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sqlglot.dialects.redshift

  1from __future__ import annotations
  2
  3import typing as t
  4
  5from sqlglot import exp, transforms
  6from sqlglot.dialects.dialect import (
  7    NormalizationStrategy,
  8    concat_to_dpipe_sql,
  9    concat_ws_to_dpipe_sql,
 10    date_delta_sql,
 11    generatedasidentitycolumnconstraint_sql,
 12    json_extract_segments,
 13    no_tablesample_sql,
 14    rename_func,
 15)
 16from sqlglot.dialects.postgres import Postgres
 17from sqlglot.helper import seq_get
 18from sqlglot.tokens import TokenType
 19
 20if t.TYPE_CHECKING:
 21    from sqlglot._typing import E
 22
 23
 24def _build_date_delta(expr_type: t.Type[E]) -> t.Callable[[t.List], E]:
 25    def _builder(args: t.List) -> E:
 26        expr = expr_type(this=seq_get(args, 2), expression=seq_get(args, 1), unit=seq_get(args, 0))
 27        if expr_type is exp.TsOrDsAdd:
 28            expr.set("return_type", exp.DataType.build("TIMESTAMP"))
 29
 30        return expr
 31
 32    return _builder
 33
 34
 35class Redshift(Postgres):
 36    # https://docs.aws.amazon.com/redshift/latest/dg/r_names.html
 37    NORMALIZATION_STRATEGY = NormalizationStrategy.CASE_INSENSITIVE
 38
 39    SUPPORTS_USER_DEFINED_TYPES = False
 40    INDEX_OFFSET = 0
 41
 42    TIME_FORMAT = "'YYYY-MM-DD HH:MI:SS'"
 43    TIME_MAPPING = {
 44        **Postgres.TIME_MAPPING,
 45        "MON": "%b",
 46        "HH": "%H",
 47    }
 48
 49    class Parser(Postgres.Parser):
 50        FUNCTIONS = {
 51            **Postgres.Parser.FUNCTIONS,
 52            "ADD_MONTHS": lambda args: exp.TsOrDsAdd(
 53                this=seq_get(args, 0),
 54                expression=seq_get(args, 1),
 55                unit=exp.var("month"),
 56                return_type=exp.DataType.build("TIMESTAMP"),
 57            ),
 58            "DATEADD": _build_date_delta(exp.TsOrDsAdd),
 59            "DATE_ADD": _build_date_delta(exp.TsOrDsAdd),
 60            "DATEDIFF": _build_date_delta(exp.TsOrDsDiff),
 61            "DATE_DIFF": _build_date_delta(exp.TsOrDsDiff),
 62            "GETDATE": exp.CurrentTimestamp.from_arg_list,
 63            "LISTAGG": exp.GroupConcat.from_arg_list,
 64            "STRTOL": exp.FromBase.from_arg_list,
 65        }
 66
 67        NO_PAREN_FUNCTION_PARSERS = {
 68            **Postgres.Parser.NO_PAREN_FUNCTION_PARSERS,
 69            "APPROXIMATE": lambda self: self._parse_approximate_count(),
 70            "SYSDATE": lambda self: self.expression(exp.CurrentTimestamp, transaction=True),
 71        }
 72
 73        SUPPORTS_IMPLICIT_UNNEST = True
 74
 75        def _parse_table(
 76            self,
 77            schema: bool = False,
 78            joins: bool = False,
 79            alias_tokens: t.Optional[t.Collection[TokenType]] = None,
 80            parse_bracket: bool = False,
 81            is_db_reference: bool = False,
 82        ) -> t.Optional[exp.Expression]:
 83            # Redshift supports UNPIVOTing SUPER objects, e.g. `UNPIVOT foo.obj[0] AS val AT attr`
 84            unpivot = self._match(TokenType.UNPIVOT)
 85            table = super()._parse_table(
 86                schema=schema,
 87                joins=joins,
 88                alias_tokens=alias_tokens,
 89                parse_bracket=parse_bracket,
 90                is_db_reference=is_db_reference,
 91            )
 92
 93            return self.expression(exp.Pivot, this=table, unpivot=True) if unpivot else table
 94
 95        def _parse_types(
 96            self, check_func: bool = False, schema: bool = False, allow_identifiers: bool = True
 97        ) -> t.Optional[exp.Expression]:
 98            this = super()._parse_types(
 99                check_func=check_func, schema=schema, allow_identifiers=allow_identifiers
100            )
101
102            if (
103                isinstance(this, exp.DataType)
104                and this.is_type("varchar")
105                and this.expressions
106                and this.expressions[0].this == exp.column("MAX")
107            ):
108                this.set("expressions", [exp.var("MAX")])
109
110            return this
111
112        def _parse_convert(
113            self, strict: bool, safe: t.Optional[bool] = None
114        ) -> t.Optional[exp.Expression]:
115            to = self._parse_types()
116            self._match(TokenType.COMMA)
117            this = self._parse_bitwise()
118            return self.expression(exp.TryCast, this=this, to=to, safe=safe)
119
120        def _parse_approximate_count(self) -> t.Optional[exp.ApproxDistinct]:
121            index = self._index - 1
122            func = self._parse_function()
123
124            if isinstance(func, exp.Count) and isinstance(func.this, exp.Distinct):
125                return self.expression(exp.ApproxDistinct, this=seq_get(func.this.expressions, 0))
126            self._retreat(index)
127            return None
128
129    class Tokenizer(Postgres.Tokenizer):
130        BIT_STRINGS = []
131        HEX_STRINGS = []
132        STRING_ESCAPES = ["\\", "'"]
133
134        KEYWORDS = {
135            **Postgres.Tokenizer.KEYWORDS,
136            "HLLSKETCH": TokenType.HLLSKETCH,
137            "SUPER": TokenType.SUPER,
138            "TOP": TokenType.TOP,
139            "UNLOAD": TokenType.COMMAND,
140            "VARBYTE": TokenType.VARBINARY,
141        }
142        KEYWORDS.pop("VALUES")
143
144        # Redshift allows # to appear as a table identifier prefix
145        SINGLE_TOKENS = Postgres.Tokenizer.SINGLE_TOKENS.copy()
146        SINGLE_TOKENS.pop("#")
147
148    class Generator(Postgres.Generator):
149        LOCKING_READS_SUPPORTED = False
150        QUERY_HINTS = False
151        VALUES_AS_TABLE = False
152        TZ_TO_WITH_TIME_ZONE = True
153        NVL2_SUPPORTED = True
154        LAST_DAY_SUPPORTS_DATE_PART = False
155        CAN_IMPLEMENT_ARRAY_ANY = False
156
157        TYPE_MAPPING = {
158            **Postgres.Generator.TYPE_MAPPING,
159            exp.DataType.Type.BINARY: "VARBYTE",
160            exp.DataType.Type.INT: "INTEGER",
161            exp.DataType.Type.TIMETZ: "TIME",
162            exp.DataType.Type.TIMESTAMPTZ: "TIMESTAMP",
163            exp.DataType.Type.VARBINARY: "VARBYTE",
164        }
165
166        TRANSFORMS = {
167            **Postgres.Generator.TRANSFORMS,
168            exp.Concat: concat_to_dpipe_sql,
169            exp.ConcatWs: concat_ws_to_dpipe_sql,
170            exp.ApproxDistinct: lambda self,
171            e: f"APPROXIMATE COUNT(DISTINCT {self.sql(e, 'this')})",
172            exp.CurrentTimestamp: lambda self, e: (
173                "SYSDATE" if e.args.get("transaction") else "GETDATE()"
174            ),
175            exp.DateAdd: date_delta_sql("DATEADD"),
176            exp.DateDiff: date_delta_sql("DATEDIFF"),
177            exp.DistKeyProperty: lambda self, e: self.func("DISTKEY", e.this),
178            exp.DistStyleProperty: lambda self, e: self.naked_property(e),
179            exp.FromBase: rename_func("STRTOL"),
180            exp.GeneratedAsIdentityColumnConstraint: generatedasidentitycolumnconstraint_sql,
181            exp.JSONExtract: json_extract_segments("JSON_EXTRACT_PATH_TEXT"),
182            exp.JSONExtractScalar: json_extract_segments("JSON_EXTRACT_PATH_TEXT"),
183            exp.GroupConcat: rename_func("LISTAGG"),
184            exp.ParseJSON: rename_func("JSON_PARSE"),
185            exp.Select: transforms.preprocess(
186                [transforms.eliminate_distinct_on, transforms.eliminate_semi_and_anti_joins]
187            ),
188            exp.SortKeyProperty: lambda self,
189            e: f"{'COMPOUND ' if e.args['compound'] else ''}SORTKEY({self.format_args(*e.this)})",
190            exp.TableSample: no_tablesample_sql,
191            exp.TsOrDsAdd: date_delta_sql("DATEADD"),
192            exp.TsOrDsDiff: date_delta_sql("DATEDIFF"),
193        }
194
195        # Postgres maps exp.Pivot to no_pivot_sql, but Redshift support pivots
196        TRANSFORMS.pop(exp.Pivot)
197
198        # Redshift uses the POW | POWER (expr1, expr2) syntax instead of expr1 ^ expr2 (postgres)
199        TRANSFORMS.pop(exp.Pow)
200
201        # Redshift supports ANY_VALUE(..)
202        TRANSFORMS.pop(exp.AnyValue)
203
204        # Redshift supports LAST_DAY(..)
205        TRANSFORMS.pop(exp.LastDay)
206
207        RESERVED_KEYWORDS = {*Postgres.Generator.RESERVED_KEYWORDS, "snapshot", "type"}
208
209        def unnest_sql(self, expression: exp.Unnest) -> str:
210            args = expression.expressions
211            num_args = len(args)
212
213            if num_args > 1:
214                self.unsupported(f"Unsupported number of arguments in UNNEST: {num_args}")
215                return ""
216
217            arg = self.sql(seq_get(args, 0))
218            alias = self.expressions(expression.args.get("alias"), key="columns")
219            return f"{arg} AS {alias}" if alias else arg
220
221        def with_properties(self, properties: exp.Properties) -> str:
222            """Redshift doesn't have `WITH` as part of their with_properties so we remove it"""
223            return self.properties(properties, prefix=" ", suffix="")
224
225        def cast_sql(self, expression: exp.Cast, safe_prefix: t.Optional[str] = None) -> str:
226            if expression.is_type(exp.DataType.Type.JSON):
227                # Redshift doesn't support a JSON type, so casting to it is treated as a noop
228                return self.sql(expression, "this")
229
230            return super().cast_sql(expression, safe_prefix=safe_prefix)
231
232        def datatype_sql(self, expression: exp.DataType) -> str:
233            """
234            Redshift converts the `TEXT` data type to `VARCHAR(255)` by default when people more generally mean
235            VARCHAR of max length which is `VARCHAR(max)` in Redshift. Therefore if we get a `TEXT` data type
236            without precision we convert it to `VARCHAR(max)` and if it does have precision then we just convert
237            `TEXT` to `VARCHAR`.
238            """
239            if expression.is_type("text"):
240                expression.set("this", exp.DataType.Type.VARCHAR)
241                precision = expression.args.get("expressions")
242
243                if not precision:
244                    expression.append("expressions", exp.var("MAX"))
245
246            return super().datatype_sql(expression)
class Redshift(sqlglot.dialects.postgres.Postgres):
 36class Redshift(Postgres):
 37    # https://docs.aws.amazon.com/redshift/latest/dg/r_names.html
 38    NORMALIZATION_STRATEGY = NormalizationStrategy.CASE_INSENSITIVE
 39
 40    SUPPORTS_USER_DEFINED_TYPES = False
 41    INDEX_OFFSET = 0
 42
 43    TIME_FORMAT = "'YYYY-MM-DD HH:MI:SS'"
 44    TIME_MAPPING = {
 45        **Postgres.TIME_MAPPING,
 46        "MON": "%b",
 47        "HH": "%H",
 48    }
 49
 50    class Parser(Postgres.Parser):
 51        FUNCTIONS = {
 52            **Postgres.Parser.FUNCTIONS,
 53            "ADD_MONTHS": lambda args: exp.TsOrDsAdd(
 54                this=seq_get(args, 0),
 55                expression=seq_get(args, 1),
 56                unit=exp.var("month"),
 57                return_type=exp.DataType.build("TIMESTAMP"),
 58            ),
 59            "DATEADD": _build_date_delta(exp.TsOrDsAdd),
 60            "DATE_ADD": _build_date_delta(exp.TsOrDsAdd),
 61            "DATEDIFF": _build_date_delta(exp.TsOrDsDiff),
 62            "DATE_DIFF": _build_date_delta(exp.TsOrDsDiff),
 63            "GETDATE": exp.CurrentTimestamp.from_arg_list,
 64            "LISTAGG": exp.GroupConcat.from_arg_list,
 65            "STRTOL": exp.FromBase.from_arg_list,
 66        }
 67
 68        NO_PAREN_FUNCTION_PARSERS = {
 69            **Postgres.Parser.NO_PAREN_FUNCTION_PARSERS,
 70            "APPROXIMATE": lambda self: self._parse_approximate_count(),
 71            "SYSDATE": lambda self: self.expression(exp.CurrentTimestamp, transaction=True),
 72        }
 73
 74        SUPPORTS_IMPLICIT_UNNEST = True
 75
 76        def _parse_table(
 77            self,
 78            schema: bool = False,
 79            joins: bool = False,
 80            alias_tokens: t.Optional[t.Collection[TokenType]] = None,
 81            parse_bracket: bool = False,
 82            is_db_reference: bool = False,
 83        ) -> t.Optional[exp.Expression]:
 84            # Redshift supports UNPIVOTing SUPER objects, e.g. `UNPIVOT foo.obj[0] AS val AT attr`
 85            unpivot = self._match(TokenType.UNPIVOT)
 86            table = super()._parse_table(
 87                schema=schema,
 88                joins=joins,
 89                alias_tokens=alias_tokens,
 90                parse_bracket=parse_bracket,
 91                is_db_reference=is_db_reference,
 92            )
 93
 94            return self.expression(exp.Pivot, this=table, unpivot=True) if unpivot else table
 95
 96        def _parse_types(
 97            self, check_func: bool = False, schema: bool = False, allow_identifiers: bool = True
 98        ) -> t.Optional[exp.Expression]:
 99            this = super()._parse_types(
100                check_func=check_func, schema=schema, allow_identifiers=allow_identifiers
101            )
102
103            if (
104                isinstance(this, exp.DataType)
105                and this.is_type("varchar")
106                and this.expressions
107                and this.expressions[0].this == exp.column("MAX")
108            ):
109                this.set("expressions", [exp.var("MAX")])
110
111            return this
112
113        def _parse_convert(
114            self, strict: bool, safe: t.Optional[bool] = None
115        ) -> t.Optional[exp.Expression]:
116            to = self._parse_types()
117            self._match(TokenType.COMMA)
118            this = self._parse_bitwise()
119            return self.expression(exp.TryCast, this=this, to=to, safe=safe)
120
121        def _parse_approximate_count(self) -> t.Optional[exp.ApproxDistinct]:
122            index = self._index - 1
123            func = self._parse_function()
124
125            if isinstance(func, exp.Count) and isinstance(func.this, exp.Distinct):
126                return self.expression(exp.ApproxDistinct, this=seq_get(func.this.expressions, 0))
127            self._retreat(index)
128            return None
129
130    class Tokenizer(Postgres.Tokenizer):
131        BIT_STRINGS = []
132        HEX_STRINGS = []
133        STRING_ESCAPES = ["\\", "'"]
134
135        KEYWORDS = {
136            **Postgres.Tokenizer.KEYWORDS,
137            "HLLSKETCH": TokenType.HLLSKETCH,
138            "SUPER": TokenType.SUPER,
139            "TOP": TokenType.TOP,
140            "UNLOAD": TokenType.COMMAND,
141            "VARBYTE": TokenType.VARBINARY,
142        }
143        KEYWORDS.pop("VALUES")
144
145        # Redshift allows # to appear as a table identifier prefix
146        SINGLE_TOKENS = Postgres.Tokenizer.SINGLE_TOKENS.copy()
147        SINGLE_TOKENS.pop("#")
148
149    class Generator(Postgres.Generator):
150        LOCKING_READS_SUPPORTED = False
151        QUERY_HINTS = False
152        VALUES_AS_TABLE = False
153        TZ_TO_WITH_TIME_ZONE = True
154        NVL2_SUPPORTED = True
155        LAST_DAY_SUPPORTS_DATE_PART = False
156        CAN_IMPLEMENT_ARRAY_ANY = False
157
158        TYPE_MAPPING = {
159            **Postgres.Generator.TYPE_MAPPING,
160            exp.DataType.Type.BINARY: "VARBYTE",
161            exp.DataType.Type.INT: "INTEGER",
162            exp.DataType.Type.TIMETZ: "TIME",
163            exp.DataType.Type.TIMESTAMPTZ: "TIMESTAMP",
164            exp.DataType.Type.VARBINARY: "VARBYTE",
165        }
166
167        TRANSFORMS = {
168            **Postgres.Generator.TRANSFORMS,
169            exp.Concat: concat_to_dpipe_sql,
170            exp.ConcatWs: concat_ws_to_dpipe_sql,
171            exp.ApproxDistinct: lambda self,
172            e: f"APPROXIMATE COUNT(DISTINCT {self.sql(e, 'this')})",
173            exp.CurrentTimestamp: lambda self, e: (
174                "SYSDATE" if e.args.get("transaction") else "GETDATE()"
175            ),
176            exp.DateAdd: date_delta_sql("DATEADD"),
177            exp.DateDiff: date_delta_sql("DATEDIFF"),
178            exp.DistKeyProperty: lambda self, e: self.func("DISTKEY", e.this),
179            exp.DistStyleProperty: lambda self, e: self.naked_property(e),
180            exp.FromBase: rename_func("STRTOL"),
181            exp.GeneratedAsIdentityColumnConstraint: generatedasidentitycolumnconstraint_sql,
182            exp.JSONExtract: json_extract_segments("JSON_EXTRACT_PATH_TEXT"),
183            exp.JSONExtractScalar: json_extract_segments("JSON_EXTRACT_PATH_TEXT"),
184            exp.GroupConcat: rename_func("LISTAGG"),
185            exp.ParseJSON: rename_func("JSON_PARSE"),
186            exp.Select: transforms.preprocess(
187                [transforms.eliminate_distinct_on, transforms.eliminate_semi_and_anti_joins]
188            ),
189            exp.SortKeyProperty: lambda self,
190            e: f"{'COMPOUND ' if e.args['compound'] else ''}SORTKEY({self.format_args(*e.this)})",
191            exp.TableSample: no_tablesample_sql,
192            exp.TsOrDsAdd: date_delta_sql("DATEADD"),
193            exp.TsOrDsDiff: date_delta_sql("DATEDIFF"),
194        }
195
196        # Postgres maps exp.Pivot to no_pivot_sql, but Redshift support pivots
197        TRANSFORMS.pop(exp.Pivot)
198
199        # Redshift uses the POW | POWER (expr1, expr2) syntax instead of expr1 ^ expr2 (postgres)
200        TRANSFORMS.pop(exp.Pow)
201
202        # Redshift supports ANY_VALUE(..)
203        TRANSFORMS.pop(exp.AnyValue)
204
205        # Redshift supports LAST_DAY(..)
206        TRANSFORMS.pop(exp.LastDay)
207
208        RESERVED_KEYWORDS = {*Postgres.Generator.RESERVED_KEYWORDS, "snapshot", "type"}
209
210        def unnest_sql(self, expression: exp.Unnest) -> str:
211            args = expression.expressions
212            num_args = len(args)
213
214            if num_args > 1:
215                self.unsupported(f"Unsupported number of arguments in UNNEST: {num_args}")
216                return ""
217
218            arg = self.sql(seq_get(args, 0))
219            alias = self.expressions(expression.args.get("alias"), key="columns")
220            return f"{arg} AS {alias}" if alias else arg
221
222        def with_properties(self, properties: exp.Properties) -> str:
223            """Redshift doesn't have `WITH` as part of their with_properties so we remove it"""
224            return self.properties(properties, prefix=" ", suffix="")
225
226        def cast_sql(self, expression: exp.Cast, safe_prefix: t.Optional[str] = None) -> str:
227            if expression.is_type(exp.DataType.Type.JSON):
228                # Redshift doesn't support a JSON type, so casting to it is treated as a noop
229                return self.sql(expression, "this")
230
231            return super().cast_sql(expression, safe_prefix=safe_prefix)
232
233        def datatype_sql(self, expression: exp.DataType) -> str:
234            """
235            Redshift converts the `TEXT` data type to `VARCHAR(255)` by default when people more generally mean
236            VARCHAR of max length which is `VARCHAR(max)` in Redshift. Therefore if we get a `TEXT` data type
237            without precision we convert it to `VARCHAR(max)` and if it does have precision then we just convert
238            `TEXT` to `VARCHAR`.
239            """
240            if expression.is_type("text"):
241                expression.set("this", exp.DataType.Type.VARCHAR)
242                precision = expression.args.get("expressions")
243
244                if not precision:
245                    expression.append("expressions", exp.var("MAX"))
246
247            return super().datatype_sql(expression)
NORMALIZATION_STRATEGY = <NormalizationStrategy.CASE_INSENSITIVE: 'CASE_INSENSITIVE'>

