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sqlglot.dialects.redshift

  1from __future__ import annotations
  2
  3import typing as t
  4
  5from sqlglot import exp, transforms
  6from sqlglot.dialects.dialect import (
  7    NormalizationStrategy,
  8    concat_to_dpipe_sql,
  9    concat_ws_to_dpipe_sql,
 10    date_delta_sql,
 11    generatedasidentitycolumnconstraint_sql,
 12    json_extract_segments,
 13    no_tablesample_sql,
 14    rename_func,
 15    map_date_part,
 16)
 17from sqlglot.dialects.postgres import Postgres
 18from sqlglot.helper import seq_get
 19from sqlglot.tokens import TokenType
 20
 21if t.TYPE_CHECKING:
 22    from sqlglot._typing import E
 23
 24
 25def _build_date_delta(expr_type: t.Type[E]) -> t.Callable[[t.List], E]:
 26    def _builder(args: t.List) -> E:
 27        expr = expr_type(
 28            this=seq_get(args, 2),
 29            expression=seq_get(args, 1),
 30            unit=map_date_part(seq_get(args, 0)),
 31        )
 32        if expr_type is exp.TsOrDsAdd:
 33            expr.set("return_type", exp.DataType.build("TIMESTAMP"))
 34
 35        return expr
 36
 37    return _builder
 38
 39
 40class Redshift(Postgres):
 41    # https://docs.aws.amazon.com/redshift/latest/dg/r_names.html
 42    NORMALIZATION_STRATEGY = NormalizationStrategy.CASE_INSENSITIVE
 43
 44    SUPPORTS_USER_DEFINED_TYPES = False
 45    INDEX_OFFSET = 0
 46    COPY_PARAMS_ARE_CSV = False
 47    HEX_LOWERCASE = True
 48
 49    TIME_FORMAT = "'YYYY-MM-DD HH:MI:SS'"
 50    TIME_MAPPING = {
 51        **Postgres.TIME_MAPPING,
 52        "MON": "%b",
 53        "HH": "%H",
 54    }
 55
 56    class Parser(Postgres.Parser):
 57        FUNCTIONS = {
 58            **Postgres.Parser.FUNCTIONS,
 59            "ADD_MONTHS": lambda args: exp.TsOrDsAdd(
 60                this=seq_get(args, 0),
 61                expression=seq_get(args, 1),
 62                unit=exp.var("month"),
 63                return_type=exp.DataType.build("TIMESTAMP"),
 64            ),
 65            "DATEADD": _build_date_delta(exp.TsOrDsAdd),
 66            "DATE_ADD": _build_date_delta(exp.TsOrDsAdd),
 67            "DATEDIFF": _build_date_delta(exp.TsOrDsDiff),
 68            "DATE_DIFF": _build_date_delta(exp.TsOrDsDiff),
 69            "GETDATE": exp.CurrentTimestamp.from_arg_list,
 70            "LISTAGG": exp.GroupConcat.from_arg_list,
 71            "SPLIT_TO_ARRAY": lambda args: exp.StringToArray(
 72                this=seq_get(args, 0), expression=seq_get(args, 1) or exp.Literal.string(",")
 73            ),
 74            "STRTOL": exp.FromBase.from_arg_list,
 75        }
 76
 77        NO_PAREN_FUNCTION_PARSERS = {
 78            **Postgres.Parser.NO_PAREN_FUNCTION_PARSERS,
 79            "APPROXIMATE": lambda self: self._parse_approximate_count(),
 80            "SYSDATE": lambda self: self.expression(exp.CurrentTimestamp, transaction=True),
 81        }
 82
 83        SUPPORTS_IMPLICIT_UNNEST = True
 84
 85        def _parse_table(
 86            self,
 87            schema: bool = False,
 88            joins: bool = False,
 89            alias_tokens: t.Optional[t.Collection[TokenType]] = None,
 90            parse_bracket: bool = False,
 91            is_db_reference: bool = False,
 92            parse_partition: bool = False,
 93        ) -> t.Optional[exp.Expression]:
 94            # Redshift supports UNPIVOTing SUPER objects, e.g. `UNPIVOT foo.obj[0] AS val AT attr`
 95            unpivot = self._match(TokenType.UNPIVOT)
 96            table = super()._parse_table(
 97                schema=schema,
 98                joins=joins,
 99                alias_tokens=alias_tokens,
100                parse_bracket=parse_bracket,
101                is_db_reference=is_db_reference,
102            )
103
104            return self.expression(exp.Pivot, this=table, unpivot=True) if unpivot else table
105
106        def _parse_convert(
107            self, strict: bool, safe: t.Optional[bool] = None
108        ) -> t.Optional[exp.Expression]:
109            to = self._parse_types()
110            self._match(TokenType.COMMA)
111            this = self._parse_bitwise()
112            return self.expression(exp.TryCast, this=this, to=to, safe=safe)
113
114        def _parse_approximate_count(self) -> t.Optional[exp.ApproxDistinct]:
115            index = self._index - 1
116            func = self._parse_function()
117
118            if isinstance(func, exp.Count) and isinstance(func.this, exp.Distinct):
119                return self.expression(exp.ApproxDistinct, this=seq_get(func.this.expressions, 0))
120            self._retreat(index)
121            return None
122
123    class Tokenizer(Postgres.Tokenizer):
124        BIT_STRINGS = []
125        HEX_STRINGS = []
126        STRING_ESCAPES = ["\\", "'"]
127
128        KEYWORDS = {
129            **Postgres.Tokenizer.KEYWORDS,
130            "(+)": TokenType.JOIN_MARKER,
131            "HLLSKETCH": TokenType.HLLSKETCH,
132            "MINUS": TokenType.EXCEPT,
133            "SUPER": TokenType.SUPER,
134            "TOP": TokenType.TOP,
135            "UNLOAD": TokenType.COMMAND,
136            "VARBYTE": TokenType.VARBINARY,
137        }
138        KEYWORDS.pop("VALUES")
139
140        # Redshift allows # to appear as a table identifier prefix
141        SINGLE_TOKENS = Postgres.Tokenizer.SINGLE_TOKENS.copy()
142        SINGLE_TOKENS.pop("#")
143
144    class Generator(Postgres.Generator):
145        LOCKING_READS_SUPPORTED = False
146        QUERY_HINTS = False
147        VALUES_AS_TABLE = False
148        TZ_TO_WITH_TIME_ZONE = True
149        NVL2_SUPPORTED = True
150        LAST_DAY_SUPPORTS_DATE_PART = False
151        CAN_IMPLEMENT_ARRAY_ANY = False
152        MULTI_ARG_DISTINCT = True
153        COPY_PARAMS_ARE_WRAPPED = False
154        HEX_FUNC = "TO_HEX"
155        PARSE_JSON_NAME = "JSON_PARSE"
156
157        # Redshift doesn't have `WITH` as part of their with_properties so we remove it
158        WITH_PROPERTIES_PREFIX = " "
159
160        TYPE_MAPPING = {
161            **Postgres.Generator.TYPE_MAPPING,
162            exp.DataType.Type.BINARY: "VARBYTE",
163            exp.DataType.Type.INT: "INTEGER",
164            exp.DataType.Type.TIMETZ: "TIME",
165            exp.DataType.Type.TIMESTAMPTZ: "TIMESTAMP",
166            exp.DataType.Type.VARBINARY: "VARBYTE",
167            exp.DataType.Type.ROWVERSION: "VARBYTE",
168        }
169
170        TRANSFORMS = {
171            **Postgres.Generator.TRANSFORMS,
172            exp.Concat: concat_to_dpipe_sql,
173            exp.ConcatWs: concat_ws_to_dpipe_sql,
174            exp.ApproxDistinct: lambda self,
175            e: f"APPROXIMATE COUNT(DISTINCT {self.sql(e, 'this')})",
176            exp.CurrentTimestamp: lambda self, e: (
177                "SYSDATE" if e.args.get("transaction") else "GETDATE()"
178            ),
179            exp.DateAdd: date_delta_sql("DATEADD"),
180            exp.DateDiff: date_delta_sql("DATEDIFF"),
181            exp.DistKeyProperty: lambda self, e: self.func("DISTKEY", e.this),
182            exp.DistStyleProperty: lambda self, e: self.naked_property(e),
183            exp.FromBase: rename_func("STRTOL"),
184            exp.GeneratedAsIdentityColumnConstraint: generatedasidentitycolumnconstraint_sql,
185            exp.JSONExtract: json_extract_segments("JSON_EXTRACT_PATH_TEXT"),
186            exp.JSONExtractScalar: json_extract_segments("JSON_EXTRACT_PATH_TEXT"),
