESTAMP_TRUNC': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimestampTrunc'>>, 'TO_ARRAY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ToArray'>>, 'TO_BASE64': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ToBase64'>>, 'TO_CHAR': <function _build_to_char>, 'TO_DAYS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ToDays'>>, 'TRANSFORM': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Transform'>>, 'TRIM': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Trim'>>, 'TRY_CAST': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TryCast'>>, 'TS_OR_DI_TO_DI': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TsOrDiToDi'>>, 'TS_OR_DS_ADD': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TsOrDsAdd'>>, 'TS_OR_DS_DIFF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TsOrDsDiff'>>, 'TS_OR_DS_TO_DATE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TsOrDsToDate'>>, 'TS_OR_DS_TO_DATE_STR': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'TS_OR_DS_TO_TIME': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TsOrDsToTime'>>, 'UNHEX': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Unhex'>>, 'UNIX_DATE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.UnixDate'>>, 'UNIX_TO_STR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.UnixToStr'>>, 'UNIX_TO_TIME': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.UnixToTime'>>, 'UNIX_TO_TIME_STR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.UnixToTimeStr'>>, 'UPPER': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Upper'>>, 'UCASE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Upper'>>, 'VAR_MAP': <function build_var_map>, 'VARIANCE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Variance'>>, 'VARIANCE_SAMP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Variance'>>, 'VAR_SAMP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Variance'>>, 'VARIANCE_POP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.VariancePop'>>, 'VAR_POP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.VariancePop'>>, 'WEEK': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Week'>>, 'WEEK_OF_YEAR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.WeekOfYear'>>, 'WEEKOFYEAR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.WeekOfYear'>>, 'WHEN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.When'>>, 'X_M_L_TABLE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.XMLTable'>>, 'XOR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Xor'>>, 'YEAR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Year'>>, 'GLOB': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'JSON_EXTRACT_PATH_TEXT': <function build_extract_json_with_path.<locals>._builder>, 'LIKE': <function build_like>, 'ARBITRARY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.AnyValue'>>, 'APPROX_PERCENTILE': <function _build_approx_percentile>, 'BITWISE_AND': <function binary_from_function.<locals>.<lambda>>, 'BITWISE_NOT': <function Presto.Parser.<lambda>>, 'BITWISE_OR': <function binary_from_function.<locals>.<lambda>>, 'BITWISE_XOR': <function binary_from_function.<locals>.<lambda>>, 'CARDINALITY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArraySize'>>, 'CONTAINS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayContains'>>, 'DATE_FORMAT': <function build_formatted_time.<locals>._builder>, 'DATE_PARSE': <function build_formatted_time.<locals>._builder>, 'ELEMENT_AT': <function Presto.Parser.<lambda>>, 'FROM_HEX': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Unhex'>>, 'FROM_UNIXTIME': <function _build_from_unixtime>, 'FROM_UTF8': <function Presto.Parser.<lambda>>, 'NOW': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CurrentTimestamp'>>, 'ROW': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Struct'>>, 'SEQUENCE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.GenerateSeries'>>, 'SET_AGG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayUniqueAgg'>>, 'SPLIT_TO_MAP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StrToMap'>>, 'STRPOS': <function Presto.Parser.<lambda>>, 'TO_HEX': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Hex'>>, 'TO_UNIXTIME': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeToUnix'>>, 'TO_UTF8': <function Presto.Parser.<lambda>>}
FUNCTION_PARSERS = {'CAST': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'CONVERT': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'DECODE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'EXTRACT': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'JSON_OBJECT': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'JSON_OBJECTAGG': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'JSON_TABLE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'MATCH': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'OPENJSON': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'POSITION': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'PREDICT': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'SAFE_CAST': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'STRING_AGG': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'SUBSTRING': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'TRY_CAST': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'TRY_CONVERT': <function Parser.<lambda>>}