Specifies the strategy according to which identifiers should be normalized.

SUPPORTS_USER_DEFINED_TYPES = False

Whether user-defined data types are supported.

INDEX_OFFSET = 0

The base index offset for arrays.

TIME_FORMAT = "'YYYY-MM-DD HH:MI:SS'"
TIME_MAPPING: Dict[str, str] = {'AM': '%p', 'PM': '%p', 'D': '%u', 'DD': '%d', 'DDD': '%j', 'FMDD': '%-d', 'FMDDD': '%-j', 'FMHH12': '%-I', 'FMHH24': '%-H', 'FMMI': '%-M', 'FMMM': '%-m', 'FMSS': '%-S', 'HH12': '%I', 'HH24': '%H', 'MI': '%M', 'MM': '%m', 'OF': '%z', 'SS': '%S', 'TMDay': '%A', 'TMDy': '%a', 'TMMon': '%b', 'TMMonth': '%B', 'TZ': '%Z', 'US': '%f', 'WW': '%U', 'YY': '%y', 'YYYY': '%Y', 'MON': '%b', 'HH': '%H'}

Associates this dialect's time formats with their equivalent Python strftime formats.

tokenizer_class = <class 'Redshift.Tokenizer'>
parser_class = <class 'Redshift.Parser'>
generator_class = <class 'Redshift.Generator'>
TIME_TRIE: Dict = {'A': {'M': {0: True}}, 'P': {'M': {0: True}}, 'D': {0: True, 'D': {0: True, 'D': {0: True}}}, 'F': {'M': {'D': {'D': {0: True, 'D': {0: True}}}, 'H': {'H': {'1': {'2': {0: True}}, '2': {'4': {0: True}}}}, 'M': {'I': {0: True}, 'M': {0: True}}, 'S': {'S': {0: True}}}}, 'H': {'H': {'1': {'2': {0: True}}, '2': {'4': {0: True}}, 0: True}}, 'M': {'I': {0: True}, 'M': {0: True}, 'O': {'N': {0: True}}}, 'O': {'F': {0: True}}, 'S': {'S': {0: True}}, 'T': {'M': {'D': {'a': {'y': {0: True}}, 'y': {0: True}}, 'M': {'o': {'n': {0: True, 't': {'h': {0: True}}}}}}, 'Z': {0: True}}, 'U': {'S': {0: True}}, 'W': {'W': {0: True}}, 'Y': {'Y': {0: True, 'Y': {'Y': {0: True}}}}}
FORMAT_TRIE: Dict = {'A': {'M': {0: True}}, 'P': {'M': {0: True}}, 'D': {0: True, 'D': {0: True, 'D': {0: True}}}, 'F': {'M': {'D': {'D': {0: True, 'D': {0: True}}}, 'H': {'H': {'1': {'2': {0: True}}, '2': {'4': {0: True}}}}, 'M': {'I': {0: True}, 'M': {0: True}}, 'S': {'S': {0: True}}}}, 'H': {'H': {'1': {'2': {0: True}}, '2': {'4': {0: True}}, 0: True}}, 'M': {'I': {0: True}, 'M': {0: True}, 'O': {'N': {0: True}}}, 'O': {'F': {0: True}}, 'S': {'S': {0: True}}, 'T': {'M': {'D': {'a': {'y': {0: True}}, 'y': {0: True}}, 'M': {'o': {'n': {0: True, 't': {'h': {0: True}}}}}}, 'Z': {0: True}}, 'U': {'S': {0: True}}, 'W': {'W': {0: True}}, 'Y': {'Y': {0: True, 'Y': {'Y': {0: True}}}}}
INVERSE_TIME_MAPPING: Dict[str, str] = {'%p': 'PM', '%u': 'D', '%d': 'DD', '%j': 'DDD', '%-d': 'FMDD', '%-j': 'FMDDD', '%-I': 'FMHH12', '%-H': 'FMHH24', '%-M': 'FMMI', '%-m': 'FMMM', '%-S': 'FMSS', '%I': 'HH12', '%H': 'HH', '%M': 'MI', '%m': 'MM', '%z': 'OF', '%S': 'SS', '%A': 'TMDay', '%a': 'TMDy', '%b': 'MON', '%B': 'TMMonth', '%Z': 'TZ', '%f': 'US', '%U': 'WW', '%y': 'YY', '%Y': 'YYYY'}
INVERSE_TIME_TRIE: Dict = {'%': {'p': {0: True}, 'u': {0: True}, 'd': {0: True}, 'j': {0: True}, '-': {'d': {0: True}, 'j': {0: True}, 'I': {0: True}, 'H': {0: True}, 'M': {0: True}, 'm': {0: True}, 'S': {0: True}}, 'I': {0: True}, 'H': {0: True}, 'M': {0: True}, 'm': {0: True}, 'z': {0: True}, 'S': {0: True}, 'A': {0: True}, 'a': {0: True}, 'b': {0: True}, 'B': {0: True}, 'Z': {0: True}, 'f': {0: True}, 'U': {0: True}, 'y': {0: True}, 'Y': {0: True}}}
INVERSE_ESCAPE_SEQUENCES: Dict[str, str] = {}
QUOTE_START = "'"
QUOTE_END = "'"
IDENTIFIER_START = '"'
IDENTIFIER_END = '"'
BIT_START: Optional[str] = None
BIT_END: Optional[str] = None
HEX_START: Optional[str] = None
HEX_END: Optional[str] = None
BYTE_START: Optional[str] = "e'"
BYTE_END: Optional[str] = "'"
UNICODE_START: Optional[str] = None
UNICODE_END: Optional[str] = None
class Redshift.Parser(sqlglot.dialects.postgres.Postgres.Parser):
 50    class Parser(Postgres.Parser):
 51        FUNCTIONS = {
 52            **Postgres.Parser.FUNCTIONS,
 53            "ADD_MONTHS": lambda args: exp.TsOrDsAdd(
 54                this=seq_get(args, 0),
 55                expression=seq_get(args, 1),
 56                unit=exp.var("month"),
 57                return_type=exp.DataType.build("TIMESTAMP"),
 58            ),
 59            "DATEADD": _build_date_delta(exp.TsOrDsAdd),
 60            "DATE_ADD": _build_date_delta(exp.TsOrDsAdd),
 61            "DATEDIFF": _build_date_delta(exp.TsOrDsDiff),
 62            "DATE_DIFF": _build_date_delta(exp.TsOrDsDiff),
 63            "GETDATE": exp.CurrentTimestamp.from_arg_list,
 64            "LISTAGG": exp.GroupConcat.from_arg_list,
 65            "STRTOL": exp.FromBase.from_arg_list,
 66        }
 67
 68        NO_PAREN_FUNCTION_PARSERS = {
 69            **Postgres.Parser.NO_PAREN_FUNCTION_PARSERS,
 70            "APPROXIMATE": lambda self: self._parse_approximate_count(),
 71            "SYSDATE": lambda self: self.expression(exp.CurrentTimestamp, transaction=True),
 72        }
 73
 74        SUPPORTS_IMPLICIT_UNNEST = True
 75
 76        def _parse_table(
 77            self,
 78            schema: bool = False,
 79            joins: bool = False,
 80            alias_tokens: t.Optional[t.Collection[TokenType]] = None,
 81            parse_bracket: bool = False,
 82            is_db_reference: bool = False,
 83        ) -> t.Optional[exp.Expression]:
 84            # Redshift supports UNPIVOTing SUPER objects, e.g. `UNPIVOT foo.obj[0] AS val AT attr`
 85            unpivot = self._match(TokenType.UNPIVOT)
 86            table = super()._parse_table(
 87                schema=schema,
 88                joins=joins,
 89                alias_tokens=alias_tokens,
 90                parse_bracket=parse_bracket,
 91                is_db_reference=is_db_reference,
 92            )
 93
 94            return self.expression(exp.Pivot, this=table, unpivot=True) if unpivot else table
 95
 96        def _parse_types(
 97            self, check_func: bool = False, schema: bool = False, allow_identifiers: bool = True
 98        ) -> t.Optional[exp.Expression]:
 99            this = super()._parse_types(
100                check_func=check_func, schema=schema, allow_identifiers=allow_identifiers
101            )
102
103            if (
104                isinstance(this, exp.DataType)
105                and this.is_type("varchar")
106                and this.expressions
107                and this.expressions[0].this == exp.column("MAX")
108            ):
109                this.set("expressions", [exp.var("MAX")])
110
111            return this
112
113        def _parse_convert(
114            self, strict: bool, safe: t.Optional[bool] = None
115        ) -> t.Optional[exp.Expression]:
116            to = self._parse_types()
117            self._match(TokenType.COMMA)
118            this = self._parse_bitwise()
119            return self.expression(exp.TryCast, this=this, to=to, safe=safe)
120
121        def _parse_approximate_count(self) -> t.Optional[exp.ApproxDistinct]:
122            index = self._index - 1
123            func = self._parse_function()
124
125            if isinstance(func, exp.Count) and isinstance(func.this, exp.Distinct):
126                return self.expression(exp.ApproxDistinct, this=seq_get(func.this.expressions, 0))
127            self._retreat(index)
128            return None

Parser consumes a list of tokens produced by the Tokenizer and produces a parsed syntax tree.