187            exp.GroupConcat: rename_func("LISTAGG"),
188            exp.Hex: lambda self, e: self.func("UPPER", self.func("TO_HEX", self.sql(e, "this"))),
189            exp.Select: transforms.preprocess(
190                [
191                    transforms.eliminate_distinct_on,
192                    transforms.eliminate_semi_and_anti_joins,
193                    transforms.unqualify_unnest,
194                ]
195            ),
196            exp.SortKeyProperty: lambda self,
197            e: f"{'COMPOUND ' if e.args['compound'] else ''}SORTKEY({self.format_args(*e.this)})",
198            exp.StartsWith: lambda self,
199            e: f"{self.sql(e.this)} LIKE {self.sql(e.expression)} || '%'",
200            exp.StringToArray: rename_func("SPLIT_TO_ARRAY"),
201            exp.TableSample: no_tablesample_sql,
202            exp.TsOrDsAdd: date_delta_sql("DATEADD"),
203            exp.TsOrDsDiff: date_delta_sql("DATEDIFF"),
204            exp.UnixToTime: lambda self,
205            e: f"(TIMESTAMP 'epoch' + {self.sql(e.this)} * INTERVAL '1 SECOND')",
206        }
207
208        # Postgres maps exp.Pivot to no_pivot_sql, but Redshift support pivots
209        TRANSFORMS.pop(exp.Pivot)
210
211        # Postgres doesn't support JSON_PARSE, but Redshift does
212        TRANSFORMS.pop(exp.ParseJSON)
213
214        # Redshift uses the POW | POWER (expr1, expr2) syntax instead of expr1 ^ expr2 (postgres)
215        TRANSFORMS.pop(exp.Pow)
216
217        # Redshift supports these functions
218        TRANSFORMS.pop(exp.AnyValue)
219        TRANSFORMS.pop(exp.LastDay)
220        TRANSFORMS.pop(exp.SHA2)
221
222        RESERVED_KEYWORDS = {
223            "aes128",
224            "aes256",
225            "all",
226            "allowoverwrite",
227            "analyse",
228            "analyze",
229            "and",
230            "any",
231            "array",
232            "as",
233            "asc",
234            "authorization",
235            "az64",
236            "backup",
237            "between",
238            "binary",
239            "blanksasnull",
240            "both",
241            "bytedict",
242            "bzip2",
243            "case",
244            "cast",
245            "check",
246            "collate",
247            "column",
248            "constraint",
249            "create",
250            "credentials",
251            "cross",
252            "current_date",
253            "current_time",
254            "current_timestamp",
255            "current_user",
256            "current_user_id",
257            "default",
258            "deferrable",
259            "deflate",
260            "defrag",
261            "delta",
262            "delta32k",
263            "desc",
264            "disable",
265            "distinct",
266            "do",
267            "else",
268            "emptyasnull",
269            "enable",
270            "encode",
271            "encrypt     ",
272            "encryption",
273            "end",
274            "except",
275            "explicit",
276            "false",
277            "for",
278            "foreign",
279            "freeze",
280            "from",
281            "full",
282            "globaldict256",
283            "globaldict64k",
284            "grant",
285            "group",
286            "gzip",
287            "having",
288            "identity",
289            "ignore",
290            "ilike",
291            "in",
292            "initially",
293            "inner",
294            "intersect",
295            "interval",
296            "into",
297            "is",
298            "isnull",
299            "join",
300            "leading",
301            "left",
302            "like",
303            "limit",
304            "localtime",
305            "localtimestamp",
306            "lun",
307            "luns",
308            "lzo",
309            "lzop",
310            "minus",
311            "mostly16",
312            "mostly32",
313            "mostly8",
314            "natural",
315            "new",
316            "not",
317            "notnull",
318            "null",
319            "nulls",
320            "off",
321            "offline",
322            "offset",
323            "oid",
324            "old",
325            "on",
326            "only",
327            "open",
328            "or",
329            "order",
330            "outer",
331            "overlaps",
332            "parallel",
333            "partition",
334            "percent",
335            "permissions",
336            "pivot",
337            "placing",
338            "primary",
339            "raw",
340            "readratio",
341            "recover",
342            "references",
343            "rejectlog",
344            "resort",
345            "respect",
346            "restore",
347            "right",
348            "select",
349            "session_user",
350            "similar",
351            "snapshot",
352            "some",
353            "sysdate",
354            "system",
355            "table",
356            "tag",
357            "tdes",
358            "text255",
359            "text32k",
360            "then",
361            "timestamp",
362            "to",
363            "top",
364            "trailing",
365            "true",
366            "truncatecolumns",
367            "type",
368            "union",
369            "unique",
370            "unnest",
371            "unpivot",
372            "user",
373            "using",
374            "verbose",
375            "wallet",
376            "when",
377            "where",
378            "with",
379            "without",
380        }
381
382        def unnest_sql(self, expression: exp.Unnest) -> str:
383            args = expression.expressions
384            num_args = len(args)
385
386            if num_args > 1:
387                self.unsupported(f"Unsupported number of arguments in UNNEST: {num_args}")
388                return ""
389
390            arg = self.sql(seq_get(args, 0))
391            alias = self.expressions(expression.args.get("alias"), key="columns", flat=True)
392            return f"{arg} AS {alias}" if alias else arg
393
394        def cast_sql(self, expression: exp.Cast, safe_prefix: t.Optional[str] = None) -> str:
395            if expression.is_type(exp.DataType.Type.JSON):
396                # Redshift doesn't support a JSON type, so casting to it is treated as a noop
397                return self.sql(expression, "this")
398
399            return super().cast_sql(expression, safe_prefix=safe_prefix)
400
401        def datatype_sql(self, expression: exp.DataType) -> str:
402            """
403            Redshift converts the `TEXT` data type to `VARCHAR(255)` by default when people more generally mean
404            VARCHAR of max length which is `VARCHAR(max)` in Redshift. Therefore if we get a `TEXT` data type
405            without precision we convert it to `VARCHAR(max)` and if it does have precision then we just convert
406            `TEXT` to `VARCHAR`.
407            """
408            if expression.is_type("text"):
409                expression.set("this", exp.DataType.Type.VARCHAR)
410                precision = expression.args.get("expressions")
411
412                if not precision:
413                    expression.append("expressions", exp.var("MAX"))
414
415            return super().datatype_sql(expression)
416
417        def alterset_sql(self, expression: exp.AlterSet) -> str:
418            exprs = self.expressions(expression, flat=True)
419            exprs = f" TABLE PROPERTIES ({exprs})" if exprs else ""
420            location = self.sql(expression, "location")
421            location = f" LOCATION {location}" if location else ""
422            file_format = self.expressions(expression, key="file_format", flat=True, sep=" ")
423            file_format = f" FILE FORMAT {file_format}" if file_format else ""
424
425            return f"SET{exprs}{location}{file_format}"
class Redshift(sqlglot.dialects.postgres.Postgres):
 41class Redshift(Postgres):
 42    # https://docs.aws.amazon.com/redshift/latest/dg/r_names.html
 43    NORMALIZATION_STRATEGY = NormalizationStrategy.CASE_INSENSITIVE
 44
 45    SUPPORTS_USER_DEFINED_TYPES = False
 46    INDEX_OFFSET = 0
 47    COPY_PARAMS_ARE_CSV = False
 48    HEX_LOWERCASE = True
 49
 50    TIME_FORMAT = "'YYYY-MM-DD HH:MI:SS'"
 51    TIME_MAPPING = {
 52        **Postgres.TIME_MAPPING,
 53        "MON": "%b",
 54        "HH": "%H",
 55    }
 56
 57    class Parser(Postgres.Parser):
 58        FUNCTIONS = {
 59            **Postgres.Parser.FUNCTIONS,
 60            "ADD_MONTHS": lambda args: exp.TsOrDsAdd(
 61                this=seq_get(args, 0),
 62                expression=seq_get(args, 1),
 63                unit=exp.var("month"),
 64                return_type=exp.DataType.build("TIMESTAMP"),
 65            ),
 66            "DATEADD": _build_date_delta(exp.TsOrDsAdd),
 67            "DATE_ADD": _build_date_delta(exp.TsOrDsAdd),
 68            "DATEDIFF": _build_date_delta(exp.TsOrDsDiff),
 69            "DATE_DIFF": _build_date_delta(exp.TsOrDsDiff),
 70            "GETDATE": exp.CurrentTimestamp.from_arg_list,
 71            "LISTAGG": exp.GroupConcat.from_arg_list,
 72            "SPLIT_TO_ARRAY": lambda args: exp.StringToArray(
 73                this=seq_get(args, 0), expression=seq_get(args, 1) or exp.Literal.string(",")
 74            ),
 75            "STRTOL": exp.FromBase.from_arg_list,
 76        }
 77
 78        NO_PAREN_FUNCTION_PARSERS = {
 79            **Postgres.Parser.NO_PAREN_FUNCTION_PARSERS,
 80            "APPROXIMATE": lambda self: self._parse_approximate_count(),
 81            "SYSDATE": lambda self: self.expression(exp.CurrentTimestamp, transaction=True),
 82        }
 83
 84        SUPPORTS_IMPLICIT_UNNEST = True
 85
 86        def _parse_table(
 87            self,
 88            schema: bool = False,
 89            joins: bool = False,
 90            alias_tokens: t.Optional[t.Collection[TokenType]] = None,
 91            parse_bracket: bool = False,
 92            is_db_reference: bool = False,
 93            parse_partition: bool = False,
 94        ) -> t.Optional[exp.Expression]:
 95            # Redshift supports UNPIVOTing SUPER objects, e.g. `UNPIVOT foo.obj[0] AS val AT attr`
 96            unpivot = self._match(TokenType.UNPIVOT)
 97            table = super()._parse_table(
 98                schema=schema,
 99                joins=joins,
100                alias_tokens=alias_tokens,
101                parse_bracket=parse_bracket,
102                is_db_reference=is_db_reference,
103            )
104
105            return self.expression(exp.Pivot, this=table, unpivot=True) if unpivot else table
106
107        def _parse_convert(
108            self, strict: bool, safe: t.Optional[bool] = None
109        ) -> t.Optional[exp.Expression]:
110            to = self._parse_types()
111            self._match(TokenType.COMMA)
112            this = self._parse_bitwise()
113            return self.expression(exp.TryCast, this=this, to=to, safe=safe)
114
115        def _parse_approximate_count(self) -> t.Optional[exp.ApproxDistinct]:
116            index = self._index - 1
117            func = self._parse_function()
118
119            if isinstance(func, exp.Count) and isinstance(func.this, exp.Distinct):
120                return self.expression(exp.ApproxDistinct, this=seq_get(func.this.expressions, 0))
121            self._retreat(index)
122            return None
123
124    class Tokenizer(Postgres.Tokenizer):
125        BIT_STRINGS = []
126        HEX_STRINGS = []
127        STRING_ESCAPES = ["\\", "'"]
128
129        KEYWORDS = {
130            **Postgres.Tokenizer.KEYWORDS,
131            "(+)": TokenType.JOIN_MARKER,
132            "HLLSKETCH": TokenType.HLLSKETCH,
133            "MINUS": TokenType.EXCEPT,
134            "SUPER": TokenType.SUPER,
135            "TOP": TokenType.TOP,
136            "UNLOAD": TokenType.COMMAND,
137            "VARBYTE": TokenType.VARBINARY,
138        }
139        KEYWORDS.pop("VALUES")
140
141        # Redshift allows # to appear as a table identifier prefix
142        SINGLE_TOKENS = Postgres.Tokenizer.SINGLE_TOKENS.copy()
143        SINGLE_TOKENS.pop("#")
144
145    class Generator(Postgres.Generator):
146        LOCKING_READS_SUPPORTED = False
147        QUERY_HINTS = False
148        VALUES_AS_TABLE = False
149        TZ_TO_WITH_TIME_ZONE = True
150        NVL2_SUPPORTED = True
151        LAST_DAY_SUPPORTS_DATE_PART = False
152        CAN_IMPLEMENT_ARRAY_ANY = False
153        MULTI_ARG_DISTINCT = True
154        COPY_PARAMS_ARE_WRAPPED = False
155        HEX_FUNC = "TO_HEX"
156        PARSE_JSON_NAME = "JSON_PARSE"
157
158        # Redshift doesn't have `WITH` as part of their with_properties so we remove it
159        WITH_PROPERTIES_PREFIX = " "
160
161        TYPE_MAPPING = {
162            **Postgres.Generator.TYPE_MAPPING,
163            exp.DataType.Type.BINARY: "VARBYTE",
164            exp.DataType.Type.INT: "INTEGER",
165            exp.DataType.Type.TIMETZ: "TIME",
166            exp.DataType.Type.TIMESTAMPTZ: "TIMESTAMP",
167            exp.DataType.Type.VARBINARY: "VARBYTE",
168            exp.DataType.Type.ROWVERSION: "VARBYTE",
169        }
170
171        TRANSFORMS = {
172            **Postgres.Generator.TRANSFORMS,
173            exp.Concat: concat_to_dpipe_sql,
174            exp.ConcatWs: concat_ws_to_dpipe_sql,
175            exp.ApproxDistinct: lambda self,
176            e: f"APPROXIMATE COUNT(DISTINCT {self.sql(e, 'this')})",
177            exp.CurrentTimestamp: lambda self, e: (
178                "SYSDATE" if e.args.get("transaction") else "GETDATE()"
179            ),
180            exp.DateAdd: date_delta_sql("DATEADD"),
181            exp.DateDiff: date_delta_sql("DATEDIFF"),
182            exp.DistKeyProperty: lambda self, e: self.func("DISTKEY", e.this),
183            exp.DistStyleProperty: lambda self, e: self.naked_property(e),
184            exp.FromBase: rename_func("STRTOL"),
185            exp.GeneratedAsIdentityColumnConstraint: generatedasidentitycolumnconstraint_sql,
186            exp.JSONExtract: json_extract_segments("JSON_EXTRACT_PATH_TEXT"),
187            exp.JSONExtractScalar: json_extract_segments("JSON_EXTRACT_PATH_TEXT"),
188            exp.GroupConcat: rename_func("LISTAGG"),
189            exp.Hex: lambda self, e: self.func("UPPER", self.func("TO_HEX", self.sql(e, "this"))),
190            exp.Select: transforms.preprocess(
191                [
192                    transforms.eliminate_distinct_on,
193                    transforms.eliminate_semi_and_anti_joins,
194                    transforms.unqualify_unnest,
195                ]
196            ),
197            exp.SortKeyProperty: lambda self,
198            e: f"{'COMPOUND ' if e.args['compound'] else ''}SORTKEY({self.format_args(*e.this)})",