TABLE_ALIAS_TOKENS = {<TokenType.COMMIT: 'COMMIT'>, <TokenType.NVARCHAR: 'NVARCHAR'>, <TokenType.STORAGE_INTEGRATION: 'STORAGE_INTEGRATION'>, <TokenType.INTERVAL: 'INTERVAL'>, <TokenType.OPERATOR: 'OPERATOR'>, <TokenType.UNKNOWN: 'UNKNOWN'>, <TokenType.FORMAT: 'FORMAT'>, <TokenType.TINYTEXT: 'TINYTEXT'>, <TokenType.STRUCT: 'STRUCT'>, <TokenType.REPLACE: 'REPLACE'>, <TokenType.FINAL: 'FINAL'>, <TokenType.DATETIME64: 'DATETIME64'>, <TokenType.CHAR: 'CHAR'>, <TokenType.PIVOT: 'PIVOT'>, <TokenType.FOREIGN_KEY: 'FOREIGN_KEY'>, <TokenType.SMALLINT: 'SMALLINT'>, <TokenType.VIEW: 'VIEW'>, <TokenType.INT128: 'INT128'>, <TokenType.INT256: 'INT256'>, <TokenType.DESC: 'DESC'>, <TokenType.INT4MULTIRANGE: 'INT4MULTIRANGE'>, <TokenType.TEXT: 'TEXT'>, <TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER: 'OBJECT_IDENTIFIER'>, <TokenType.UTINYINT: 'UTINYINT'>, <TokenType.OVERWRITE: 'OVERWRITE'>, <TokenType.YEAR: 'YEAR'>, <TokenType.TIME: 'TIME'>, <TokenType.TSTZMULTIRANGE: 'TSTZMULTIRANGE'>, <TokenType.BIGINT: 'BIGINT'>, <TokenType.DICTIONARY: 'DICTIONARY'>, <TokenType.CURRENT_USER: 'CURRENT_USER'>, <TokenType.NUMRANGE: 'NUMRANGE'>, <TokenType.ESCAPE: 'ESCAPE'>, <TokenType.PARTITION: 'PARTITION'>, <TokenType.IPV4: 'IPV4'>, <TokenType.AUTO_INCREMENT: 'AUTO_INCREMENT'>, <TokenType.ASC: 'ASC'>, <TokenType.DATE32: 'DATE32'>, <TokenType.IMAGE: 'IMAGE'>, <TokenType.SEMI: 'SEMI'>, <TokenType.BPCHAR: 'BPCHAR'>, <TokenType.INT8MULTIRANGE: 'INT8MULTIRANGE'>, <TokenType.PERCENT: 'PERCENT'>, <TokenType.REFRESH: 'REFRESH'>, <TokenType.INDEX: 'INDEX'>, <TokenType.USE: 'USE'>, <TokenType.PSEUDO_TYPE: 'PSEUDO_TYPE'>, <TokenType.SUPER: 'SUPER'>, <TokenType.ROW: 'ROW'>, <TokenType.TIMETZ: 'TIMETZ'>, <TokenType.CURRENT_DATETIME: 'CURRENT_DATETIME'>, <TokenType.FIXEDSTRING: 'FIXEDSTRING'>, <TokenType.DATEMULTIRANGE: 'DATEMULTIRANGE'>, <TokenType.DECIMAL: 'DECIMAL'>, <TokenType.AGGREGATEFUNCTION: 'AGGREGATEFUNCTION'>, <TokenType.SMALLMONEY: 'SMALLMONEY'>, <TokenType.USMALLINT: 'USMALLINT'>, <TokenType.INT4RANGE: 'INT4RANGE'>, <TokenType.TRUNCATE: 'TRUNCATE'>, <TokenType.UNIQUEIDENTIFIER: 'UNIQUEIDENTIFIER'>, <TokenType.UINT128: 'UINT128'>, <TokenType.UBIGINT: 'UBIGINT'>, <TokenType.COMMENT: 'COMMENT'>, <TokenType.PROCEDURE: 'PROCEDURE'>, <TokenType.VARBINARY: 'VARBINARY'>, <TokenType.NCHAR: 'NCHAR'>, <TokenType.TIMESTAMP_MS: 'TIMESTAMP_MS'>, <TokenType.USERDEFINED: 'USERDEFINED'>, <TokenType.DIV: 'DIV'>, <TokenType.ENUM16: 'ENUM16'>, <TokenType.UNPIVOT: 'UNPIVOT'>, <TokenType.CURRENT_TIME: 'CURRENT_TIME'>, <TokenType.TSMULTIRANGE: 'TSMULTIRANGE'>, <TokenType.NUMMULTIRANGE: 'NUMMULTIRANGE'>, <TokenType.SHOW: 'SHOW'>, <TokenType.RANGE: 'RANGE'>, <TokenType.FLOAT: 'FLOAT'>, <TokenType.MEDIUMTEXT: 'MEDIUMTEXT'>, <TokenType.ENUM8: 'ENUM8'>, <TokenType.CURRENT_TIMESTAMP: 'CURRENT_TIMESTAMP'>, <TokenType.TINYBLOB: 'TINYBLOB'>, <TokenType.NESTED: 'NESTED'>, <TokenType.UUID: 'UUID'>, <TokenType.RECURSIVE: 'RECURSIVE'>, <TokenType.FIRST: 'FIRST'>, <TokenType.TIMESTAMP: 'TIMESTAMP'>, <TokenType.IS: 'IS'>, <TokenType.INT: 'INT'>, <TokenType.FUNCTION: 'FUNCTION'>, <TokenType.ANY: 'ANY'>, <TokenType.VAR: 'VAR'>, <TokenType.BIGDECIMAL: 'BIGDECIMAL'>, <TokenType.MAP: 'MAP'>, <TokenType.UDECIMAL: 'UDECIMAL'>, <TokenType.MEDIUMBLOB: 'MEDIUMBLOB'>, <TokenType.FALSE: 'FALSE'>, <TokenType.SERIAL: 'SERIAL'>, <TokenType.COLUMN: 'COLUMN'>, <TokenType.BIT: 'BIT'>, <TokenType.BIGSERIAL: 'BIGSERIAL'>, <TokenType.FILTER: 'FILTER'>, <TokenType.COLLATE: 'COLLATE'>, <TokenType.IPADDRESS: 'IPADDRESS'>, <TokenType.KILL: 'KILL'>, <TokenType.ROWS: 'ROWS'>, <TokenType.TRUE: 'TRUE'>, <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, <TokenType.PRAGMA: 'PRAGMA'>, <TokenType.BOOLEAN: 'BOOLEAN'>, <TokenType.TOP: 'TOP'>, <TokenType.TIMESTAMP_NS: 'TIMESTAMP_NS'>, <TokenType.HSTORE: 'HSTORE'>, <TokenType.DATERANGE: 'DATERANGE'>, <TokenType.REFERENCES: 'REFERENCES'>, <TokenType.UNIQUE: 'UNIQUE'>, <TokenType.MEDIUMINT: 'MEDIUMINT'>, <TokenType.SET: 'SET'>, <TokenType.INET: 'INET'>, <TokenType.UMEDIUMINT: 'UMEDIUMINT'>, <TokenType.DATE: 'DATE'>, <TokenType.NULLABLE: 'NULLABLE'>, <TokenType.LONGBLOB: 'LONGBLOB'>, <TokenType.NULL: 'NULL'>, <TokenType.EXECUTE: 'EXECUTE'>, <TokenType.MONEY: 'MONEY'>, <TokenType.LONGTEXT: 'LONGTEXT'>, <TokenType.JSONB: 'JSONB'>, <TokenType.SMALLSERIAL: 'SMALLSERIAL'>, <TokenType.ORDINALITY: 'ORDINALITY'>, <TokenType.TIMESTAMPLTZ: 'TIMESTAMPLTZ'>, <TokenType.CONSTRAINT: 'CONSTRAINT'>, <TokenType.TSTZRANGE: 'TSTZRANGE'>, <TokenType.UPDATE: 'UPDATE'>, <TokenType.BINARY: 'BINARY'>, <TokenType.NEXT: 'NEXT'>, <TokenType.SIMPLEAGGREGATEFUNCTION: 'SIMPLEAGGREGATEFUNCTION'>, <TokenType.LOAD: 'LOAD'>, <TokenType.OVERLAPS: 'OVERLAPS'>, <TokenType.DELETE: 'DELETE'>, <TokenType.GEOGRAPHY: 'GEOGRAPHY'>, <TokenType.END: 'END'>, <TokenType.DOUBLE: 'DOUBLE'>, <TokenType.ALL: 'ALL'>, <TokenType.SOME: 'SOME'>, <TokenType.ARRAY: 'ARRAY'>, <TokenType.DATABASE: 'DATABASE'>, <TokenType.ANTI: 'ANTI'>, <TokenType.DEFAULT: 'DEFAULT'>, <TokenType.UINT256: 'UINT256'>, <TokenType.INT8RANGE: 'INT8RANGE'>, <TokenType.CURRENT_DATE: 'CURRENT_DATE'>, <TokenType.TIMESTAMP_S: 'TIMESTAMP_S'>, <TokenType.MODEL: 'MODEL'>, <TokenType.KEEP: 'KEEP'>, <TokenType.CASE: 'CASE'>, <TokenType.ISNULL: 'ISNULL'>, <TokenType.TINYINT: 'TINYINT'>, <TokenType.SCHEMA: 'SCHEMA'>, <TokenType.GEOMETRY: 'GEOMETRY'>, <TokenType.VARIANT: 'VARIANT'>, <TokenType.LOWCARDINALITY: 'LOWCARDINALITY'>, <TokenType.BEGIN: 'BEGIN'>, <TokenType.CACHE: 'CACHE'>, <TokenType.MERGE: 'MERGE'>, <TokenType.SETTINGS: 'SETTINGS'>, <TokenType.HLLSKETCH: 'HLLSKETCH'>, <TokenType.ROWVERSION: 'ROWVERSION'>, <TokenType.TABLE: 'TABLE'>, <TokenType.VARCHAR: 'VARCHAR'>, <TokenType.ENUM: 'ENUM'>, <TokenType.XML: 'XML'>, <TokenType.VOLATILE: 'VOLATILE'>, <TokenType.IPPREFIX: 'IPPREFIX'>, <TokenType.DATETIME: 'DATETIME'>, <TokenType.TSRANGE: 'TSRANGE'>, <TokenType.EXISTS: 'EXISTS'>, <TokenType.TIMESTAMPTZ: 'TIMESTAMPTZ'>, <TokenType.TEMPORARY: 'TEMPORARY'>, <TokenType.JSON: 'JSON'>, <TokenType.UINT: 'UINT'>, <TokenType.OBJECT: 'OBJECT'>, <TokenType.DESCRIBE: 'DESCRIBE'>, <TokenType.IPV6: 'IPV6'>}
SHOW_TRIE: Dict = {}
SET_TRIE: Dict = {'GLOBAL': {0: True}, 'LOCAL': {0: True}, 'SESSION': {0: True}, 'TRANSACTION': {0: True}}
Inherited Members
sqlglot.parser.Parser
Parser
NO_PAREN_FUNCTIONS
STRUCT_TYPE_TOKENS
NESTED_TYPE_TOKENS
ENUM_TYPE_TOKENS
AGGREGATE_TYPE_TOKENS
TYPE_TOKENS
SIGNED_TO_UNSIGNED_TYPE_TOKEN
SUBQUERY_PREDICATES
RESERVED_TOKENS
DB_CREATABLES
CREATABLES