Arguments:
  • error_level: The desired error level. Default: ErrorLevel.IMMEDIATE
  • error_message_context: The amount of context to capture from a query string when displaying the error message (in number of characters). Default: 100
  • max_errors: Maximum number of error messages to include in a raised ParseError. This is only relevant if error_level is ErrorLevel.RAISE. Default: 3
FUNCTIONS = {'ABS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Abs'>>, 'ADD_MONTHS': <function Redshift.Parser.<lambda>>, 'ANONYMOUS_AGG_FUNC': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.AnonymousAggFunc'>>, 'ANY_VALUE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.AnyValue'>>, 'APPROX_DISTINCT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ApproxDistinct'>>, 'APPROX_COUNT_DISTINCT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ApproxDistinct'>>, 'APPROX_QUANTILE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ApproxQuantile'>>, 'APPROX_TOP_K': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ApproxTopK'>>, 'ARG_MAX': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArgMax'>>, 'ARGMAX': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArgMax'>>, 'MAX_BY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArgMax'>>, 'ARG_MIN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArgMin'>>, 'ARGMIN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArgMin'>>, 'MIN_BY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArgMin'>>, 'ARRAY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Array'>>, 'ARRAY_AGG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayAgg'>>, 'ARRAY_ALL': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayAll'>>, 'ARRAY_ANY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayAny'>>, 'ARRAY_CONCAT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayConcat'>>, 'ARRAY_CAT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayConcat'>>, 'ARRAY_CONTAINS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayContains'>>, 'FILTER': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayFilter'>>, 'ARRAY_FILTER': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayFilter'>>, 'ARRAY_JOIN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayJoin'>>, 'ARRAY_OVERLAPS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayOverlaps'>>, 'ARRAY_SIZE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArraySize'>>, 'ARRAY_LENGTH': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArraySize'>>, 'ARRAY_SORT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArraySort'>>, 'ARRAY_SUM': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArraySum'>>, 'ARRAY_UNION_AGG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayUnionAgg'>>, 'ARRAY_UNIQUE_AGG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayUniqueAgg'>>, 'AVG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Avg'>>, 'CASE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Case'>>, 'CAST': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Cast'>>, 'CAST_TO_STR_TYPE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CastToStrType'>>, 'CBRT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Cbrt'>>, 'CEIL': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Ceil'>>, 'CEILING': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Ceil'>>, 'CHR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Chr'>>, 'CHAR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Chr'>>, 'COALESCE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Coalesce'>>, 'IFNULL': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Coalesce'>>, 'NVL': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Coalesce'>>, 'COLLATE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Collate'>>, 'COMBINED_AGG_FUNC': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CombinedAggFunc'>>, 'COMBINED_PARAMETERIZED_AGG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CombinedParameterizedAgg'>>, 'CONCAT': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'CONCAT_WS': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'CONNECT_BY_ROOT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ConnectByRoot'>>, 'CONVERT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Convert'>>, 'COUNT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Count'>>, 'COUNT_IF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CountIf'>>, 'COUNTIF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CountIf'>>, 'CURRENT_DATE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CurrentDate'>>, 'CURRENT_DATETIME': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CurrentDatetime'>>, 'CURRENT_TIME': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CurrentTime'>>, 'CURRENT_TIMESTAMP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CurrentTimestamp'>>, 'CURRENT_USER': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CurrentUser'>>, 'DATE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Date'>>, 'DATE_ADD': <function _build_date_delta.<locals>._builder>, 'DATEDIFF': <function _build_date_delta.<locals>._builder>, 'DATE_DIFF': <function _build_date_delta.<locals>._builder>, 'DATE_FROM_PARTS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateFromParts'>>, 'DATEFROMPARTS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateFromParts'>>, 'DATE_STR_TO_DATE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateStrToDate'>>, 'DATE_SUB': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateSub'>>, 'DATE_TO_DATE_STR': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'DATE_TO_DI': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateToDi'>>, 'DATE_TRUNC': <function build_timestamp_trunc>, 'DATETIME_ADD': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DatetimeAdd'>>, 'DATETIME_DIFF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DatetimeDiff'>>, 'DATETIME_SUB': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DatetimeSub'>>, 'DATETIME_TRUNC': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DatetimeTrunc'>>, 'DAY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Day'>>, 'DAY_OF_MONTH': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DayOfMonth'>>, 'DAYOFMONTH': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DayOfMonth'>>, 'DAY_OF_WEEK': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DayOfWeek'>>, 'DAYOFWEEK': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DayOfWeek'>>, 'DAY_OF_YEAR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DayOfYear'>>, 'DAYOFYEAR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DayOfYear'>>, 'DECODE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Decode'>>, 'DI_TO_DATE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DiToDate'>>, 'ENCODE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Encode'>>, 'EXP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Exp'>>, 'EXPLODE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Explode'>>, 'EXPLODE_OUTER': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ExplodeOuter'>>, 'EXTRACT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Extract'>>, 'FIRST': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.First'>>, 'FIRST_VALUE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.FirstValue'>>, 'FLATTEN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Flatten'>>, 'FLOOR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Floor'>>, 'FROM_BASE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.FromBase'>>, 'FROM_BASE64': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.FromBase64'>>, 'GENERATE_SERIES': <function _build_generate_series>, 'GREATEST': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Greatest'>>, 'GROUP_CONCAT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.GroupConcat'>>, 'HEX': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Hex'>>, 'HLL': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Hll'>>, 'IF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.If'>>, 'IIF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.If'>>, 'INITCAP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Initcap'>>, 'IS_INF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.IsInf'>>, 'ISINF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.IsInf'>>, 'IS_NAN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.IsNan'>>, 'ISNAN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.IsNan'>>, 'J_S_O_N_ARRAY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONArray'>>, 'J_S_O_N_ARRAY_AGG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONArrayAgg'>>, 'JSON_ARRAY_CONTAINS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONArrayContains'>>, 'JSONB_EXTRACT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONBExtract'>>, 'JSONB_EXTRACT_SCALAR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONBExtractScalar'>>, 'JSON_EXTRACT': <function build_extract_json_with_path.<locals>._builder>, 'JSON_EXTRACT_SCALAR': <function build_extract_json_with_path.<locals>._builder>, 'JSON_FORMAT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONFormat'>>, 'J_S_O_N_OBJECT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONObject'>>, 'J_S_O_N_OBJECT_AGG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONObjectAgg'>>, 'J_S_O_N_TABLE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONTable'>>, 'LAG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Lag'>>, 'LAST': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Last'>>, 'LAST_DAY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LastDay'>>, 'LAST_DAY_OF_MONTH': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LastDay'>>, 'LAST_VALUE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LastValue'>>, 'LEAD': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Lead'>>, 'LEAST': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Least'>>, 'LEFT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Left'>>, 'LENGTH': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Length'>>, 'LEN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Length'>>, 'LEVENSHTEIN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Levenshtein'>>, 'LN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Ln'>>, 'LOG': <function build_logarithm>, 'LOG10': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Log10'>>, 'LOG2': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Log2'>>, 'LOGICAL_AND': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LogicalAnd'>>, 'BOOL_AND': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LogicalAnd'>>, 'BOOLAND_AGG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LogicalAnd'>>, 'LOGICAL_OR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LogicalOr'>>, 'BOOL_OR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LogicalOr'>>, 'BOOLOR_AGG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LogicalOr'>>, 'LOWER': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Lower'>>, 'LCASE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Lower'>>, 'MD5': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.MD5'>>, 'MD5_DIGEST': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.MD5Digest'>>, 'MAP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Map'>>, 'MAP_FROM_ENTRIES': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.MapFromEntries'>>, 