199            exp.StartsWith: lambda self,
200            e: f"{self.sql(e.this)} LIKE {self.sql(e.expression)} || '%'",
201            exp.StringToArray: rename_func("SPLIT_TO_ARRAY"),
202            exp.TableSample: no_tablesample_sql,
203            exp.TsOrDsAdd: date_delta_sql("DATEADD"),
204            exp.TsOrDsDiff: date_delta_sql("DATEDIFF"),
205            exp.UnixToTime: lambda self,
206            e: f"(TIMESTAMP 'epoch' + {self.sql(e.this)} * INTERVAL '1 SECOND')",
207        }
208
209        # Postgres maps exp.Pivot to no_pivot_sql, but Redshift support pivots
210        TRANSFORMS.pop(exp.Pivot)
211
212        # Postgres doesn't support JSON_PARSE, but Redshift does
213        TRANSFORMS.pop(exp.ParseJSON)
214
215        # Redshift uses the POW | POWER (expr1, expr2) syntax instead of expr1 ^ expr2 (postgres)
216        TRANSFORMS.pop(exp.Pow)
217
218        # Redshift supports these functions
219        TRANSFORMS.pop(exp.AnyValue)
220        TRANSFORMS.pop(exp.LastDay)
221        TRANSFORMS.pop(exp.SHA2)
222
223        RESERVED_KEYWORDS = {
224            "aes128",
225            "aes256",
226            "all",
227            "allowoverwrite",
228            "analyse",
229            "analyze",
230            "and",
231            "any",
232            "array",
233            "as",
234            "asc",
235            "authorization",
236            "az64",
237            "backup",
238            "between",
239            "binary",
240            "blanksasnull",
241            "both",
242            "bytedict",
243            "bzip2",
244            "case",
245            "cast",
246            "check",
247            "collate",
248            "column",
249            "constraint",
250            "create",
251            "credentials",
252            "cross",
253            "current_date",
254            "current_time",
255            "current_timestamp",
256            "current_user",
257            "current_user_id",
258            "default",
259            "deferrable",
260            "deflate",
261            "defrag",
262            "delta",
263            "delta32k",
264            "desc",
265            "disable",
266            "distinct",
267            "do",
268            "else",
269            "emptyasnull",
270            "enable",
271            "encode",
272            "encrypt     ",
273            "encryption",
274            "end",
275            "except",
276            "explicit",
277            "false",
278            "for",
279            "foreign",
280            "freeze",
281            "from",
282            "full",
283            "globaldict256",
284            "globaldict64k",
285            "grant",
286            "group",
287            "gzip",
288            "having",
289            "identity",
290            "ignore",
291            "ilike",
292            "in",
293            "initially",
294            "inner",
295            "intersect",
296            "interval",
297            "into",
298            "is",
299            "isnull",
300            "join",
301            "leading",
302            "left",
303            "like",
304            "limit",
305            "localtime",
306            "localtimestamp",
307            "lun",
308            "luns",
309            "lzo",
310            "lzop",
311            "minus",
312            "mostly16",
313            "mostly32",
314            "mostly8",
315            "natural",
316            "new",
317            "not",
318            "notnull",
319            "null",
320            "nulls",
321            "off",
322            "offline",
323            "offset",
324            "oid",
325            "old",
326            "on",
327            "only",
328            "open",
329            "or",
330            "order",
331            "outer",
332            "overlaps",
333            "parallel",
334            "partition",
335            "percent",
336            "permissions",
337            "pivot",
338            "placing",
339            "primary",
340            "raw",
341            "readratio",
342            "recover",
343            "references",
344            "rejectlog",
345            "resort",
346            "respect",
347            "restore",
348            "right",
349            "select",
350            "session_user",
351            "similar",
352            "snapshot",
353            "some",
354            "sysdate",
355            "system",
356            "table",
357            "tag",
358            "tdes",
359            "text255",
360            "text32k",
361            "then",
362            "timestamp",
363            "to",
364            "top",
365            "trailing",
366            "true",
367            "truncatecolumns",
368            "type",
369            "union",
370            "unique",
371            "unnest",
372            "unpivot",
373            "user",
374            "using",
375            "verbose",
376            "wallet",
377            "when",
378            "where",
379            "with",
380            "without",
381        }
382
383        def unnest_sql(self, expression: exp.Unnest) -> str:
384            args = expression.expressions
385            num_args = len(args)
386
387            if num_args > 1:
388                self.unsupported(f"Unsupported number of arguments in UNNEST: {num_args}")
389                return ""
390
391            arg = self.sql(seq_get(args, 0))
392            alias = self.expressions(expression.args.get("alias"), key="columns", flat=True)
393            return f"{arg} AS {alias}" if alias else arg
394
395        def cast_sql(self, expression: exp.Cast, safe_prefix: t.Optional[str] = None) -> str:
396            if expression.is_type(exp.DataType.Type.JSON):
397                # Redshift doesn't support a JSON type, so casting to it is treated as a noop
398                return self.sql(expression, "this")
399
400            return super().cast_sql(expression, safe_prefix=safe_prefix)
401
402        def datatype_sql(self, expression: exp.DataType) -> str:
403            """
404            Redshift converts the `TEXT` data type to `VARCHAR(255)` by default when people more generally mean
405            VARCHAR of max length which is `VARCHAR(max)` in Redshift. Therefore if we get a `TEXT` data type
406            without precision we convert it to `VARCHAR(max)` and if it does have precision then we just convert
407            `TEXT` to `VARCHAR`.
408            """
409            if expression.is_type("text"):
410                expression.set("this", exp.DataType.Type.VARCHAR)
411                precision = expression.args.get("expressions")
412
413                if not precision:
414                    expression.append("expressions", exp.var("MAX"))
415
416            return super().datatype_sql(expression)
417
418        def alterset_sql(self, expression: exp.AlterSet) -> str:
419            exprs = self.expressions(expression, flat=True)
420            exprs = f" TABLE PROPERTIES ({exprs})" if exprs else ""
421            location = self.sql(expression, "location")
422            location = f" LOCATION {location}" if location else ""
423            file_format = self.expressions(expression, key="file_format", flat=True, sep=" ")
424            file_format = f" FILE FORMAT {file_format}" if file_format else ""
425
426            return f"SET{exprs}{location}{file_format}"
NORMALIZATION_STRATEGY = <NormalizationStrategy.CASE_INSENSITIVE: 'CASE_INSENSITIVE'>