ID_VAR_TOKENS
INTERVAL_VARS
COMMENT_TABLE_ALIAS_TOKENS
UPDATE_ALIAS_TOKENS
TRIM_TYPES
FUNC_TOKENS
CONJUNCTION
EQUALITY
COMPARISON
BITWISE
TERM
FACTOR
EXPONENT
TIMES
TIMESTAMPS
SET_OPERATIONS
JOIN_METHODS
JOIN_SIDES
JOIN_KINDS
JOIN_HINTS
LAMBDAS
COLUMN_OPERATORS
EXPRESSION_PARSERS
STATEMENT_PARSERS
UNARY_PARSERS
STRING_PARSERS
NUMERIC_PARSERS
PRIMARY_PARSERS
PLACEHOLDER_PARSERS
RANGE_PARSERS
PROPERTY_PARSERS
CONSTRAINT_PARSERS
ALTER_PARSERS
SCHEMA_UNNAMED_CONSTRAINTS
NO_PAREN_FUNCTION_PARSERS
INVALID_FUNC_NAME_TOKENS
FUNCTIONS_WITH_ALIASED_ARGS
KEY_VALUE_DEFINITIONS
QUERY_MODIFIER_PARSERS
SET_PARSERS
SHOW_PARSERS
TYPE_LITERAL_PARSERS
DDL_SELECT_TOKENS
PRE_VOLATILE_TOKENS
TRANSACTION_KIND
TRANSACTION_CHARACTERISTICS
USABLES
INSERT_ALTERNATIVES
CLONE_KEYWORDS
HISTORICAL_DATA_KIND
OPCLASS_FOLLOW_KEYWORDS
OPTYPE_FOLLOW_TOKENS
TABLE_INDEX_HINT_TOKENS
WINDOW_ALIAS_TOKENS
WINDOW_BEFORE_PAREN_TOKENS
WINDOW_SIDES
JSON_KEY_VALUE_SEPARATOR_TOKENS
FETCH_TOKENS
ADD_CONSTRAINT_TOKENS
DISTINCT_TOKENS
NULL_TOKENS
UNNEST_OFFSET_ALIAS_TOKENS
STRICT_CAST
PREFIXED_PIVOT_COLUMNS
IDENTIFY_PIVOT_STRINGS
LOG_DEFAULTS_TO_LN
ALTER_TABLE_ADD_REQUIRED_FOR_EACH_COLUMN
TABLESAMPLE_CSV
SET_REQUIRES_ASSIGNMENT_DELIMITER
TRIM_PATTERN_FIRST
STRING_ALIASES
MODIFIERS_ATTACHED_TO_UNION
UNION_MODIFIERS
NO_PAREN_IF_COMMANDS
JSON_ARROWS_REQUIRE_JSON_TYPE
SUPPORTS_IMPLICIT_UNNEST
error_level
error_message_context
max_errors
dialect
reset
parse
parse_into
check_errors
raise_error
expression
validate_expression
errors
sql
class Presto.Generator(sqlglot.generator.Generator):
280    class Generator(generator.Generator):
281        INTERVAL_ALLOWS_PLURAL_FORM = False
282        JOIN_HINTS = False
283        TABLE_HINTS = False
284        QUERY_HINTS = False
285        IS_BOOL_ALLOWED = False
286        TZ_TO_WITH_TIME_ZONE = True
287        NVL2_SUPPORTED = False
288        STRUCT_DELIMITER = ("(", ")")
289        LIMIT_ONLY_LITERALS = True
290        SUPPORTS_SINGLE_ARG_CONCAT = False
291        LIKE_PROPERTY_INSIDE_SCHEMA = True
292        MULTI_ARG_DISTINCT = False
293
294        PROPERTIES_LOCATION = {
295            **generator.Generator.PROPERTIES_LOCATION,
296            exp.LocationProperty: exp.Properties.Location.UNSUPPORTED,
297            exp.VolatileProperty: exp.Properties.Location.UNSUPPORTED,
298        }
299
300        TYPE_MAPPING = {
301            **generator.Generator.TYPE_MAPPING,
302            exp.DataType.Type.INT: "INTEGER",
303            exp.DataType.Type.FLOAT: "REAL",
304            exp.DataType.Type.BINARY: "VARBINARY",
305            exp.DataType.Type.TEXT: "VARCHAR",
306            exp.DataType.Type.TIMETZ: "TIME",
307            exp.DataType.Type.TIMESTAMPTZ: "TIMESTAMP",
308            exp.DataType.Type.STRUCT: "ROW",
309            exp.DataType.Type.DATETIME: "TIMESTAMP",
310            exp.DataType.Type.DATETIME64: "TIMESTAMP",
311        }
312
313        TRANSFORMS = {
314            **generator.Generator.TRANSFORMS,
315            exp.AnyValue: rename_func("ARBITRARY"),
316            exp.ApproxDistinct: lambda self, e: self.func(
317                "APPROX_DISTINCT", e.this, e.args.get("accuracy")
318            ),
319            exp.ApproxQuantile: rename_func("APPROX_PERCENTILE"),
320            exp.ArgMax: rename_func("MAX_BY"),
321            exp.ArgMin: rename_func("MIN_BY"),
322            exp.Array: lambda self, e: f"ARRAY[{self.expressions(e, flat=True)}]",
323            exp.ArrayAny: rename_func("ANY_MATCH"),
324            exp.ArrayConcat: rename_func("CONCAT"),
325            exp.ArrayContains: rename_func("CONTAINS"),
326            exp.ArraySize: rename_func("CARDINALITY"),
327            exp.ArrayUniqueAgg: rename_func("SET_AGG"),
328            exp.AtTimeZone: rename_func("AT_TIMEZONE"),
329            exp.BitwiseAnd: lambda self, e: self.func("BITWISE_AND", e.this, e.expression),
330            exp.BitwiseLeftShift: lambda self, e: self.func(
331                "BITWISE_ARITHMETIC_SHIFT_LEFT", e.this, e.expression
332            ),
333            exp.BitwiseNot: lambda self, e: self.func("BITWISE_NOT", e.this),
334            exp.BitwiseOr: lambda self, e: self.func("BITWISE_OR", e.this, e.expression),
335            exp.BitwiseRightShift: lambda self, e: self.func(
336                "BITWISE_ARITHMETIC_SHIFT_RIGHT", e.this, e.expression
337            ),
338            exp.BitwiseXor: lambda self, e: self.func("BITWISE_XOR", e.this, e.expression),
339            exp.Cast: transforms.preprocess([transforms.epoch_cast_to_ts]),
340            exp.CurrentTimestamp: lambda *_: "CURRENT_TIMESTAMP",
341            exp.DateAdd: lambda self, e: self.func(
342                "DATE_ADD",
343                exp.Literal.string(e.text("unit") or "DAY"),
344                _to_int(e.expression),
345                e.this,
346            ),
347            exp.DateDiff: lambda self, e: self.func(
348                "DATE_DIFF", exp.Literal.string(e.text("unit") or "DAY"), e.expression, e.this
349            ),
350            exp.DateStrToDate: datestrtodate_sql,
351            exp.DateToDi: lambda self,
352            e: f"CAST(DATE_FORMAT({self.sql(e, 'this')}, {Presto.DATEINT_FORMAT}) AS INT)",
353            exp.DateSub: lambda self, e: self.func(
354                "DATE_ADD",
355                exp.Literal.string(e.text("unit") or "DAY"),
356                _to_int(e.expression * -1),
357                e.this,
358            ),
359            exp.Decode: lambda self, e: encode_decode_sql(self, e, "FROM_UTF8"),
360            exp.DiToDate: lambda self,
361            e: f"CAST(DATE_PARSE(CAST({self.sql(e, 'this')} AS VARCHAR), {Presto.DATEINT_FORMAT}) AS DATE)",
362            exp.Encode: lambda self, e: encode_decode_sql(self, e, "TO_UTF8"),
363            exp.FileFormatProperty: lambda self, e: f"FORMAT='{e.name.upper()}'",
364            exp.First: _first_last_sql,