'MATCH_AGAINST': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.MatchAgainst'>>, 'MAX': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Max'>>, 'MIN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Min'>>, 'MONTH': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Month'>>, 'MONTHS_BETWEEN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.MonthsBetween'>>, 'NEXT_VALUE_FOR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.NextValueFor'>>, 'NTH_VALUE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.NthValue'>>, 'NULLIF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Nullif'>>, 'NUMBER_TO_STR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.NumberToStr'>>, 'NVL2': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Nvl2'>>, 'OPEN_J_S_O_N': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.OpenJSON'>>, 'PARAMETERIZED_AGG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ParameterizedAgg'>>, 'PARSE_JSON': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ParseJSON'>>, 'JSON_PARSE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ParseJSON'>>, 'PERCENTILE_CONT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.PercentileCont'>>, 'PERCENTILE_DISC': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.PercentileDisc'>>, 'POSEXPLODE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Posexplode'>>, 'POSEXPLODE_OUTER': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.PosexplodeOuter'>>, 'POWER': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Pow'>>, 'POW': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Pow'>>, 'PREDICT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Predict'>>, 'QUANTILE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Quantile'>>, 'RAND': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Rand'>>, 'RANDOM': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Rand'>>, 'RANDN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Randn'>>, 'RANGE_N': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RangeN'>>, 'READ_CSV': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ReadCSV'>>, 'REDUCE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Reduce'>>, 'REGEXP_EXTRACT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RegexpExtract'>>, 'REGEXP_I_LIKE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RegexpILike'>>, 'REGEXP_LIKE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RegexpLike'>>, 'REGEXP_REPLACE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RegexpReplace'>>, 'REGEXP_SPLIT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RegexpSplit'>>, 'REPEAT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Repeat'>>, 'RIGHT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Right'>>, 'ROUND': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Round'>>, 'ROW_NUMBER': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RowNumber'>>, 'SHA': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SHA'>>, 'SHA1': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SHA'>>, 'SHA2': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SHA2'>>, 'SAFE_DIVIDE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SafeDivide'>>, 'SIGN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Sign'>>, 'SIGNUM': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Sign'>>, 'SORT_ARRAY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SortArray'>>, 'SPLIT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Split'>>, 'SQRT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Sqrt'>>, 'STANDARD_HASH': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StandardHash'>>, 'STAR_MAP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StarMap'>>, 'STARTS_WITH': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StartsWith'>>, 'STARTSWITH': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StartsWith'>>, 'STDDEV': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Stddev'>>, 'STDDEV_POP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StddevPop'>>, 'STDDEV_SAMP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StddevSamp'>>, 'STR_POSITION': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StrPosition'>>, 'STR_TO_DATE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StrToDate'>>, 'STR_TO_MAP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StrToMap'>>, 'STR_TO_TIME': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StrToTime'>>, 'STR_TO_UNIX': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StrToUnix'>>, 'STRUCT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Struct'>>, 'STRUCT_EXTRACT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StructExtract'>>, 'STUFF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Stuff'>>, 'INSERT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Stuff'>>, 'SUBSTRING': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Substring'>>, 'SUM': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Sum'>>, 'TIME_ADD': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeAdd'>>, 'TIME_DIFF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeDiff'>>, 'TIME_FROM_PARTS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeFromParts'>>, 'TIMEFROMPARTS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeFromParts'>>, 'TIME_STR_TO_DATE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeStrToDate'>>, 'TIME_STR_TO_TIME': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeStrToTime'>>, 'TIME_STR_TO_UNIX': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeStrToUnix'>>, 'TIME_SUB': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeSub'>>, 'TIME_TO_STR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeToStr'>>, 'TIME_TO_TIME_STR': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'TIME_TO_UNIX': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeToUnix'>>, 'TIME_TRUNC': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeTrunc'>>, 'TIMESTAMP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Timestamp'>>, 'TIMESTAMP_ADD': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimestampAdd'>>, 'TIMESTAMPDIFF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimestampDiff'>>, 'TIMESTAMP_DIFF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimestampDiff'>>, 'TIMESTAMP_FROM_PARTS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimestampFromParts'>>, 'TIMESTAMPFROMPARTS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimestampFromParts'>>, 'TIMESTAMP_SUB': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimestampSub'>>, 'TIMESTAMP_TRUNC': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimestampTrunc'>>, 'TO_ARRAY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ToArray'>>, 'TO_BASE64': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ToBase64'>>, 'TO_CHAR': <function build_formatted_time.<locals>._builder>, 'TO_DAYS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ToDays'>>, 'TRANSFORM': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Transform'>>, 'TRIM': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Trim'>>, 'TRY_CAST': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TryCast'>>, 'TS_OR_DI_TO_DI': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TsOrDiToDi'>>, 'TS_OR_DS_ADD': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TsOrDsAdd'>>, 'TS_OR_DS_DIFF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TsOrDsDiff'>>, 'TS_OR_DS_TO_DATE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TsOrDsToDate'>>, 'TS_OR_DS_TO_DATE_STR': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'TS_OR_DS_TO_TIME': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TsOrDsToTime'>>, 'UNHEX': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Unhex'>>, 'UNIX_DATE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.UnixDate'>>, 'UNIX_TO_STR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.UnixToStr'>>, 'UNIX_TO_TIME': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.UnixToTime'>>, 'UNIX_TO_TIME_STR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.UnixToTimeStr'>>, 'UPPER': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Upper'>>, 'UCASE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Upper'>>, 'VAR_MAP': <function build_var_map>, 'VARIANCE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Variance'>>, 'VARIANCE_SAMP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Variance'>>, 'VAR_SAMP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Variance'>>, 'VARIANCE_POP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.VariancePop'>>, 'VAR_POP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.VariancePop'>>, 'WEEK': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Week'>>, 'WEEK_OF_YEAR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.WeekOfYear'>>, 'WEEKOFYEAR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.WeekOfYear'>>, 'WHEN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.When'>>, 'X_M_L_TABLE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.XMLTable'>>, 'XOR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Xor'>>, 'YEAR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Year'>>, 'GLOB': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'JSON_EXTRACT_PATH_TEXT': <function build_json_extract_path.<locals>._builder>, 'LIKE': <function build_like>, 'JSON_EXTRACT_PATH': <function build_json_extract_path.<locals>._builder>, 'MAKE_TIME': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeFromParts'>>, 'MAKE_TIMESTAMP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimestampFromParts'>>, 'NOW': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CurrentTimestamp'>>, 'TO_TIMESTAMP': <function _build_to_timestamp>, 'UNNEST': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Explode'>>, 'DATEADD': <function _build_date_delta.<locals>._builder>, 'GETDATE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CurrentTimestamp'>>, 'LISTAGG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.GroupConcat'>>, 'STRTOL': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.FromBase'>>}
NO_PAREN_FUNCTION_PARSERS = {'ANY': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'CASE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'IF': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'NEXT': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'APPROXIMATE': <function Redshift.Parser.<lambda>>, 'SYSDATE': <function Redshift.Parser.<lambda>>}
SUPPORTS_IMPLICIT_UNNEST = True
SHOW_TRIE: Dict = {}
SET_TRIE: Dict = {'GLOBAL': {0: True}, 'LOCAL': {0: True}, 'SESSION': {0: True}, 'TRANSACTION': {0: True}}
Inherited Members
sqlglot.parser.Parser
Parser
NO_PAREN_FUNCTIONS
STRUCT_TYPE_TOKENS
NESTED_TYPE_TOKENS
ENUM_TYPE_TOKENS
AGGREGATE_TYPE_TOKENS
TYPE_TOKENS
SIGNED_TO_UNSIGNED_TYPE_TOKEN
SUBQUERY_PREDICATES
RESERVED_TOKENS
DB_CREATABLES
CREATABLES
ID_VAR_TOKENS
INTERVAL_VARS
TABLE_ALIAS_TOKENS
COMMENT_TABLE_ALIAS_TOKENS
UPDATE_ALIAS_TOKENS
TRIM_TYPES
FUNC_TOKENS
CONJUNCTION
EQUALITY
COMPARISON
TERM
FACTOR
TIMES
TIMESTAMPS
SET_OPERATIONS
JOIN_METHODS
JOIN_SIDES
JOIN_KINDS
JOIN_HINTS
LAMBDAS
COLUMN_OPERATORS
EXPRESSION_PARSERS
UNARY_PARSERS
STRING_PARSERS
NUMERIC_PARSERS
PRIMARY_PARSERS
PLACEHOLDER_PARSERS
CONSTRAINT_PARSERS
ALTER_PARSERS