Specifies the strategy according to which identifiers should be normalized.

SUPPORTS_USER_DEFINED_TYPES = False

Whether user-defined data types are supported.

INDEX_OFFSET = 0

The base index offset for arrays.

COPY_PARAMS_ARE_CSV = False

Whether COPY statement parameters are separated by comma or whitespace

HEX_LOWERCASE = True

Whether the HEX function returns a lowercase hexadecimal string.

TIME_FORMAT = "'YYYY-MM-DD HH:MI:SS'"
TIME_MAPPING: Dict[str, str] = {'AM': '%p', 'PM': '%p', 'D': '%u', 'DD': '%d', 'DDD': '%j', 'FMDD': '%-d', 'FMDDD': '%-j', 'FMHH12': '%-I', 'FMHH24': '%-H', 'FMMI': '%-M', 'FMMM': '%-m', 'FMSS': '%-S', 'HH12': '%I', 'HH24': '%H', 'MI': '%M', 'MM': '%m', 'OF': '%z', 'SS': '%S', 'TMDay': '%A', 'TMDy': '%a', 'TMMon': '%b', 'TMMonth': '%B', 'TZ': '%Z', 'US': '%f', 'WW': '%U', 'YY': '%y', 'YYYY': '%Y', 'MON': '%b', 'HH': '%H'}

Associates this dialect's time formats with their equivalent Python strftime formats.

SUPPORTS_COLUMN_JOIN_MARKS = True

Whether the old-style outer join (+) syntax is supported.

UNESCAPED_SEQUENCES: Dict[str, str] = {'\\a': '\x07', '\\b': '\x08', '\\f': '\x0c', '\\n': '\n', '\\r': '\r', '\\t': '\t', '\\v': '\x0b', '\\\\': '\\'}

Mapping of an escaped sequence (\n) to its unescaped version ( ).

tokenizer_class = <class 'Redshift.Tokenizer'>
jsonpath_tokenizer_class = <class 'sqlglot.tokens.JSONPathTokenizer'>
parser_class = <class 'Redshift.Parser'>
generator_class = <class 'Redshift.Generator'>
TIME_TRIE: Dict = {'A': {'M': {0: True}}, 'P': {'M': {0: True}}, 'D': {0: True, 'D': {0: True, 'D': {0: True}}}, 'F': {'M': {'D': {'D': {0: True, 'D': {0: True}}}, 'H': {'H': {'1': {'2': {0: True}}, '2': {'4': {0: True}}}}, 'M': {'I': {0: True}, 'M': {0: True}}, 'S': {'S': {0: True}}}}, 'H': {'H': {'1': {'2': {0: True}}, '2': {'4': {0: True}}, 0: True}}, 'M': {'I': {0: True}, 'M': {0: True}, 'O': {'N': {0: True}}}, 'O': {'F': {0: True}}, 'S': {'S': {0: True}}, 'T': {'M': {'D': {'a': {'y': {0: True}}, 'y': {0: True}}, 'M': {'o': {'n': {0: True, 't': {'h': {0: True}}}}}}, 'Z': {0: True}}, 'U': {'S': {0: True}}, 'W': {'W': {0: True}}, 'Y': {'Y': {0: True, 'Y': {'Y': {0: True}}}}}
FORMAT_TRIE: Dict = {'A': {'M': {0: True}}, 'P': {'M': {0: True}}, 'D': {0: True, 'D': {0: True, 'D': {0: True}}}, 'F': {'M': {'D': {'D': {0: True, 'D': {0: True}}}, 'H': {'H': {'1': {'2': {0: True}}, '2': {'4': {0: True}}}}, 'M': {'I': {0: True}, 'M': {0: True}}, 'S': {'S': {0: True}}}}, 'H': {'H': {'1': {'2': {0: True}}, '2': {'4': {0: True}}, 0: True}}, 'M': {'I': {0: True}, 'M': {0: True}, 'O': {'N': {0: True}}}, 'O': {'F': {0: True}}, 'S': {'S': {0: True}}, 'T': {'M': {'D': {'a': {'y': {0: True}}, 'y': {0: True}}, 'M': {'o': {'n': {0: True, 't': {'h': {0: True}}}}}}, 'Z': {0: True}}, 'U': {'S': {0: True}}, 'W': {'W': {0: True}}, 'Y': {'Y': {0: True, 'Y': {'Y': {0: True}}}}}
INVERSE_TIME_MAPPING: Dict[str, str] = {'%p': 'PM', '%u': 'D', '%d': 'DD', '%j': 'DDD', '%-d': 'FMDD', '%-j': 'FMDDD', '%-I': 'FMHH12', '%-H': 'FMHH24', '%-M': 'FMMI', '%-m': 'FMMM', '%-S': 'FMSS', '%I': 'HH12', '%H': 'HH', '%M': 'MI', '%m': 'MM', '%z': 'OF', '%S': 'SS', '%A': 'TMDay', '%a': 'TMDy', '%b': 'MON', '%B': 'TMMonth', '%Z': 'TZ', '%f': 'US', '%U': 'WW', '%y': 'YY', '%Y': 'YYYY'}
INVERSE_TIME_TRIE: Dict = {'%': {'p': {0: True}, 'u': {0: True}, 'd': {0: True}, 'j': {0: True}, '-': {'d': {0: True}, 'j': {0: True}, 'I': {0: True}, 'H': {0: True}, 'M': {0: True}, 'm': {0: True}, 'S': {0: True}}, 'I': {0: True}, 'H': {0: True}, 'M': {0: True}, 'm': {0: True}, 'z': {0: True}, 'S': {0: True}, 'A': {0: True}, 'a': {0: True}, 'b': {0: True}, 'B': {0: True}, 'Z': {0: True}, 'f': {0: True}, 'U': {0: True}, 'y': {0: True}, 'Y': {0: True}}}
INVERSE_FORMAT_MAPPING: Dict[str, str] = {}
INVERSE_FORMAT_TRIE: Dict = {}
ESCAPED_SEQUENCES: Dict[str, str] = {'\x07': '\\a', '\x08': '\\b', '\x0c': '\\f', '\n': '\\n', '\r': '\\r', '\t': '\\t', '\x0b': '\\v', '\\': '\\\\'}
QUOTE_START = "'"
QUOTE_END = "'"
IDENTIFIER_START = '"'
IDENTIFIER_END = '"'
BIT_START: Optional[str] = None
BIT_END: Optional[str] = None
HEX_START: Optional[str] = None
HEX_END: Optional[str] = None
BYTE_START: Optional[str] = "e'"
BYTE_END: Optional[str] = "'"
UNICODE_START: Optional[str] = None
UNICODE_END: Optional[str] = None
class Redshift.Parser(sqlglot.dialects.postgres.Postgres.Parser):
 57    class Parser(Postgres.Parser):
 58        FUNCTIONS = {
 59            **Postgres.Parser.FUNCTIONS,
 60            "ADD_MONTHS": lambda args: exp.TsOrDsAdd(
 61                this=seq_get(args, 0),
 62                expression=seq_get(args, 1),
 63                unit=exp.var("month"),
 64                return_type=exp.DataType.build("TIMESTAMP"),
 65            ),
 66            "DATEADD": _build_date_delta(exp.TsOrDsAdd),
 67            "DATE_ADD": _build_date_delta(exp.TsOrDsAdd),
 68            "DATEDIFF": _build_date_delta(exp.TsOrDsDiff),
 69            "DATE_DIFF": _build_date_delta(exp.TsOrDsDiff),
 70            "GETDATE": exp.CurrentTimestamp.from_arg_list,
 71            "LISTAGG": exp.GroupConcat.from_arg_list,
 72            "SPLIT_TO_ARRAY": lambda args: exp.StringToArray(
 73                this=seq_get(args, 0), expression=seq_get(args, 1) or exp.Literal.string(",")
 74            ),
 75            "STRTOL": exp.FromBase.from_arg_list,
 76        }
 77
 78        NO_PAREN_FUNCTION_PARSERS = {
 79            **Postgres.Parser.NO_PAREN_FUNCTION_PARSERS,
 80            "APPROXIMATE": lambda self: self._parse_approximate_count(),
 81            "SYSDATE": lambda self: self.expression(exp.CurrentTimestamp, transaction=True),
 82        }
 83
 84        SUPPORTS_IMPLICIT_UNNEST = True
 85
 86        def _parse_table(
 87            self,
 88            schema: bool = False,
 89            joins: bool = False,
 90            alias_tokens: t.Optional[t.Collection[TokenType]] = None,
 91            parse_bracket: bool = False,
 92            is_db_reference: bool = False,
 93            parse_partition: bool = False,
 94        ) -> t.Optional[exp.Expression]:
 95            # Redshift supports UNPIVOTing SUPER objects, e.g. `UNPIVOT foo.obj[0] AS val AT attr`
 96            unpivot = self._match(TokenType.UNPIVOT)
 97            table = super()._parse_table(
 98                schema=schema,
 99                joins=joins,
100                alias_tokens=alias_tokens,
101                parse_bracket=parse_bracket,
102                is_db_reference=is_db_reference,
103            )
104
105            return self.expression(exp.Pivot, this=table, unpivot=True) if unpivot else table
106
107        def _parse_convert(
108            self, strict: bool, safe: t.Optional[bool] = None
109        ) -> t.Optional[exp.Expression]:
110            to = self._parse_types()
111            self._match(TokenType.COMMA)
112            this = self._parse_bitwise()
113            return self.expression(exp.TryCast, this=this, to=to, safe=safe)
114
115        def _parse_approximate_count(self) -> t.Optional[exp.ApproxDistinct]:
116            index = self._index - 1
117            func = self._parse_function()
118
119            if isinstance(func, exp.Count) and isinstance(func.this, exp.Distinct):
120                return self.expression(exp.ApproxDistinct, this=seq_get(func.this.expressions, 0))
121            self._retreat(index)
122            return None