365            exp.FirstValue: _first_last_sql,
366            exp.FromTimeZone: lambda self,
367            e: f"WITH_TIMEZONE({self.sql(e, 'this')}, {self.sql(e, 'zone')}) AT TIME ZONE 'UTC'",
368            exp.Group: transforms.preprocess([transforms.unalias_group]),
369            exp.GroupConcat: lambda self, e: self.func(
370                "ARRAY_JOIN", self.func("ARRAY_AGG", e.this), e.args.get("separator")
371            ),
372            exp.Hex: rename_func("TO_HEX"),
373            exp.If: if_sql(),
374            exp.ILike: no_ilike_sql,
375            exp.Initcap: _initcap_sql,
376            exp.ParseJSON: rename_func("JSON_PARSE"),
377            exp.Last: _first_last_sql,
378            exp.LastValue: _first_last_sql,
379            exp.LastDay: lambda self, e: self.func("LAST_DAY_OF_MONTH", e.this),
380            exp.Lateral: _explode_to_unnest_sql,
381            exp.Left: left_to_substring_sql,
382            exp.Levenshtein: rename_func("LEVENSHTEIN_DISTANCE"),
383            exp.LogicalAnd: rename_func("BOOL_AND"),
384            exp.LogicalOr: rename_func("BOOL_OR"),
385            exp.Pivot: no_pivot_sql,
386            exp.Quantile: _quantile_sql,
387            exp.RegexpExtract: regexp_extract_sql,
388            exp.Right: right_to_substring_sql,
389            exp.SafeDivide: no_safe_divide_sql,
390            exp.Schema: _schema_sql,
391            exp.SchemaCommentProperty: lambda self, e: self.naked_property(e),
392            exp.Select: transforms.preprocess(
393                [
394                    transforms.eliminate_qualify,
395                    transforms.eliminate_distinct_on,
396                    transforms.explode_to_unnest(1),
397                    transforms.eliminate_semi_and_anti_joins,
398                ]
399            ),
400            exp.SortArray: _no_sort_array,
401            exp.StrPosition: rename_func("STRPOS"),
402            exp.StrToDate: lambda self, e: f"CAST({_str_to_time_sql(self, e)} AS DATE)",
403            exp.StrToMap: rename_func("SPLIT_TO_MAP"),
404            exp.StrToTime: _str_to_time_sql,
405            exp.StrToUnix: lambda self, e: self.func(
406                "TO_UNIXTIME", self.func("DATE_PARSE", e.this, self.format_time(e))
407            ),
408            exp.StructExtract: struct_extract_sql,
409            exp.Table: transforms.preprocess([_unnest_sequence]),
410            exp.Timestamp: no_timestamp_sql,
411            exp.TimestampTrunc: timestamptrunc_sql,
412            exp.TimeStrToDate: timestrtotime_sql,
413            exp.TimeStrToTime: timestrtotime_sql,
414            exp.TimeStrToUnix: lambda self, e: self.func(
415                "TO_UNIXTIME", self.func("DATE_PARSE", e.this, Presto.TIME_FORMAT)
416            ),
417            exp.TimeToStr: lambda self, e: self.func("DATE_FORMAT", e.this, self.format_time(e)),
418            exp.TimeToUnix: rename_func("TO_UNIXTIME"),
419            exp.ToChar: lambda self, e: self.func("DATE_FORMAT", e.this, self.format_time(e)),
420            exp.TryCast: transforms.preprocess([transforms.epoch_cast_to_ts]),
421            exp.TsOrDiToDi: lambda self,
422            e: f"CAST(SUBSTR(REPLACE(CAST({self.sql(e, 'this')} AS VARCHAR), '-', ''), 1, 8) AS INT)",
423            exp.TsOrDsAdd: _ts_or_ds_add_sql,
424            exp.TsOrDsDiff: _ts_or_ds_diff_sql,
425            exp.TsOrDsToDate: _ts_or_ds_to_date_sql,
426            exp.Unhex: rename_func("FROM_HEX"),
427            exp.UnixToStr: lambda self,
428            e: f"DATE_FORMAT(FROM_UNIXTIME({self.sql(e, 'this')}), {self.format_time(e)})",
429            exp.UnixToTime: _unix_to_time_sql,
430            exp.UnixToTimeStr: lambda self,
431            e: f"CAST(FROM_UNIXTIME({self.sql(e, 'this')}) AS VARCHAR)",
432            exp.VariancePop: rename_func("VAR_POP"),
433            exp.With: transforms.preprocess([transforms.add_recursive_cte_column_names]),
434            exp.WithinGroup: transforms.preprocess(
435                [transforms.remove_within_group_for_percentiles]
436            ),
437            exp.Xor: bool_xor_sql,
438        }
439
440        def bracket_sql(self, expression: exp.Bracket) -> str:
441            if expression.args.get("safe"):
442                return self.func(
443                    "ELEMENT_AT",
444                    expression.this,
445                    seq_get(
446                        apply_index_offset(
447                            expression.this,
448                            expression.expressions,
449                            1 - expression.args.get("offset", 0),
450                        ),
451                        0,
452                    ),
453                )
454            return super().bracket_sql(expression)
455
456        def struct_sql(self, expression: exp.Struct) -> str:
457            from sqlglot.optimizer.annotate_types import annotate_types
458
459            expression = annotate_types(expression)
460            values: t.List[str] = []
461            schema: t.List[str] = []
462            unknown_type = False
463
464            for e in expression.expressions:
465                if isinstance(e, exp.PropertyEQ):
466                    if e.type and e.type.is_type(exp.DataType.Type.UNKNOWN):
467                        unknown_type = True
468                    else:
469                        schema.append(f"{self.sql(e, 'this')} {self.sql(e.type)}")
470                    values.append(self.sql(e, "expression"))
471                else:
472                    values.append(self.sql(e))
473
474            size = len(expression.expressions)
475
476            if not size or len(schema) != size:
477                if unknown_type:
478                    self.unsupported(
479                        "Cannot convert untyped key-value definitions (try annotate_types)."