SCHEMA_UNNAMED_CONSTRAINTS
INVALID_FUNC_NAME_TOKENS
FUNCTIONS_WITH_ALIASED_ARGS
KEY_VALUE_DEFINITIONS
QUERY_MODIFIER_PARSERS
SET_PARSERS
SHOW_PARSERS
TYPE_LITERAL_PARSERS
DDL_SELECT_TOKENS
PRE_VOLATILE_TOKENS
TRANSACTION_KIND
TRANSACTION_CHARACTERISTICS
USABLES
INSERT_ALTERNATIVES
CLONE_KEYWORDS
HISTORICAL_DATA_KIND
OPCLASS_FOLLOW_KEYWORDS
OPTYPE_FOLLOW_TOKENS
TABLE_INDEX_HINT_TOKENS
WINDOW_ALIAS_TOKENS
WINDOW_BEFORE_PAREN_TOKENS
WINDOW_SIDES
JSON_KEY_VALUE_SEPARATOR_TOKENS
FETCH_TOKENS
ADD_CONSTRAINT_TOKENS
DISTINCT_TOKENS
NULL_TOKENS
UNNEST_OFFSET_ALIAS_TOKENS
STRICT_CAST
PREFIXED_PIVOT_COLUMNS
IDENTIFY_PIVOT_STRINGS
LOG_DEFAULTS_TO_LN
ALTER_TABLE_ADD_REQUIRED_FOR_EACH_COLUMN
TABLESAMPLE_CSV
SET_REQUIRES_ASSIGNMENT_DELIMITER
TRIM_PATTERN_FIRST
STRING_ALIASES
MODIFIERS_ATTACHED_TO_UNION
UNION_MODIFIERS
NO_PAREN_IF_COMMANDS
VALUES_FOLLOWED_BY_PAREN
error_level
error_message_context
max_errors
dialect
reset
parse
parse_into
check_errors
raise_error
expression
validate_expression
errors
sql
sqlglot.dialects.postgres.Postgres.Parser
PROPERTY_PARSERS
FUNCTION_PARSERS
BITWISE
EXPONENT
RANGE_PARSERS
STATEMENT_PARSERS
JSON_ARROWS_REQUIRE_JSON_TYPE
class Redshift.Tokenizer(sqlglot.dialects.postgres.Postgres.Tokenizer):
130    class Tokenizer(Postgres.Tokenizer):
131        BIT_STRINGS = []
132        HEX_STRINGS = []
133        STRING_ESCAPES = ["\\", "'"]
134
135        KEYWORDS = {
136            **Postgres.Tokenizer.KEYWORDS,
137            "HLLSKETCH": TokenType.HLLSKETCH,
138            "SUPER": TokenType.SUPER,
139            "TOP": TokenType.TOP,
140            "UNLOAD": TokenType.COMMAND,
141            "VARBYTE": TokenType.VARBINARY,
142        }
143        KEYWORDS.pop("VALUES")
144
145        # Redshift allows # to appear as a table identifier prefix
146        SINGLE_TOKENS = Postgres.Tokenizer.SINGLE_TOKENS.copy()
147        SINGLE_TOKENS.pop("#")
BIT_STRINGS = []
HEX_STRINGS = []
STRING_ESCAPES = ['\\', "'"]
KEYWORDS = {'{%': <TokenType.BLOCK_START: 'BLOCK_START'>, '{%+': <TokenType.BLOCK_START: 'BLOCK_START'>, '{%-': <TokenType.BLOCK_START: 'BLOCK_START'>, '%}': <TokenType.BLOCK_END: 'BLOCK_END'>, '+%}': <TokenType.BLOCK_END: 'BLOCK_END'>, '-%}': <TokenType.BLOCK_END: 'BLOCK_END'>, '{{+': <TokenType.BLOCK_START: 'BLOCK_START'>, '{{-': <TokenType.BLOCK_START: 'BLOCK_START'>, '+}}': <TokenType.BLOCK_END: 'BLOCK_END'>, '-}}': <TokenType.BLOCK_END: 'BLOCK_END'>, '/*+': <TokenType.HINT: 'HINT'>, '==': <TokenType.EQ: 'EQ'>, '::': <TokenType.DCOLON: 'DCOLON'>, '||': <TokenType.DPIPE: 'DPIPE'>, '>=': <TokenType.GTE: 'GTE'>, '<=': <TokenType.LTE: 'LTE'>, '<>': <TokenType.NEQ: 'NEQ'>, '!=': <TokenType.NEQ: 'NEQ'>, ':=': <TokenType.COLON_EQ: 'COLON_EQ'>, '<=>': <TokenType.NULLSAFE_EQ: 'NULLSAFE_EQ'>, '->': <TokenType.ARROW: 'ARROW'>, '->>': <TokenType.DARROW: 'DARROW'>, '=>': <TokenType.FARROW: 'FARROW'>, '#>': <TokenType.HASH_ARROW: 'HASH_ARROW'>, '#>>': <TokenType.DHASH_ARROW: 'DHASH_ARROW'>, '<->': <TokenType.LR_ARROW: 'LR_ARROW'>, '&&': <TokenType.DAMP: 'DAMP'>, '??': <TokenType.DQMARK: 'DQMARK'>, 'ALL': <TokenType.ALL: 'ALL'>, 'ALWAYS': <TokenType.ALWAYS: 'ALWAYS'>, 'AND': <TokenType.AND: 'AND'>, 'ANTI': <TokenType.ANTI: 'ANTI'>, 'ANY': <TokenType.ANY: 'ANY'>, 'ASC': <TokenType.ASC: 'ASC'>, 'AS': <TokenType.ALIAS: 'ALIAS'>, 'ASOF': <TokenType.ASOF: 'ASOF'>, 'AUTOINCREMENT': <TokenType.AUTO_INCREMENT: 'AUTO_INCREMENT'>, 'AUTO_INCREMENT': <TokenType.AUTO_INCREMENT: 'AUTO_INCREMENT'>, 'BEGIN': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'BETWEEN': <TokenType.BETWEEN: 'BETWEEN'>, 'CACHE': <TokenType.CACHE: 'CACHE'>, 'UNCACHE': <TokenType.UNCACHE: 'UNCACHE'>, 'CASE': <TokenType.CASE: 'CASE'>, 'CHARACTER SET': <TokenType.CHARACTER_SET: 'CHARACTER_SET'>, 'CLUSTER BY': <TokenType.CLUSTER_BY: 'CLUSTER_BY'>, 'COLLATE': <TokenType.COLLATE: 'COLLATE'>, 'COLUMN': <TokenType.COLUMN: 'COLUMN'>, 'COMMIT': <TokenType.COMMIT: 'COMMIT'>, 'CONNECT BY': <TokenType.CONNECT_BY: 'CONNECT_BY'>, 'CONSTRAINT': <TokenType.CONSTRAINT: 'CONSTRAINT'>, 'CREATE': <TokenType.CREATE: 'CREATE'>, 'CROSS': <TokenType.CROSS: 'CROSS'>, 'CUBE': <TokenType.CUBE: 'CUBE'>, 'CURRENT_DATE': <TokenType.CURRENT_DATE: 'CURRENT_DATE'>, 'CURRENT_TIME': <TokenType.CURRENT_TIME: 'CURRENT_TIME'>, 'CURRENT_TIMESTAMP': <TokenType.CURRENT_TIMESTAMP: 'CURRENT_TIMESTAMP'>, 'CURRENT_USER': <TokenType.CURRENT_USER: 'CURRENT_USER'>, 'DATABASE': <TokenType.DATABASE: 'DATABASE'>, 'DEFAULT': <TokenType.DEFAULT: 'DEFAULT'>, 'DELETE': <TokenType.DELETE: 'DELETE'>, 'DESC': <TokenType.DESC: 'DESC'>, 'DESCRIBE': <TokenType.DESCRIBE: 'DESCRIBE'>, 'DISTINCT': <TokenType.DISTINCT: 'DISTINCT'>, 'DISTRIBUTE BY': <TokenType.DISTRIBUTE_BY: 'DISTRIBUTE_BY'>, 'DIV': <TokenType.DIV: 'DIV'>, 'DROP': <TokenType.DROP: 'DROP'>, 'ELSE': <TokenType.ELSE: 'ELSE'>, 'END': <TokenType.END: 'END'>, 'ENUM': <TokenType.ENUM: 'ENUM'>, 'ESCAPE': <TokenType.ESCAPE: 'ESCAPE'>, 'EXCEPT': <TokenType.EXCEPT: 'EXCEPT'>, 'EXECUTE': <TokenType.EXECUTE: 'EXECUTE'>, 'EXISTS': <TokenType.EXISTS: 'EXISTS'>, 'FALSE': <TokenType.FALSE: 'FALSE'>, 'FETCH': <TokenType.FETCH: 'FETCH'>, 'FILTER': <TokenType.FILTER: 'FILTER'>, 'FIRST': <TokenType.FIRST: 'FIRST'>, 'FULL': <TokenType.FULL: 'FULL'>, 'FUNCTION': <TokenType.FUNCTION: 'FUNCTION'>, 'FOR': <TokenType.FOR: 'FOR'>, 'FOREIGN KEY': <TokenType.FOREIGN_KEY: 'FOREIGN_KEY'>, 'FORMAT': <TokenType.FORMAT: 'FORMAT'>, 'FROM': <TokenType.FROM: 'FROM'>, 'GEOGRAPHY': <TokenType.GEOGRAPHY: 'GEOGRAPHY'>, 'GEOMETRY': <TokenType.GEOMETRY: 'GEOMETRY'>, 'GLOB': <TokenType.GLOB: 'GLOB'>, 'GROUP BY': <TokenType.GROUP_BY: 'GROUP_BY'>, 'GROUPING SETS': <TokenType.GROUPING_SETS: 'GROUPING_SETS'>, 'HAVING': <TokenType.HAVING: 'HAVING'>, 'ILIKE': <TokenType.ILIKE: 'ILIKE'>, 'IN': <TokenType.IN: 'IN'>, 'INDEX': <TokenType.INDEX: 'INDEX'>, 'INET': <TokenType.INET: 'INET'>, 'INNER': <TokenType.INNER: 'INNER'>, 'INSERT': <TokenType.INSERT: 'INSERT'>, 'INTERVAL': <TokenType.INTERVAL: 'INTERVAL'>, 'INTERSECT': <TokenType.INTERSECT: 'INTERSECT'>, 'INTO': <TokenType.INTO: 'INTO'>, 'IS': <TokenType.IS: 'IS'>, 'ISNULL': <TokenType.ISNULL: 'ISNULL'>, 'JOIN': <TokenType.JOIN: 'JOIN'>, 'KEEP': <TokenType.KEEP: 'KEEP'>, 'KILL': <TokenType.KILL: 'KILL'>, 'LATERAL': <TokenType.LATERAL: 'LATERAL'>, 'LEFT': <TokenType.LEFT: 'LEFT'>, 'LIKE': <TokenType.LIKE: 'LIKE'>, 'LIMIT': <TokenType.LIMIT: 'LIMIT'>, 'LOAD': <TokenType.LOAD: 'LOAD'>, 'LOCK': <TokenType.LOCK: 'LOCK'>, 'MERGE': <TokenType.MERGE: 'MERGE'>, 'NATURAL': <TokenType.NATURAL: 'NATURAL'>, 'NEXT': <TokenType.NEXT: 'NEXT'>, 'NOT': <TokenType.NOT: 'NOT'>, 'NOTNULL': <TokenType.NOTNULL: 'NOTNULL'>, 'NULL': <TokenType.NULL: 'NULL'>, 'OBJECT': <TokenType.OBJECT: 'OBJECT'>, 'OFFSET': <TokenType.OFFSET: 'OFFSET'>, 'ON': <TokenType.ON: 'ON'>, 'OR': <TokenType.OR: 'OR'>, 'XOR': <TokenType.XOR: 'XOR'>, 'ORDER BY': <TokenType.ORDER_BY: 'ORDER_BY'>, 'ORDINALITY': <TokenType.ORDINALITY: 'ORDINALITY'>, 'OUTER': <TokenType.OUTER: 'OUTER'>, 'OVER': <TokenType.OVER: 'OVER'>, 'OVERLAPS': <TokenType.OVERLAPS: 'OVERLAPS'>, 'OVERWRITE': <TokenType.OVERWRITE: 'OVERWRITE'>, 'PARTITION': <TokenType.PARTITION: 'PARTITION'>, 'PARTITION BY': <TokenType.PARTITION_BY: 'PARTITION_BY'>, 'PARTITIONED BY': <TokenType.PARTITION_BY: 'PARTITION_BY'>, 'PARTITIONED_BY': <TokenType.PARTITION_BY: 'PARTITION_BY'>, 'PERCENT': <TokenType.PERCENT: 'PERCENT'>, 'PIVOT': <TokenType.PIVOT: 'PIVOT'>, 'PRAGMA': <TokenType.PRAGMA: 'PRAGMA'>, 'PRIMARY KEY': <TokenType.PRIMARY_KEY: 'PRIMARY_KEY'>, 'PROCEDURE': <TokenType.PROCEDURE: 'PROCEDURE'>, 'QUALIFY': <TokenType.QUALIFY: 'QUALIFY'>, 'RANGE': <TokenType.RANGE: 'RANGE'>, 'RECURSIVE': <TokenType.RECURSIVE: 'RECURSIVE'>, 'REGEXP': <TokenType.RLIKE: 'RLIKE'>, 'REPLACE': <TokenType.REPLACE: 'REPLACE'>, 'RETURNING': <TokenType.RETURNING: 'RETURNING'>, 'REFERENCES': <TokenType.REFERENCES: 'REFERENCES'>, 'RIGHT': <TokenType.RIGHT: 'RIGHT'>, 'RLIKE': <TokenType.RLIKE: 'RLIKE'>, 'ROLLBACK': <TokenType.ROLLBACK: 'ROLLBACK'>, 'ROLLUP': <TokenType.ROLLUP: 'ROLLUP'>, 'ROW': <TokenType.ROW: 'ROW'>, 'ROWS': <TokenType.ROWS: 'ROWS'>, 'SCHEMA': <TokenType.SCHEMA: 'SCHEMA'>, 'SELECT': <TokenType.SELECT: 'SELECT'>, 'SEMI': <TokenType.SEMI: 'SEMI'>, 'SET': <TokenType.SET: 'SET'>, 'SETTINGS': <TokenType.SETTINGS: 'SETTINGS'>, 'SHOW': <TokenType.SHOW: 'SHOW'>, 'SIMILAR TO': <TokenType.SIMILAR_TO: 'SIMILAR_TO'>, 'SOME': <TokenType.SOME: 'SOME'>, 'SORT BY': <TokenType.SORT_BY: 'SORT_BY'>, 'START WITH': <TokenType.START_WITH: 'START_WITH'>, 'TABLE': <TokenType.TABLE: 'TABLE'>, 'TABLESAMPLE': <TokenType.TABLE_SAMPLE: 'TABLE_SAMPLE'>, 'TEMP': <TokenType.TEMPORARY: 'TEMPORARY'>, 'TEMPORARY': <TokenType.TEMPORARY: 'TEMPORARY'>, 'THEN': <TokenType.THEN: 'THEN'>, 'TRUE': <TokenType.TRUE: 'TRUE'>, 'TRUNCATE': <TokenType.TRUNCATE: 'TRUNCATE'>, 'UNION': <TokenType.UNION: 'UNION'>, 'UNKNOWN': <TokenType.UNKNOWN: 'UNKNOWN'>, 'UNNEST': <TokenType.UNNEST: 'UNNEST'>, 'UNPIVOT': <TokenType.UNPIVOT: 'UNPIVOT'>, 'UPDATE': <TokenType.UPDATE: 'UPDATE'>, 'USE': <TokenType.USE: 'USE'>, 'USING': <TokenType.USING: 'USING'>, 'UUID': <TokenType.UUID: 'UUID'>, 'VIEW': <TokenType.VIEW: 'VIEW'>, 'VOLATILE': <TokenType.VOLATILE: 'VOLATILE'>, 'WHEN': <TokenType.WHEN: 'WHEN'>, 'WHERE': <TokenType.WHERE: 'WHERE'>, 'WINDOW': <TokenType.WINDOW: 'WINDOW'>, 'WITH': <TokenType.WITH: 'WITH'>, 'APPLY': <TokenType.APPLY: 'APPLY'>, 'ARRAY': <TokenType.ARRAY: 'ARRAY'>, 'BIT': <TokenType.BIT: 'BIT'>, 'BOOL': <TokenType.BOOLEAN: 'BOOLEAN'>, 'BOOLEAN': <TokenType.BOOLEAN: 'BOOLEAN'>, 'BYTE': <TokenType.TINYINT: 'TINYINT'>, 'MEDIUMINT': <TokenType.MEDIUMINT: 'MEDIUMINT'>, 'INT1': <TokenType.TINYINT: 'TINYINT'>, 'TINYINT': <TokenType.TINYINT: 'TINYINT'>, 'INT16': <TokenType.SMALLINT: 'SMALLINT'>, 'SHORT': <TokenType.SMALLINT: 'SMALLINT'>, 'SMALLINT': <TokenType.SMALLINT: 'SMALLINT'>, 'INT128': <TokenType.INT128: 'INT128'>, 'HUGEINT': <TokenType.INT128: 'INT128'>, 'INT2': <TokenType.SMALLINT: 'SMALLINT'>, 'INTEGER': <TokenType.INT: 'INT'>, 'INT': <TokenType.INT: 'INT'>, 'INT4': <TokenType.INT: 'INT'>, 'INT32': <TokenType.INT: 'INT'>, 'INT64': <TokenType.BIGINT: 'BIGINT'>, 'LONG': <TokenType.BIGINT: 'BIGINT'>, 'BIGINT': <TokenType.BIGINT: 'BIGINT'>, 'INT8': <TokenType.TINYINT: 'TINYINT'>, 'DEC': <TokenType.DECIMAL: 'DECIMAL'>, 'DECIMAL': <TokenType.DECIMAL: 'DECIMAL'>, 'BIGDECIMAL': <TokenType.BIGDECIMAL: 'BIGDECIMAL'>, 'BIGNUMERIC': <TokenType.BIGDECIMAL: 'BIGDECIMAL'>, 'MAP': <TokenType.MAP: 'MAP'>, 'NULLABLE': <TokenType.NULLABLE: 'NULLABLE'>, 'NUMBER': <TokenType.DECIMAL: 'DECIMAL'>, 'NUMERIC': <TokenType.DECIMAL: 'DECIMAL'>, 'FIXED': <TokenType.DECIMAL: 'DECIMAL'>, 'REAL': <TokenType.FLOAT: 'FLOAT'>, 'FLOAT': <TokenType.FLOAT: 'FLOAT'>, 'FLOAT4': <TokenType.FLOAT: 'FLOAT'>, 'FLOAT8': <TokenType.DOUBLE: 'DOUBLE'>, 'DOUBLE': <TokenType.DOUBLE: 'DOUBLE'>, 'DOUBLE PRECISION': <TokenType.DOUBLE: 'DOUBLE'>, 'JSON': <TokenType.JSON: 'JSON'>, 'CHAR': <TokenType.CHAR: 'CHAR'>, 'CHARACTER': <TokenType.CHAR: 'CHAR'>, 'NCHAR': <TokenType.NCHAR: 'NCHAR'>, 'VARCHAR': <TokenType.VARCHAR: 'VARCHAR'>, 'VARCHAR2': <TokenType.VARCHAR: 'VARCHAR'>, 'NVARCHAR': <TokenType.NVARCHAR: 'NVARCHAR'>, 'NVARCHAR2': <TokenType.NVARCHAR: 'NVARCHAR'>, 'BPCHAR': <TokenType.BPCHAR: 'BPCHAR'>, 