Parser consumes a list of tokens produced by the Tokenizer and produces a parsed syntax tree.

Arguments:
  • error_level: The desired error level. Default: ErrorLevel.IMMEDIATE
  • error_message_context: The amount of context to capture from a query string when displaying the error message (in number of characters). Default: 100
  • max_errors: Maximum number of error messages to include in a raised ParseError. This is only relevant if error_level is ErrorLevel.RAISE. Default: 3
FUNCTIONS = {'ABS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Abs'>>, 'ADD_MONTHS': <function Redshift.Parser.<lambda>>, 'ANONYMOUS_AGG_FUNC': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.AnonymousAggFunc'>>, 'ANY_VALUE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.AnyValue'>>, 'APPROX_DISTINCT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ApproxDistinct'>>, 'APPROX_COUNT_DISTINCT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ApproxDistinct'>>, 'APPROX_QUANTILE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ApproxQuantile'>>, 'APPROX_TOP_K': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ApproxTopK'>>, 'ARG_MAX': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArgMax'>>, 'ARGMAX': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArgMax'>>, 'MAX_BY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArgMax'>>, 'ARG_MIN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArgMin'>>, 'ARGMIN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArgMin'>>, 'MIN_BY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArgMin'>>, 'ARRAY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Array'>>, 'ARRAY_AGG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayAgg'>>, 'ARRAY_ALL': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayAll'>>, 'ARRAY_ANY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayAny'>>, 'ARRAY_CONCAT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayConcat'>>, 'ARRAY_CAT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayConcat'>>, 'ARRAY_CONSTRUCT_COMPACT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayConstructCompact'>>, 'ARRAY_CONTAINS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayContains'>>, 'ARRAY_HAS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayContains'>>, 'ARRAY_CONTAINS_ALL': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayContainsAll'>>, 'ARRAY_HAS_ALL': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayContainsAll'>>, 'FILTER': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayFilter'>>, 'ARRAY_FILTER': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayFilter'>>, 'ARRAY_OVERLAPS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayOverlaps'>>, 'ARRAY_SIZE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArraySize'>>, 'ARRAY_LENGTH': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArraySize'>>, 'ARRAY_SORT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArraySort'>>, 'ARRAY_SUM': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArraySum'>>, 'ARRAY_TO_STRING': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayToString'>>, 'ARRAY_JOIN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayToString'>>, 'ARRAY_UNION_AGG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayUnionAgg'>>, 'ARRAY_UNIQUE_AGG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayUniqueAgg'>>, 'AVG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Avg'>>, 'CASE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Case'>>, 'CAST': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Cast'>>, 'CAST_TO_STR_TYPE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CastToStrType'>>, 'CBRT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Cbrt'>>, 'CEIL': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Ceil'>>, 'CEILING': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Ceil'>>, 'CHR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Chr'>>, 'CHAR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Chr'>>, 'COALESCE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Coalesce'>>, 'IFNULL': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Coalesce'>>, 'NVL': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Coalesce'>>, 'COLLATE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Collate'>>, 'COMBINED_AGG_FUNC': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CombinedAggFunc'>>, 'COMBINED_PARAMETERIZED_AGG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CombinedParameterizedAgg'>>, 'CONCAT': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'CONCAT_WS': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'CONNECT_BY_ROOT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ConnectByRoot'>>, 'CONVERT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Convert'>>, 'CORR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Corr'>>, 'COUNT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Count'>>, 'COUNT_IF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CountIf'>>, 'COUNTIF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CountIf'>>, 'COVAR_POP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CovarPop'>>, 'COVAR_SAMP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CovarSamp'>>, 'CURRENT_DATE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CurrentDate'>>, 'CURRENT_DATETIME': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CurrentDatetime'>>, 'CURRENT_TIME': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CurrentTime'>>, 'CURRENT_TIMESTAMP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CurrentTimestamp'>>, 'CURRENT_USER': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CurrentUser'>>, 'DATE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Date'>>, 'DATE_ADD': <function _build_date_delta.<locals>._builder>, 'DATEDIFF': <function _build_date_delta.<locals>._builder>, 'DATE_DIFF': <function _build_date_delta.<locals>._builder>, 'DATE_FROM_PARTS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateFromParts'>>, 'DATEFROMPARTS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateFromParts'>>, 'DATE_STR_TO_DATE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateStrToDate'>>, 'DATE_SUB': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateSub'>>, 'DATE_TO_DATE_STR': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'DATE_TO_DI': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateToDi'>>, 'DATE_TRUNC': <function build_timestamp_trunc>, 'DATETIME': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Datetime'>>, 'DATETIME_ADD': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DatetimeAdd'>>, 'DATETIME_DIFF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DatetimeDiff'>>, 'DATETIME_SUB': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DatetimeSub'>>, 'DATETIME_TRUNC': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DatetimeTrunc'>>, 'DAY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Day'>>, 'DAY_OF_MONTH': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DayOfMonth'>>, 'DAYOFMONTH': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DayOfMonth'>>, 'DAY_OF_WEEK': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DayOfWeek'>>, 'DAYOFWEEK': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DayOfWeek'>>, 'DAY_OF_YEAR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DayOfYear'>>, 'DAYOFYEAR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DayOfYear'>>, 'DECODE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Decode'>>, 'DI_TO_DATE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DiToDate'>>, 'ENCODE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Encode'>>, 'EXP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Exp'>>, 'EXPLODE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Explode'>>, 'EXPLODE_OUTER': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ExplodeOuter'>>, 'EXTRACT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Extract'>>, 'FIRST': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.First'>>, 'FIRST_VALUE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.FirstValue'>>, 'FLATTEN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Flatten'>>, 'FLOOR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Floor'>>, 'FROM_BASE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.FromBase'>>, 'FROM_BASE64': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.FromBase64'>>, 'GAP_FILL': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.GapFill'>>, 'GENERATE_DATE_ARRAY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.GenerateDateArray'>>, 'GENERATE_SERIES': <function _build_generate_series>, 'GREATEST': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Greatest'>>, 'GROUP_CONCAT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.GroupConcat'>>, 'HEX': <function build_hex>, 'HLL': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Hll'>>, 'IF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.If'>>, 'IIF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.If'>>, 'INITCAP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Initcap'>>, 'IS_INF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.IsInf'>>, 'ISINF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.IsInf'>>, 'IS_NAN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.IsNan'>>, 'ISNAN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.IsNan'>>, 'J_S_O_N_ARRAY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONArray'>>, 'J_S_O_N_ARRAY_AGG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONArrayAgg'>>, 'JSON_ARRAY_CONTAINS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONArrayContains'>>, 'JSONB_CONTAINS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONBContains'>>, 'JSONB_EXTRACT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONBExtract'>>, 'JSONB_EXTRACT_SCALAR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONBExtractScalar'>>, 'JSON_EXTRACT': <function build_extract_json_with_path.