480                    )
481                return self.func("ROW", *values)
482            return f"CAST(ROW({', '.join(values)}) AS ROW({', '.join(schema)}))"
483
484        def interval_sql(self, expression: exp.Interval) -> str:
485            unit = self.sql(expression, "unit")
486            if expression.this and unit.startswith("WEEK"):
487                return f"({expression.this.name} * INTERVAL '7' DAY)"
488            return super().interval_sql(expression)
489
490        def transaction_sql(self, expression: exp.Transaction) -> str:
491            modes = expression.args.get("modes")
492            modes = f" {', '.join(modes)}" if modes else ""
493            return f"START TRANSACTION{modes}"
494
495        def generateseries_sql(self, expression: exp.GenerateSeries) -> str:
496            start = expression.args["start"]
497            end = expression.args["end"]
498            step = expression.args.get("step")
499
500            if isinstance(start, exp.Cast):
501                target_type = start.to
502            elif isinstance(end, exp.Cast):
503                target_type = end.to
504            else:
505                target_type = None
506
507            if target_type and target_type.is_type("timestamp"):
508                if target_type is start.to:
509                    end = exp.cast(end, target_type)
510                else:
511                    start = exp.cast(start, target_type)
512
513            return self.func("SEQUENCE", start, end, step)
514
515        def offset_limit_modifiers(
516            self, expression: exp.Expression, fetch: bool, limit: t.Optional[exp.Fetch | exp.Limit]
517        ) -> t.List[str]:
518            return [
519                self.sql(expression, "offset"),
520                self.sql(limit),
521            ]
522
523        def create_sql(self, expression: exp.Create) -> str:
524            """
525            Presto doesn't support CREATE VIEW with expressions (ex: `CREATE VIEW x (cola)` then `(cola)` is the expression),
526            so we need to remove them
527            """
528            kind = expression.args["kind"]
529            schema = expression.this
530            if kind == "VIEW" and schema.expressions:
531                expression.this.set("expressions", None)
532            return super().create_sql(expression)

Generator converts a given syntax tree to the corresponding SQL string.

Arguments:
  • pretty: Whether to format the produced SQL string. Default: False.
  • identify: Determines when an identifier should be quoted. Possible values are: False (default): Never quote, except in cases where it's mandatory by the dialect. True or 'always': Always quote. 'safe': Only quote identifiers that are case insensitive.
  • normalize: Whether to normalize identifiers to lowercase. Default: False.
  • pad: The pad size in a formatted string. Default: 2.
  • indent: The indentation size in a formatted string. Default: 2.
  • normalize_functions: How to normalize function names. Possible values are: "upper" or True (default): Convert names to uppercase. "lower": Convert names to lowercase. False: Disables function name normalization.
  • unsupported_level: Determines the generator's behavior when it encounters unsupported expressions. Default ErrorLevel.WARN.
  • max_unsupported: Maximum number of unsupported messages to include in a raised UnsupportedError. This is only relevant if unsupported_level is ErrorLevel.RAISE. Default: 3
  • leading_comma: Whether the comma is leading or trailing in select expressions. This is only relevant when generating in pretty mode. Default: False
  • max_text_width: The max number of characters in a segment before creating new lines in pretty mode. The default is on the smaller end because the length only represents a segment and not the true line length. Default: 80
  • comments: Whether to preserve comments in the output SQL code. Default: True
INTERVAL_ALLOWS_PLURAL_FORM = False
JOIN_HINTS = False
TABLE_HINTS = False
QUERY_HINTS = False
IS_BOOL_ALLOWED = False
TZ_TO_WITH_TIME_ZONE = True
NVL2_SUPPORTED = False
STRUCT_DELIMITER = ('(', ')')
LIMIT_ONLY_LITERALS = True
SUPPORTS_SINGLE_ARG_CONCAT = False
LIKE_PROPERTY_INSIDE_SCHEMA = True
MULTI_ARG_DISTINCT = False
PROPERTIES_LOCATION = {<class 'sqlglot.expressions.AlgorithmProperty'>: <Location.POST_CREATE: 'POST_CREATE'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.AutoIncrementProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.AutoRefreshProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.BlockCompressionProperty'>: <Location.POST_NAME: 'POST_NAME'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CharacterSetProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ChecksumProperty'>: <Location.POST_NAME: 'POST_NAME'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CollateProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CopyGrantsProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Cluster'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ClusteredByProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DataBlocksizeProperty'>: <Location.POST_NAME: 'POST_NAME'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DefinerProperty'>: <Location.POST_CREATE: 'POST_CREATE'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DictRange'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DictProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DistKeyProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DistStyleProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.EngineProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ExecuteAsProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ExternalProperty'>: <Location.POST_CREATE: 'POST_CREATE'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.FallbackProperty'>: <Location.POST_NAME: 'POST_NAME'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.FileFormatProperty'>: <Location.POST_WITH: 'POST_WITH'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.FreespaceProperty'>: <Location.POST_NAME: 'POST_NAME'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.HeapProperty'>: <Location.POST_WITH: 'POST_WITH'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.InheritsProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.InputModelProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.IsolatedLoadingProperty'>: <Location.POST_NAME: 'POST_NAME'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JournalProperty'>: <Location.POST_NAME: 'POST_NAME'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LanguageProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LikeProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LocationProperty'>: <Location.UNSUPPORTED: 'UNSUPPORTED'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LockProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LockingProperty'>: <Location.POST_ALIAS: 'POST_ALIAS'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LogProperty'>: <Location.POST_NAME: 'POST_NAME'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.MaterializedProperty'>: <Location.POST_CREATE: 'POST_CREATE'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.MergeBlockRatioProperty'>: <Location.POST_NAME: 'POST_NAME'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.NoPrimaryIndexProperty'>: <Location.POST_EXPRESSION: 'POST_EXPRESSION'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.OnProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.OnCommitProperty'>: <Location.POST_EXPRESSION: 'POST_EXPRESSION'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Order'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.OutputModelProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.PartitionedByProperty'>: <Location.POST_WITH: 'POST_WITH'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.PartitionedOfProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.PrimaryKey'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Property'>: <Location.POST_WITH: 