'STR': <TokenType.TEXT: 'TEXT'>, 'STRING': <TokenType.TEXT: 'TEXT'>, 'TEXT': <TokenType.TEXT: 'TEXT'>, 'LONGTEXT': <TokenType.LONGTEXT: 'LONGTEXT'>, 'MEDIUMTEXT': <TokenType.MEDIUMTEXT: 'MEDIUMTEXT'>, 'TINYTEXT': <TokenType.TINYTEXT: 'TINYTEXT'>, 'CLOB': <TokenType.TEXT: 'TEXT'>, 'LONGVARCHAR': <TokenType.TEXT: 'TEXT'>, 'BINARY': <TokenType.BINARY: 'BINARY'>, 'BLOB': <TokenType.VARBINARY: 'VARBINARY'>, 'LONGBLOB': <TokenType.LONGBLOB: 'LONGBLOB'>, 'MEDIUMBLOB': <TokenType.MEDIUMBLOB: 'MEDIUMBLOB'>, 'TINYBLOB': <TokenType.TINYBLOB: 'TINYBLOB'>, 'BYTEA': <TokenType.VARBINARY: 'VARBINARY'>, 'VARBINARY': <TokenType.VARBINARY: 'VARBINARY'>, 'TIME': <TokenType.TIME: 'TIME'>, 'TIMETZ': <TokenType.TIMETZ: 'TIMETZ'>, 'TIMESTAMP': <TokenType.TIMESTAMP: 'TIMESTAMP'>, 'TIMESTAMPTZ': <TokenType.TIMESTAMPTZ: 'TIMESTAMPTZ'>, 'TIMESTAMPLTZ': <TokenType.TIMESTAMPLTZ: 'TIMESTAMPLTZ'>, 'DATE': <TokenType.DATE: 'DATE'>, 'DATETIME': <TokenType.DATETIME: 'DATETIME'>, 'INT4RANGE': <TokenType.INT4RANGE: 'INT4RANGE'>, 'INT4MULTIRANGE': <TokenType.INT4MULTIRANGE: 'INT4MULTIRANGE'>, 'INT8RANGE': <TokenType.INT8RANGE: 'INT8RANGE'>, 'INT8MULTIRANGE': <TokenType.INT8MULTIRANGE: 'INT8MULTIRANGE'>, 'NUMRANGE': <TokenType.NUMRANGE: 'NUMRANGE'>, 'NUMMULTIRANGE': <TokenType.NUMMULTIRANGE: 'NUMMULTIRANGE'>, 'TSRANGE': <TokenType.TSRANGE: 'TSRANGE'>, 'TSMULTIRANGE': <TokenType.TSMULTIRANGE: 'TSMULTIRANGE'>, 'TSTZRANGE': <TokenType.TSTZRANGE: 'TSTZRANGE'>, 'TSTZMULTIRANGE': <TokenType.TSTZMULTIRANGE: 'TSTZMULTIRANGE'>, 'DATERANGE': <TokenType.DATERANGE: 'DATERANGE'>, 'DATEMULTIRANGE': <TokenType.DATEMULTIRANGE: 'DATEMULTIRANGE'>, 'UNIQUE': <TokenType.UNIQUE: 'UNIQUE'>, 'STRUCT': <TokenType.STRUCT: 'STRUCT'>, 'VARIANT': <TokenType.VARIANT: 'VARIANT'>, 'ALTER': <TokenType.ALTER: 'ALTER'>, 'ANALYZE': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'CALL': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'COMMENT': <TokenType.COMMENT: 'COMMENT'>, 'COPY': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'EXPLAIN': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'GRANT': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'OPTIMIZE': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'PREPARE': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'VACUUM': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'USER-DEFINED': <TokenType.USERDEFINED: 'USERDEFINED'>, 'FOR VERSION': <TokenType.VERSION_SNAPSHOT: 'VERSION_SNAPSHOT'>, 'FOR TIMESTAMP': <TokenType.TIMESTAMP_SNAPSHOT: 'TIMESTAMP_SNAPSHOT'>, '~~': <TokenType.LIKE: 'LIKE'>, '~~*': <TokenType.ILIKE: 'ILIKE'>, '~*': <TokenType.IRLIKE: 'IRLIKE'>, '~': <TokenType.RLIKE: 'RLIKE'>, '@@': <TokenType.DAT: 'DAT'>, '@>': <TokenType.AT_GT: 'AT_GT'>, '<@': <TokenType.LT_AT: 'LT_AT'>, '|/': <TokenType.PIPE_SLASH: 'PIPE_SLASH'>, '||/': <TokenType.DPIPE_SLASH: 'DPIPE_SLASH'>, 'BEGIN TRANSACTION': <TokenType.BEGIN: 'BEGIN'>, 'BIGSERIAL': <TokenType.BIGSERIAL: 'BIGSERIAL'>, 'CHARACTER VARYING': <TokenType.VARCHAR: 'VARCHAR'>, 'CONSTRAINT TRIGGER': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'DECLARE': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'DO': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'EXEC': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'HSTORE': <TokenType.HSTORE: 'HSTORE'>, 'JSONB': <TokenType.JSONB: 'JSONB'>, 'MONEY': <TokenType.MONEY: 'MONEY'>, 'REFRESH': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'REINDEX': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'RESET': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'REVOKE': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'SERIAL': <TokenType.SERIAL: 'SERIAL'>, 'SMALLSERIAL': <TokenType.SMALLSERIAL: 'SMALLSERIAL'>, 'CSTRING': <TokenType.PSEUDO_TYPE: 'PSEUDO_TYPE'>, 'OID': <TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER: 'OBJECT_IDENTIFIER'>, 'ONLY': <TokenType.ONLY: 'ONLY'>, 'OPERATOR': <TokenType.OPERATOR: 'OPERATOR'>, 'REGCLASS': <TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER: 'OBJECT_IDENTIFIER'>, 'REGCOLLATION': <TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER: 'OBJECT_IDENTIFIER'>, 'REGCONFIG': <TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER: 'OBJECT_IDENTIFIER'>, 'REGDICTIONARY': <TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER: 'OBJECT_IDENTIFIER'>, 'REGNAMESPACE': <TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER: 'OBJECT_IDENTIFIER'>, 'REGOPER': <TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER: 'OBJECT_IDENTIFIER'>, 'REGOPERATOR': <TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER: 'OBJECT_IDENTIFIER'>, 'REGPROC': <TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER: 'OBJECT_IDENTIFIER'>, 'REGPROCEDURE': <TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER: 'OBJECT_IDENTIFIER'>, 'REGROLE': <TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER: 'OBJECT_IDENTIFIER'>, 'REGTYPE': <TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER: 'OBJECT_IDENTIFIER'>, 'HLLSKETCH': <TokenType.HLLSKETCH: 'HLLSKETCH'>, 'SUPER': <TokenType.SUPER: 'SUPER'>, 'TOP': <TokenType.TOP: 'TOP'>, 'UNLOAD': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'VARBYTE': <TokenType.VARBINARY: 'VARBINARY'>}
SINGLE_TOKENS = {'(': <TokenType.L_PAREN: 'L_PAREN'>, ')': <TokenType.R_PAREN: 'R_PAREN'>, '[': <TokenType.L_BRACKET: 'L_BRACKET'>, ']': <TokenType.R_BRACKET: 'R_BRACKET'>, '{': <TokenType.L_BRACE: 'L_BRACE'>, '}': <TokenType.R_BRACE: 'R_BRACE'>, '&': <TokenType.AMP: 'AMP'>, '^': <TokenType.CARET: 'CARET'>, ':': <TokenType.COLON: 'COLON'>, ',': <TokenType.COMMA: 'COMMA'>, '.': <TokenType.DOT: 'DOT'>, '-': <TokenType.DASH: 'DASH'>, '=': <TokenType.EQ: 'EQ'>, '>': <TokenType.GT: 'GT'>, '<': <TokenType.LT: 'LT'>, '%': <TokenType.MOD: 'MOD'>, '!': <TokenType.NOT: 'NOT'>, '|': <TokenType.PIPE: 'PIPE'>, '+': <TokenType.PLUS: 'PLUS'>, ';': <TokenType.SEMICOLON: 'SEMICOLON'>, '/': <TokenType.SLASH: 'SLASH'>, '\\': <TokenType.BACKSLASH: 'BACKSLASH'>, '*': <TokenType.STAR: 'STAR'>, '~': <TokenType.TILDA: 'TILDA'>, '?': <TokenType.PLACEHOLDER: 'PLACEHOLDER'>, '@': <TokenType.PARAMETER: 'PARAMETER'>, "'": <TokenType.QUOTE: 'QUOTE'>, '`': <TokenType.IDENTIFIER: 'IDENTIFIER'>, '"': <TokenType.IDENTIFIER: 'IDENTIFIER'>, '$': <TokenType.HEREDOC_STRING: 'HEREDOC_STRING'>}
class Redshift.Generator(sqlglot.dialects.postgres.Postgres.Generator):
149    class Generator(Postgres.Generator):
150        LOCKING_READS_SUPPORTED = False
151        QUERY_HINTS = False
152        VALUES_AS_TABLE = False
153        TZ_TO_WITH_TIME_ZONE = True
154        NVL2_SUPPORTED = True
155        LAST_DAY_SUPPORTS_DATE_PART = False
156        CAN_IMPLEMENT_ARRAY_ANY = False
157
158        TYPE_MAPPING = {
159            **Postgres.Generator.TYPE_MAPPING,
160            exp.DataType.Type.BINARY: "VARBYTE",
161            exp.DataType.Type.INT: "INTEGER",
162            exp.DataType.Type.TIMETZ: "TIME",
163            exp.DataType.Type.TIMESTAMPTZ: "TIMESTAMP",
164            exp.DataType.Type.VARBINARY: "VARBYTE",
165        }
166
167        TRANSFORMS = {
168            **Postgres.Generator.TRANSFORMS,
169            exp.Concat: concat_to_dpipe_sql,
170            exp.ConcatWs: concat_ws_to_dpipe_sql,
171            exp.ApproxDistinct: lambda self,
172            e: f"APPROXIMATE COUNT(DISTINCT {self.sql(e, 'this')})",
173            exp.CurrentTimestamp: lambda self, e: (
174                "SYSDATE" if e.args.get("transaction") else "GETDATE()"
175            ),
176            exp.DateAdd: date_delta_sql("DATEADD"),
177            exp.DateDiff: date_delta_sql("DATEDIFF"),
178            exp.DistKeyProperty: lambda self, e: self.func("DISTKEY", e.this),
179            exp.DistStyleProperty: lambda self, e: self.naked_property(e),
180            exp.FromBase: rename_func("STRTOL"),
181            exp.GeneratedAsIdentityColumnConstraint: generatedasidentitycolumnconstraint_sql,
182            exp.JSONExtract: json_extract_segments("JSON_EXTRACT_PATH_TEXT"),
183            exp.JSONExtractScalar: json_extract_segments("JSON_EXTRACT_PATH_TEXT"),
184            exp.GroupConcat: rename_func("LISTAGG"),
185            exp.ParseJSON: rename_func("JSON_PARSE"),
186            exp.Select: transforms.preprocess(
187                [transforms.eliminate_distinct_on, transforms.eliminate_semi_and_anti_joins]
188            ),
189            exp.SortKeyProperty: lambda self,
190            e: f"{'COMPOUND ' if e.args['compound'] else ''}SORTKEY({self.format_args(*e.this)})",
191            exp.TableSample: no_tablesample_sql,
192            exp.TsOrDsAdd: date_delta_sql("DATEADD"),
193            exp.TsOrDsDiff: date_delta_sql("DATEDIFF"),
194        }
195
196        # Postgres maps exp.Pivot to no_pivot_sql, but Redshift support pivots
197        TRANSFORMS.pop(exp.Pivot)
198
199        # Redshift uses the POW | POWER (expr1, expr2) syntax instead of expr1 ^ expr2 (postgres)
200        TRANSFORMS.pop(exp.Pow)
201
202        # Redshift supports ANY_VALUE(..)
203        TRANSFORMS.pop(exp.AnyValue)
204
205        # Redshift supports LAST_DAY(..)
206        TRANSFORMS.pop(exp.LastDay)
207
208        RESERVED_KEYWORDS = {*Postgres.Generator.RESERVED_KEYWORDS, "snapshot", "type"}
209
210        def unnest_sql(self, expression: exp.Unnest) -> str:
211            args = expression.expressions
212            num_args = len(args)
213
214            if num_args > 1:
215                self.unsupported(f"Unsupported number of arguments in UNNEST: {num_args}")
216                return ""
217
218            arg = self.sql(seq_get(args, 0))
219            alias = self.expressions(expression.args.get("alias"), key="columns")
220            return f"{arg} AS {alias}" if alias else arg
221
222        def with_properties(self, properties: exp.Properties) -> str:
223            """Redshift doesn't have `WITH` as part of their with_properties so we remove it"""
224            return self.properties(properties, prefix=" ", suffix="")
225
226        def cast_sql(self, expression: exp.Cast, safe_prefix: t.Optional[str] = None) -> str:
227            if expression.is_type(exp.DataType.Type.JSON):
228                # Redshift doesn't support a JSON type, so casting to it is treated as a noop
229                return self.sql(expression, "this")
230
231            return super().cast_sql(expression, safe_prefix=safe_prefix)
232
233        def datatype_sql(self, expression: exp.DataType) -> str:
234            """
235            Redshift converts the `TEXT` data type to `VARCHAR(255)` by default when people more generally mean
236            VARCHAR of max length which is `VARCHAR(max)` in Redshift. Therefore if we get a `TEXT` data type
237            without precision we convert it to `VARCHAR(max)` and if it does have precision then we just convert
238            `TEXT` to `VARCHAR`.
239            """
240            if expression.is_type("text"):
241                expression.set("this", exp.DataType.Type.VARCHAR)
242                precision = expression.args.get("expressions")
243
244                if not precision:
245                    expression.append("expressions", exp.var("MAX"))
246
247            return super().datatype_sql(expression)