<locals>._builder>, 'JSON_EXTRACT_SCALAR': <function build_extract_json_with_path.<locals>._builder>, 'JSON_FORMAT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONFormat'>>, 'J_S_O_N_OBJECT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONObject'>>, 'J_S_O_N_OBJECT_AGG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONObjectAgg'>>, 'J_S_O_N_TABLE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONTable'>>, 'LAG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Lag'>>, 'LAST': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Last'>>, 'LAST_DAY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LastDay'>>, 'LAST_DAY_OF_MONTH': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LastDay'>>, 'LAST_VALUE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LastValue'>>, 'LEAD': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Lead'>>, 'LEAST': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Least'>>, 'LEFT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Left'>>, 'LENGTH': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Length'>>, 'LEN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Length'>>, 'LEVENSHTEIN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Levenshtein'>>, 'LIST': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.List'>>, 'LN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Ln'>>, 'LOG': <function build_logarithm>, 'LOGICAL_AND': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LogicalAnd'>>, 'BOOL_AND': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LogicalAnd'>>, 'BOOLAND_AGG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LogicalAnd'>>, 'LOGICAL_OR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LogicalOr'>>, 'BOOL_OR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LogicalOr'>>, 'BOOLOR_AGG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LogicalOr'>>, 'LOWER': <function build_lower>, 'LCASE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Lower'>>, 'LOWER_HEX': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LowerHex'>>, 'MD5': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.MD5'>>, 'MD5_DIGEST': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.MD5Digest'>>, 'MAP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Map'>>, 'MAP_FROM_ENTRIES': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.MapFromEntries'>>, 'MATCH_AGAINST': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.MatchAgainst'>>, 'MAX': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Max'>>, 'MIN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Min'>>, 'MONTH': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Month'>>, 'MONTHS_BETWEEN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.MonthsBetween'>>, 'NEXT_VALUE_FOR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.NextValueFor'>>, 'NTH_VALUE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.NthValue'>>, 'NULLIF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Nullif'>>, 'NUMBER_TO_STR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.NumberToStr'>>, 'NVL2': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Nvl2'>>, 'OBJECT_INSERT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ObjectInsert'>>, 'OPEN_J_S_O_N': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.OpenJSON'>>, 'PAD': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Pad'>>, 'PARAMETERIZED_AGG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ParameterizedAgg'>>, 'PARSE_JSON': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ParseJSON'>>, 'JSON_PARSE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ParseJSON'>>, 'PERCENTILE_CONT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.PercentileCont'>>, 'PERCENTILE_DISC': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.PercentileDisc'>>, 'POSEXPLODE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Posexplode'>>, 'POSEXPLODE_OUTER': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.PosexplodeOuter'>>, 'POWER': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Pow'>>, 'POW': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Pow'>>, 'PREDICT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Predict'>>, 'QUANTILE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Quantile'>>, 'QUARTER': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Quarter'>>, 'RAND': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Rand'>>, 'RANDOM': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Rand'>>, 'RANDN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Randn'>>, 'RANGE_N': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RangeN'>>, 'READ_CSV': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ReadCSV'>>, 'REDUCE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Reduce'>>, 'REGEXP_EXTRACT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RegexpExtract'>>, 'REGEXP_I_LIKE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RegexpILike'>>, 'REGEXP_LIKE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RegexpLike'>>, 'REGEXP_REPLACE': <function _build_regexp_replace>, 'REGEXP_SPLIT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RegexpSplit'>>, 'REPEAT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Repeat'>>, 'RIGHT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Right'>>, 'ROUND': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Round'>>, 'ROW_NUMBER': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RowNumber'>>, 'SHA': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SHA'>>, 'SHA1': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SHA'>>, 'SHA2': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SHA2'>>, 'SAFE_DIVIDE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SafeDivide'>>, 'SIGN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Sign'>>, 'SIGNUM': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Sign'>>, 'SORT_ARRAY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SortArray'>>, 'SPLIT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Split'>>, 'SQRT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Sqrt'>>, 'STANDARD_HASH': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StandardHash'>>, 'STAR_MAP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StarMap'>>, 'STARTS_WITH': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StartsWith'>>, 'STARTSWITH': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StartsWith'>>, 'STDDEV': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Stddev'>>, 'STDEV': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Stddev'>>, 'STDDEV_POP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StddevPop'>>, 'STDDEV_SAMP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StddevSamp'>>, 'STR_POSITION': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StrPosition'>>, 'STR_TO_DATE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StrToDate'>>, 'STR_TO_MAP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StrToMap'>>, 'STR_TO_TIME': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StrToTime'>>, 'STR_TO_UNIX': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StrToUnix'>>, 'STRING_TO_ARRAY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StringToArray'>>, 'SPLIT_BY_STRING': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StringToArray'>>, 'STRUCT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Struct'>>, 'STRUCT_EXTRACT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StructExtract'>>, 'STUFF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Stuff'>>, 'INSERT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Stuff'>>, 'SUBSTRING': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Substring'>>, 'SUM': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Sum'>>, 'TIME': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Time'>>, 'TIME_ADD': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeAdd'>>, 'TIME_DIFF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeDiff'>>, 