'POST_WITH'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RemoteWithConnectionModelProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ReturnsProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RowFormatProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RowFormatDelimitedProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RowFormatSerdeProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SampleProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SchemaCommentProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SerdeProperties'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Set'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SettingsProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SetProperty'>: <Location.POST_CREATE: 'POST_CREATE'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SetConfigProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SortKeyProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SqlReadWriteProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SqlSecurityProperty'>: <Location.POST_CREATE: 'POST_CREATE'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StabilityProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TemporaryProperty'>: <Location.POST_CREATE: 'POST_CREATE'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ToTableProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TransientProperty'>: <Location.POST_CREATE: 'POST_CREATE'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TransformModelProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.MergeTreeTTL'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.VolatileProperty'>: <Location.UNSUPPORTED: 'UNSUPPORTED'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.WithDataProperty'>: <Location.POST_EXPRESSION: 'POST_EXPRESSION'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.WithJournalTableProperty'>: <Location.POST_NAME: 'POST_NAME'>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.WithSystemVersioningProperty'>: <Location.POST_SCHEMA: 'POST_SCHEMA'>}
TYPE_MAPPING = {<Type.NCHAR: 'NCHAR'>: 'CHAR', <Type.NVARCHAR: 'NVARCHAR'>: 'VARCHAR', <Type.MEDIUMTEXT: 'MEDIUMTEXT'>: 'TEXT', <Type.LONGTEXT: 'LONGTEXT'>: 'TEXT', <Type.TINYTEXT: 'TINYTEXT'>: 'TEXT', <Type.MEDIUMBLOB: 'MEDIUMBLOB'>: 'BLOB', <Type.LONGBLOB: 'LONGBLOB'>: 'BLOB', <Type.TINYBLOB: 'TINYBLOB'>: 'BLOB', <Type.INET: 'INET'>: 'INET', <Type.INT: 'INT'>: 'INTEGER', <Type.FLOAT: 'FLOAT'>: 'REAL', <Type.BINARY: 'BINARY'>: 'VARBINARY', <Type.TEXT: 'TEXT'>: 'VARCHAR', <Type.TIMETZ: 'TIMETZ'>: 'TIME', <Type.TIMESTAMPTZ: 'TIMESTAMPTZ'>: 'TIMESTAMP', <Type.STRUCT: 'STRUCT'>: 'ROW', <Type.DATETIME: 'DATETIME'>: 'TIMESTAMP', <Type.DATETIME64: 'DATETIME64'>: 'TIMESTAMP'}
TRANSFORMS = {<class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONPathFilter'>: <function <lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONPathKey'>: <function <lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONPathRecursive'>: <function <lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONPathRoot'>: <function <lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONPathScript'>: <function <lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONPathSelector'>: <function <lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONPathSlice'>: <function <lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONPathSubscript'>: <function <lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONPathUnion'>: <function <lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONPathWildcard'>: <function <lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.AutoRefreshProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CaseSpecificColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CharacterSetColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CharacterSetProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ClusteredColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CollateColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CommentColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CopyGrantsProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateAdd'>: <function Presto.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateFormatColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DefaultColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.EncodeColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ExecuteAsProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ExternalProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.HeapProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.InheritsProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.InlineLengthColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.InputModelProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.IntervalSpan'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONExtract'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONExtractScalar'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LanguageProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LocationProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LogProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.MaterializedProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.NonClusteredColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.NoPrimaryIndexProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.NotForReplicationColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.OnCommitProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.OnProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.OnUpdateColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.OutputModelProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.PathColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RemoteWithConnectionModelProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ReturnsProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SampleProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SetConfigProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SetProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SettingsProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SqlReadWriteProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SqlSecurityProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StabilityProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TemporaryProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TitleColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Timestamp'>: <function no_timestamp_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ToTableProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TransformModelProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TransientProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.UppercaseColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.VarMap'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.VolatileProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.WithJournalTableProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.AnyValue'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ApproxDistinct'>: <function Presto.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ApproxQuantile'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArgMax'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArgMin'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Array'>: <function Presto.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayAny'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayConcat'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayContains'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArraySize'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayUniqueAgg'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.AtTimeZone'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.BitwiseAnd'>: <function Presto.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.BitwiseLeftShift'>: <function Presto.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.BitwiseNot'>: <function Presto.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.BitwiseOr'>: <function Presto.