Generator converts a given syntax tree to the corresponding SQL string.

Arguments:
  • pretty: Whether to format the produced SQL string. Default: False.
  • identify: Determines when an identifier should be quoted. Possible values are: False (default): Never quote, except in cases where it's mandatory by the dialect. True or 'always': Always quote. 'safe': Only quote identifiers that are case insensitive.
  • normalize: Whether to normalize identifiers to lowercase. Default: False.
  • pad: The pad size in a formatted string. Default: 2.
  • indent: The indentation size in a formatted string. Default: 2.
  • normalize_functions: How to normalize function names. Possible values are: "upper" or True (default): Convert names to uppercase. "lower": Convert names to lowercase. False: Disables function name normalization.
  • unsupported_level: Determines the generator's behavior when it encounters unsupported expressions. Default ErrorLevel.WARN.
  • max_unsupported: Maximum number of unsupported messages to include in a raised UnsupportedError. This is only relevant if unsupported_level is ErrorLevel.RAISE. Default: 3
  • leading_comma: Whether the comma is leading or trailing in select expressions. This is only relevant when generating in pretty mode. Default: False
  • max_text_width: The max number of characters in a segment before creating new lines in pretty mode. The default is on the smaller end because the length only represents a segment and not the true line length. Default: 80
  • comments: Whether to preserve comments in the output SQL code. Default: True
LOCKING_READS_SUPPORTED = False
QUERY_HINTS = False
VALUES_AS_TABLE = False
TZ_TO_WITH_TIME_ZONE = True
NVL2_SUPPORTED = True
LAST_DAY_SUPPORTS_DATE_PART = False
CAN_IMPLEMENT_ARRAY_ANY = False
TYPE_MAPPING = {<Type.NCHAR: 'NCHAR'>: 'CHAR', <Type.NVARCHAR: 'NVARCHAR'>: 'VARCHAR', <Type.MEDIUMTEXT: 'MEDIUMTEXT'>: 'TEXT', <Type.LONGTEXT: 'LONGTEXT'>: 'TEXT', <Type.TINYTEXT: 'TINYTEXT'>: 'TEXT', <Type.MEDIUMBLOB: 'MEDIUMBLOB'>: 'BLOB', <Type.LONGBLOB: 'LONGBLOB'>: 'BLOB', <Type.TINYBLOB: 'TINYBLOB'>: 'BLOB', <Type.INET: 'INET'>: 'INET', <Type.TINYINT: 'TINYINT'>: 'SMALLINT', <Type.FLOAT: 'FLOAT'>: 'REAL', <Type.DOUBLE: 'DOUBLE'>: 'DOUBLE PRECISION', <Type.BINARY: 'BINARY'>: 'VARBYTE', <Type.VARBINARY: 'VARBINARY'>: 'VARBYTE', <Type.DATETIME: 'DATETIME'>: 'TIMESTAMP', <Type.INT: 'INT'>: 'INTEGER', <Type.TIMETZ: 'TIMETZ'>: 'TIME', <Type.TIMESTAMPTZ: 'TIMESTAMPTZ'>: 'TIMESTAMP'}
TRANSFORMS = {<class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONPathKey'>: <function json_path_key_only_name>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONPathRoot'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONPathSubscript'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.AutoRefreshProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CaseSpecificColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CharacterSetColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CharacterSetProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ClusteredColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CollateColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CommentColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CopyGrantsProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateAdd'>: <function date_delta_sql.<locals>._delta_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateFormatColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DefaultColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.EncodeColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ExecuteAsProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ExternalProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.HeapProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.InheritsProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.InlineLengthColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.InputModelProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.IntervalSpan'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONExtract'>: <function json_extract_segments.<locals>._json_extract_segments>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONExtractScalar'>: <function json_extract_segments.<locals>._json_extract_segments>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LanguageProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LocationProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LogProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.MaterializedProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.NonClusteredColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.NoPrimaryIndexProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.NotForReplicationColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.OnCommitProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.OnProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.OnUpdateColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.OutputModelProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.PathColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RemoteWithConnectionModelProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ReturnsProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SampleProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SetConfigProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SetProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SettingsProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SqlReadWriteProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SqlSecurityProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StabilityProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TemporaryProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TitleColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Timestamp'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ToTableProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TransformModelProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TransientProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.UppercaseColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.VarMap'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.VolatileProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.WithJournalTableProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Array'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayConcat'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayContained'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayContains'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayOverlaps'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayFilter'>: <function filter_array_using_unnest>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArraySize'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.BitwiseXor'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ColumnDef'>: <function preprocess.<locals>._to_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CurrentDate'>: <function no_paren_current_date_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CurrentTimestamp'>: <function Redshift.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CurrentUser'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateDiff'>: <function date_delta_sql.<locals>._delta_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateStrToDate'>: <function datestrtodate_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DataType'>: <function _datatype_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateSub'>: <function _date_add_sql.<locals>.func>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Explode'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.GroupConcat'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONBExtract'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONBExtractScalar'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONBContains'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ParseJSON'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LogicalOr'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LogicalAnd'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Max'>: <function max_or_greatest>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.MapFromEntries'>: <function no_map_from_entries_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Min'>: <function min_or_least>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Merge'>: <function merge_without_target_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.PartitionedByProperty'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.PercentileCont'>: <function preprocess.<locals>._to_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.PercentileDisc'>: <function preprocess.<locals>._to_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Rand'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RegexpLike'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RegexpILike'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Select'>: <function preprocess.<locals>._to_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StrPosition'>: <function str_position_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StrToTime'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StructExtract'>: <function struct_extract_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Substring'>: <function _substring_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeFromParts'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimestampFromParts'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimestampTrunc'>: <function timestamptrunc_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeStrToTime'>: <function timestrtotime_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeToStr'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ToChar'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Trim'>: <function trim_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TryCast'>: <function no_trycast_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TsOrDsAdd'>: <function date_delta_sql.<locals>._delta_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TsOrDsDiff'>: <function date_delta_sql.<locals>._delta_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.UnixToTime'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.VariancePop'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Variance'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Xor'>: <function bool_xor_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Concat'>: <function concat_to_dpipe_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ConcatWs'>: <function concat_ws_to_dpipe_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ApproxDistinct'>: <function Redshift.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DistKeyProperty'>: <function Redshift.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DistStyleProperty'>: <function Redshift.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.FromBase'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.GeneratedAsIdentityColumnConstraint'>: <function generatedasidentitycolumnconstraint_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SortKeyProperty'>: <function Redshift.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TableSample'>: <function no_tablesample_sql>}
RESERVED_KEYWORDS = {'snapshot', 'type'}
def unnest_sql(self, expression: sqlglot.expressions.Unnest) -> str:
210        def unnest_sql(self, expression: exp.Unnest) -> str:
211            args = expression.expressions
212            num_args = len(args)
213
214            if num_args > 1:
215                self.unsupported(f"Unsupported number of arguments in UNNEST: {num_args}")
216                return ""
217
218            arg = self.sql(seq_get(args, 0))
219            alias = self.expressions(expression.args.get("alias"), key="columns")
220            return f"{arg} AS {alias}" if alias else arg
def with_properties(self, properties: sqlglot.expressions.Properties) -> str:
222        def with_properties(self, properties: exp.Properties) -> str:
223            """Redshift doesn't have `WITH` as part of their with_properties so we remove it"""
224            return self.properties(properties, prefix=" ", suffix="")

Redshift doesn't have WITH as part of their with_properties so we remove it

def cast_sql( self, expression: sqlglot.expressions.Cast, safe_prefix: Optional[str] = None) -> str:
226        def cast_sql(self, expression: exp.Cast, safe_prefix: t.Optional[str] = None) -> str:
227            if expression.is_type(exp.DataType.Type.JSON):
228                # Redshift doesn't support a JSON type, so casting to it is treated as a noop
229                return self.sql(expression, "this")
230
231            return super().cast_sql(expression, safe_prefix=safe_prefix)
def datatype_sql(self, expression: sqlglot.expressions.DataType) -> str:
233        def datatype_sql(self, expression: exp.DataType) -> str:
234            """
235            Redshift converts the `TEXT` data type to `VARCHAR(255)` by default when people more generally mean
236            VARCHAR of max length which is `VARCHAR(max)` in Redshift. Therefore if we get a `TEXT` data type
237            without precision we convert it to `VARCHAR(max)` and if it does have precision then we just convert
238            `TEXT` to `VARCHAR`.
239            """
240            if expression.is_type("text"):
241                expression.set("this", exp.DataType.Type.VARCHAR)
242                precision = expression.args.get("expressions")
243
244                if not precision:
245                    expression.append("expressions", exp.var("MAX"))
246
247            return super().datatype_sql(expression)

Redshift converts the TEXT data type to VARCHAR(255) by default when people more generally mean VARCHAR of max length which is VARCHAR(max) in Redshift. Therefore if we get a TEXT data type without precision we convert it to VARCHAR(max) and if it does have precision then we just convert TEXT to VARCHAR.

SELECT_KINDS: Tuple[str, ...] = ()
Inherited Members
sqlglot.generator.Generator
Generator
NULL_ORDERING_SUPPORTED
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COLUMN_JOIN_MARKS_SUPPORTED
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SEMI_ANTI_JOIN_WITH_SIDE
COMPUTED_COLUMN_WITH_TYPE
SUPPORTS_TABLE_COPY
TABLESAMPLE_REQUIRES_PARENS
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DATA_TYPE_SPECIFIERS_ALLOWED
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SENTINEL_LINE_BREAK
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sqlglot.dialects.postgres.Postgres.Generator
SINGLE_STRING_INTERVAL
RENAME_TABLE_WITH_DB
JOIN_HINTS
TABLE_HINTS
PARAMETER_TOKEN
TABLESAMPLE_SIZE_IS_ROWS
TABLESAMPLE_SEED_KEYWORD
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