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.BitwiseRightShift'>: <function Presto.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.BitwiseXor'>: <function Presto.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Cast'>: <function preprocess.<locals>._to_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CurrentTimestamp'>: <function Presto.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateDiff'>: <function Presto.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateStrToDate'>: <function datestrtodate_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateToDi'>: <function Presto.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateSub'>: <function Presto.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Decode'>: <function Presto.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DiToDate'>: <function Presto.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Encode'>: <function Presto.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.FileFormatProperty'>: <function Presto.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.First'>: <function _first_last_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.FirstValue'>: <function _first_last_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.FromTimeZone'>: <function Presto.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Group'>: <function preprocess.<locals>._to_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.GroupConcat'>: <function Presto.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Hex'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.If'>: <function if_sql.<locals>._if_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ILike'>: <function no_ilike_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Initcap'>: <function _initcap_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ParseJSON'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Last'>: <function _first_last_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LastValue'>: <function _first_last_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LastDay'>: <function Presto.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Lateral'>: <function _explode_to_unnest_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Left'>: <function left_to_substring_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Levenshtein'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LogicalAnd'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LogicalOr'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Pivot'>: <function no_pivot_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Quantile'>: <function _quantile_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RegexpExtract'>: <function regexp_extract_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Right'>: <function right_to_substring_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SafeDivide'>: <function no_safe_divide_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Schema'>: <function _schema_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SchemaCommentProperty'>: <function Presto.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Select'>: <function preprocess.<locals>._to_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SortArray'>: <function _no_sort_array>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StrPosition'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StrToDate'>: <function Presto.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StrToMap'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StrToTime'>: <function _str_to_time_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StrToUnix'>: <function Presto.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StructExtract'>: <function struct_extract_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Table'>: <function preprocess.<locals>._to_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimestampTrunc'>: <function timestamptrunc_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeStrToDate'>: <function timestrtotime_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeStrToTime'>: <function timestrtotime_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeStrToUnix'>: <function Presto.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeToStr'>: <function Presto.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeToUnix'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ToChar'>: <function Presto.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TryCast'>: <function preprocess.<locals>._to_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TsOrDiToDi'>: <function Presto.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TsOrDsAdd'>: <function _ts_or_ds_add_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TsOrDsDiff'>: <function _ts_or_ds_diff_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TsOrDsToDate'>: <function _ts_or_ds_to_date_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Unhex'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.UnixToStr'>: <function Presto.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.UnixToTime'>: <function _unix_to_time_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.UnixToTimeStr'>: <function Presto.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.VariancePop'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.With'>: <function preprocess.<locals>._to_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.WithinGroup'>: <function preprocess.<locals>._to_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Xor'>: <function bool_xor_sql>}
def bracket_sql(self, expression: sqlglot.expressions.Bracket) -> str:
440        def bracket_sql(self, expression: exp.Bracket) -> str:
441            if expression.args.get("safe"):
442                return self.func(
443                    "ELEMENT_AT",
444                    expression.this,
445                    seq_get(
446                        apply_index_offset(
447                            expression.this,
448                            expression.expressions,
449                            1 - expression.args.get("offset", 0),
450                        ),
451                        0,
452                    ),
453                )
454            return super().bracket_sql(expression)
def struct_sql(self, expression: sqlglot.expressions.Struct) -> str:
456        def struct_sql(self, expression: exp.Struct) -> str:
457            from sqlglot.optimizer.annotate_types import annotate_types
458
459            expression = annotate_types(expression)
460            values: t.List[str] = []
461            schema: t.List[str] = []
462            unknown_type = False
463
464            for e in expression.expressions:
465                if isinstance(e, exp.PropertyEQ):
466                    if e.type and e.type.is_type(exp.DataType.Type.UNKNOWN):
467                        unknown_type = True
468                    else:
469                        schema.append(f"{self.sql(e, 'this')} {self.sql(e.type)}")
470                    values.append(self.sql(e, "expression"))
471                else:
472                    values.append(self.sql(e))
473
474            size = len(expression.expressions)
475
476            if not size or len(schema) != size:
477                if unknown_type:
478                    self.unsupported(
479                        "Cannot convert untyped key-value definitions (try annotate_types)."
480                    )
481                return self.func("ROW", *values)
482            return f"CAST(ROW({', '.join(values)}) AS ROW({', '.join(schema)}))"
def interval_sql(self, expression: sqlglot.expressions.Interval) -> str:
484        def interval_sql(self, expression: exp.Interval) -> str:
485            unit = self.sql(expression, "unit")
486            if expression.this and unit.startswith("WEEK"):
487                return f"({expression.this.name} * INTERVAL '7' DAY)"
488            return super().interval_sql(expression)
def transaction_sql(self, expression: sqlglot.expressions.Transaction) -> str:
490        def transaction_sql(self, expression: exp.Transaction) -> str:
491            modes = expression.args.get("modes")
492            modes = f" {', '.join(modes)}" if modes else ""
493            return f"START TRANSACTION{modes}"
def generateseries_sql(self, expression: sqlglot.expressions.GenerateSeries) -> str:
495        def generateseries_sql(self, expression: exp.GenerateSeries) -> str:
496            start = expression.args["start"]
497            end = expression.args["end"]
498            step = expression.args.get("step")
499
500            if isinstance(start, exp.Cast):
501                target_type = start.to
502            elif isinstance(end, exp.Cast):
503                target_type = end.to
504            else:
505                target_type = None
506
507            if target_type and target_type.is_type("timestamp"):
508                if target_type is start.to:
509                    end = exp.cast(end, target_type)
510                else:
511                    start = exp.cast(start, target_type)
512
513            return self.func("SEQUENCE", start, end, step)
def offset_limit_modifiers( self, expression: sqlglot.expressions.Expression, fetch: bool, limit: Union[sqlglot.expressions.Fetch, sqlglot.expressions.Limit, NoneType]) -> List[str]:
515        def offset_limit_modifiers(
516            self, expression: exp.Expression, fetch: bool, limit: t.Optional[exp.Fetch | exp.Limit]
517        ) -> t.List[str]:
518            return [
519                self.sql(expression, "offset"),
520                self.sql(limit),
521            ]
def create_sql(self, expression: sqlglot.expressions.Create) -> str:
523        def create_sql(self, expression: exp.Create) -> str:
524            """
525            Presto doesn't support CREATE VIEW with expressions (ex: `CREATE VIEW x (cola)` then `(cola)` is the expression),
526            so we need to remove them
527            """
528            kind = expression.args["kind"]
529            schema = expression.this
530            if kind == "VIEW" and schema.expressions:
531                expression.this.set("expressions", None)
532            return super().create_sql(expression)

Presto doesn't support CREATE VIEW with expressions (ex: CREATE VIEW x (cola) then (cola) is the expression), so we need to remove them

SELECT_KINDS: Tuple[str, ...] = ()
Inherited Members
sqlglot.generator.Generator
Generator
NULL_ORDERING_SUPPORTED
IGNORE_NULLS_IN_FUNC
LOCKING_READS_SUPPORTED
EXPLICIT_UNION
WRAP_DERIVED_VALUES
CREATE_FUNCTION_RETURN_AS
MATCHED_BY_SOURCE
SINGLE_STRING_INTERVAL
LIMIT_FETCH
RENAME_TABLE_WITH_DB
GROUPINGS_SEP
INDEX_ON
QUERY_HINT_SEP
DUPLICATE_KEY_UPDATE_WITH_SET
LIMIT_IS_TOP
RETURNING_END
COLUMN_JOIN_MARKS_SUPPORTED
EXTRACT_ALLOWS_QUOTES
VALUES_AS_TABLE
ALTER_TABLE_INCLUDE_COLUMN_KEYWORD
UNNEST_WITH_ORDINALITY
AGGREGATE_FILTER_SUPPORTED
SEMI_ANTI_JOIN_WITH_SIDE
COMPUTED_COLUMN_WITH_TYPE
SUPPORTS_TABLE_COPY
TABLESAMPLE_REQUIRES_PARENS
TABLESAMPLE_SIZE_IS_ROWS
TABLESAMPLE_KEYWORDS
TABLESAMPLE_WITH_METHOD
TABLESAMPLE_SEED_KEYWORD
COLLATE_IS_FUNC
DATA_TYPE_SPECIFIERS_ALLOWED
ENSURE_BOOLS
CTE_RECURSIVE_KEYWORD_REQUIRED
LAST_DAY_SUPPORTS_DATE_PART
SUPPORTS_TABLE_ALIAS_COLUMNS
UNPIVOT_ALIASES_ARE_IDENTIFIERS
JSON_KEY_VALUE_PAIR_SEP
INSERT_OVERWRITE
SUPPORTS_SELECT_INTO
SUPPORTS_UNLOGGED_TABLES
SUPPORTS_CREATE_TABLE_LIKE
JSON_TYPE_REQUIRED_FOR_EXTRACTION
JSON_PATH_BRACKETED_KEY_SUPPORTED
JSON_PATH_SINGLE_QUOTE_ESCAPE
SUPPORTED_JSON_PATH_PARTS
CAN_IMPLEMENT_ARRAY_ANY
STAR_MAPPING
TIME_PART_SINGULARS
TOKEN_MAPPING
PARAMETER_TOKEN
NAMED_PLACEHOLDER_TOKEN
RESERVED_KEYWORDS
WITH_SEPARATED_COMMENTS
EXCLUDE_COMMENTS
UNWRAPPED_INTERVAL_VALUES
PARAMETERIZABLE_TEXT_TYPES
EXPRESSIONS_WITHOUT_NESTED_CTES
SENTINEL_LINE_BREAK
pretty
identify
normalize
pad
unsupported_level
max_unsupported
leading_comma
max_text_width
comments
dialect
normalize_functions
unsupported_messages
generate
preprocess
unsupported
sep
seg
pad_comment
maybe_comment
wrap
no_identify
normalize_func
indent
sql
uncache_sql
cache_sql
characterset_sql
column_sql
columnposition_sql
columndef_sql
columnconstraint_sql
computedcolumnconstraint_sql
autoincrementcolumnconstraint_sql
compresscolumnconstraint_sql
generatedasidentitycolumnconstraint_sql
generatedasrowcolumnconstraint_sql
periodforsystemtimeconstraint_sql
notnullcolumnconstraint_sql
transformcolumnconstraint_sql
primarykeycolumnconstraint_sql
uniquecolumnconstraint_sql
createable_sql
clone_sql
describe_sql
heredoc_sql
prepend_ctes
with_sql
cte_sql
tablealias_sql
bitstring_sql
hexstring_sql
bytestring_sql
unicodestring_sql
rawstring_sql
datatypeparam_sql
datatype_sql
directory_sql
delete_sql
drop_sql
except_sql
except_op
fetch_sql
filter_sql
hint_sql
index_sql
identifier_sql
inputoutputformat_sql
national_sql
partition_sql
properties_sql
root_properties
properties
with_properties
locate_properties
property_name
property_sql
likeproperty_sql
fallbackproperty_sql
journalproperty_sql
freespaceproperty_sql
checksumproperty_sql
mergeblockratioproperty_sql
datablocksizeproperty_sql
blockcompressionproperty_sql
isolatedloadingproperty_sql
partitionboundspec_sql
partitionedofproperty_sql
lockingproperty_sql
withdataproperty_sql
withsystemversioningproperty_sql
insert_sql
intersect_sql
intersect_op
introducer_sql
kill_sql
pseudotype_sql
objectidentifier_sql
onconflict_sql
returning_sql
rowformatdelimitedproperty_sql
withtablehint_sql
indextablehint_sql
historicaldata_sql
table_parts
table_sql
tablesample_sql
pivot_sql
version_sql
tuple_sql
update_sql
values_sql
var_sql
into_sql
from_sql
group_sql
having_sql
connect_sql
prior_sql
join_sql
lambda_sql
lateral_op
lateral_sql
limit_sql
offset_sql
setitem_sql
set_sql
pragma_sql
lock_sql
literal_sql
escape_str
loaddata_sql
null_sql
boolean_sql
order_sql
withfill_sql
cluster_sql
distribute_sql
sort_sql
ordered_sql
matchrecognize_sql
query_modifiers
queryoption_sql
after_having_modifiers
after_limit_modifiers
select_sql
schema_sql
schema_columns_sql
star_sql
parameter_sql
sessionparameter_sql
placeholder_sql
subquery_sql
qualify_sql
union_sql
union_op
unnest_sql
prewhere_sql
where_sql
window_sql
partition_by_sql
windowspec_sql
withingroup_sql
between_sql
all_sql
any_sql
exists_sql
case_sql
constraint_sql
nextvaluefor_sql
extract_sql
trim_sql
convert_concat_args
concat_sql
concatws_sql
check_sql
foreignkey_sql
primarykey_sql
if_sql
matchagainst_sql
jsonkeyvalue_sql
jsonpath_sql
json_path_part
formatjson_sql
jsonobject_sql
jsonobjectagg_sql
jsonarray_sql
jsonarrayagg_sql
jsoncolumndef_sql
jsonschema_sql
jsontable_sql
openjsoncolumndef_sql
openjson_sql
in_sql
in_unnest_op
return_sql
reference_sql
anonymous_sql
paren_sql
neg_sql
not_sql
alias_sql
pivotalias_sql
aliases_sql
atindex_sql
attimezone_sql
fromtimezone_sql
add_sql
and_sql
xor_sql
connector_sql
bitwiseand_sql
bitwiseleftshift_sql
bitwisenot_sql
bitwiseor_sql
bitwiserightshift_sql
bitwisexor_sql
cast_sql
currentdate_sql
currenttimestamp_sql
collate_sql
command_sql
comment_sql
mergetreettlaction_sql
mergetreettl_sql
commit_sql
rollback_sql
altercolumn_sql
renametable_sql
renamecolumn_sql
altertable_sql
add_column_sql
droppartition_sql
addconstraint_sql
distinct_sql
ignorenulls_sql
respectnulls_sql
havingmax_sql
intdiv_sql
dpipe_sql
div_sql
overlaps_sql
distance_sql
dot_sql
eq_sql
propertyeq_sql
escape_sql
glob_sql
gt_sql
gte_sql
ilike_sql
ilikeany_sql
is_sql
like_sql
likeany_sql
similarto_sql
lt_sql
lte_sql
mod_sql
mul_sql
neq_sql
nullsafeeq_sql
nullsafeneq_sql
or_sql
slice_sql
sub_sql
trycast_sql
log_sql
use_sql
binary
function_fallback_sql
func
format_args
text_width
format_time
expressions
op_expressions
naked_property
set_operation
tag_sql
token_sql
userdefinedfunction_sql
joinhint_sql
kwarg_sql
when_sql
merge_sql
tochar_sql
dictproperty_sql
dictrange_sql
dictsubproperty_sql
oncluster_sql
clusteredbyproperty_sql
anyvalue_sql
querytransform_sql
indexconstraintoption_sql
checkcolumnconstraint_sql
indexcolumnconstraint_sql
nvl2_sql
comprehension_sql
columnprefix_sql
opclass_sql
predict_sql
forin_sql
refresh_sql
operator_sql
toarray_sql
tsordstotime_sql
tsordstodate_sql
unixdate_sql
lastday_sql
arrayany_sql
partitionrange_sql
truncatetable_sql
convert_sql