'TIME_FROM_PARTS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeFromParts'>>, 'TIMEFROMPARTS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeFromParts'>>, 'TIME_STR_TO_DATE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeStrToDate'>>, 'TIME_STR_TO_TIME': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeStrToTime'>>, 'TIME_STR_TO_UNIX': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeStrToUnix'>>, 'TIME_SUB': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeSub'>>, 'TIME_TO_STR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeToStr'>>, 'TIME_TO_TIME_STR': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'TIME_TO_UNIX': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeToUnix'>>, 'TIME_TRUNC': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeTrunc'>>, 'TIMESTAMP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Timestamp'>>, 'TIMESTAMP_ADD': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimestampAdd'>>, 'TIMESTAMPDIFF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimestampDiff'>>, 'TIMESTAMP_DIFF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimestampDiff'>>, 'TIMESTAMP_FROM_PARTS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimestampFromParts'>>, 'TIMESTAMPFROMPARTS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimestampFromParts'>>, 'TIMESTAMP_SUB': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimestampSub'>>, 'TIMESTAMP_TRUNC': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimestampTrunc'>>, 'TO_ARRAY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ToArray'>>, 'TO_BASE64': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ToBase64'>>, 'TO_CHAR': <function build_formatted_time.<locals>._builder>, 'TO_DAYS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ToDays'>>, 'TO_MAP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ToMap'>>, 'TO_NUMBER': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ToNumber'>>, 'TRANSFORM': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Transform'>>, 'TRIM': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Trim'>>, 'TRY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Try'>>, 'TRY_CAST': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TryCast'>>, 'TS_OR_DI_TO_DI': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TsOrDiToDi'>>, 'TS_OR_DS_ADD': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TsOrDsAdd'>>, 'TS_OR_DS_DIFF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TsOrDsDiff'>>, 'TS_OR_DS_TO_DATE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TsOrDsToDate'>>, 'TS_OR_DS_TO_DATE_STR': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'TS_OR_DS_TO_TIME': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TsOrDsToTime'>>, 'TS_OR_DS_TO_TIMESTAMP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TsOrDsToTimestamp'>>, 'UNHEX': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Unhex'>>, 'UNIX_DATE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.UnixDate'>>, 'UNIX_TO_STR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.UnixToStr'>>, 'UNIX_TO_TIME': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.UnixToTime'>>, 'UNIX_TO_TIME_STR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.UnixToTimeStr'>>, 'UNNEST': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Explode'>>, 'UPPER': <function build_upper>, 'UCASE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Upper'>>, 'VAR_MAP': <function build_var_map>, 'VARIANCE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Variance'>>, 'VARIANCE_SAMP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Variance'>>, 'VAR_SAMP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Variance'>>, 'VARIANCE_POP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.VariancePop'>>, 'VAR_POP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.VariancePop'>>, 'WEEK': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Week'>>, 'WEEK_OF_YEAR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.WeekOfYear'>>, 'WEEKOFYEAR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.WeekOfYear'>>, 'WHEN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.When'>>, 'X_M_L_TABLE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.XMLTable'>>, 'XOR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Xor'>>, 'YEAR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Year'>>, 'GLOB': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'JSON_EXTRACT_PATH_TEXT': <function build_json_extract_path.<locals>._builder>, 'LIKE': <function build_like>, 'LOG2': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'LOG10': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'LPAD': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'LEFTPAD': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'MOD': <function build_mod>, 'RPAD': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'RIGHTPAD': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'SCOPE_RESOLUTION': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'TO_HEX': <function build_hex>, 'DIV': <function Postgres.Parser.<lambda>>, 'JSON_EXTRACT_PATH': <function build_json_extract_path.<locals>._builder>, 'MAKE_TIME': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeFromParts'>>, 'MAKE_TIMESTAMP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimestampFromParts'>>, 'NOW': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CurrentTimestamp'>>, 'TO_DATE': <function build_formatted_time.<locals>._builder>, 'TO_TIMESTAMP': <function _build_to_timestamp>, 'SHA256': <function Postgres.Parser.<lambda>>, 'SHA384': <function Postgres.Parser.<lambda>>, 'SHA512': <function Postgres.Parser.<lambda>>, 'DATEADD': <function _build_date_delta.<locals>._builder>, 'GETDATE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CurrentTimestamp'>>, 'LISTAGG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.GroupConcat'>>, 'SPLIT_TO_ARRAY': <function Redshift.Parser.<lambda>>, 'STRTOL': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.FromBase'>>}
NO_PAREN_FUNCTION_PARSERS = {'ANY': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'CASE': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'CONNECT_BY_ROOT': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'IF': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'NEXT': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'APPROXIMATE': <function Redshift.Parser.<lambda>>, 'SYSDATE': <function Redshift.Parser.<lambda>>}
SUPPORTS_IMPLICIT_UNNEST = True
ID_VAR_TOKENS = {<TokenType.UNNEST: 'UNNEST'>, <TokenType.TEXT: 'TEXT'>, <TokenType.FILTER: 'FILTER'>, <TokenType.TIMESTAMPLTZ: 'TIMESTAMPLTZ'>, <TokenType.TSTZMULTIRANGE: 'TSTZMULTIRANGE'>, <TokenType.ANY: 'ANY'>, <TokenType.TIMESTAMP_NS: 'TIMESTAMP_NS'>, <TokenType.NCHAR: 'NCHAR'>, <TokenType.FULL: 'FULL'>, <TokenType.LIST: 'LIST'>, <TokenType.TEMPORARY: 'TEMPORARY'>, <TokenType.UPDATE: 'UPDATE'>, <TokenType.IPPREFIX: 'IPPREFIX'>, <TokenType.VECTOR: 'VECTOR'>, <TokenType.TRUE: 'TRUE'>, <TokenType.NUMMULTIRANGE: 'NUMMULTIRANGE'>, <TokenType.NUMRANGE: 'NUMRANGE'>, <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, <TokenType.TAG: 'TAG'>, <TokenType.UINT256: 'UINT256'>, <TokenType.SUPER: 'SUPER'>, <TokenType.RANGE: 'RANGE'>, <TokenType.DOUBLE: 'DOUBLE'>, <TokenType.VARIANT: 'VARIANT'>, <TokenType.ISNULL: 'ISNULL'>, <TokenType.YEAR: 'YEAR'>, <TokenType.INTERVAL: 'INTERVAL'>, <TokenType.TDIGEST: 'TDIGEST'>, <TokenType.GEOMETRY: 'GEOMETRY'>, <TokenType.LEFT: 'LEFT'>, <TokenType.IPV6: 'IPV6'>, <TokenType.ASOF: 'ASOF'>, <TokenType.ALL: 'ALL'>, <TokenType.NEXT: 'NEXT'>, <TokenType.TSTZRANGE: 'TSTZRANGE'>, <TokenType.EXECUTE: 'EXECUTE'>, <TokenType.TOP: 'TOP'>, <TokenType.EXISTS: 'EXISTS'>, <TokenType.BPCHAR: 'BPCHAR'>, <TokenType.DATETIME: 'DATETIME'>, <TokenType.INT8RANGE: 'INT8RANGE'>, <TokenType.JSONB: 'JSONB'>, <TokenType.FIXEDSTRING: 'FIXEDSTRING'>, <TokenType.FUNCTION: 'FUNCTION'>, <TokenType.SMALLMONEY: 'SMALLMONEY'>, <TokenType.INT4RANGE: 'INT4RANGE'>, <TokenType.DICTIONARY: 'DICTIONARY'>, <TokenType.COMMENT: 'COMMENT'>, <TokenType.ROWS: 'ROWS'>, <TokenType.SMALLINT: 'SMALLINT'>, <TokenType.ROW: 'ROW'>, <TokenType.VARBINARY: 'VARBINARY'>, <TokenType.NULLABLE: 'NULLABLE'>, <TokenType.OVERWRITE: 'OVERWRITE'>, <TokenType.STREAMLIT: 'STREAMLIT'>, <TokenType.SEMI: 'SEMI'>, <TokenType.IPV4: 'IPV4'>, <TokenType.SCHEMA: 'SCHEMA'>, <TokenType.STRAIGHT_JOIN: 'STRAIGHT_JOIN'>, <TokenType.DELETE: 'DELETE'>, <TokenType.PRAGMA: 'PRAGMA'>, <TokenType.RECURSIVE: 'RECURSIVE'>, <TokenType.DEFAULT: 'DEFAULT'>, <TokenType.DIV: 'DIV'>, <TokenType.FLOAT: 'FLOAT'>, <TokenType.STORAGE_INTEGRATION: 'STORAGE_INTEGRATION'>, <TokenType.FALSE: 'FALSE'>, <TokenType.CURRENT_TIME: 'CURRENT_TIME'>, <TokenType.TIMETZ: 'TIMETZ'>, <TokenType.USE: 'USE'>, <TokenType.TABLE: 'TABLE'>, <TokenType.UMEDIUMINT: 'UMEDIUMINT'>, <TokenType.SOME: 'SOME'>, <TokenType.CURRENT_TIMESTAMP: 'CURRENT_TIMESTAMP'>, <TokenType.IMAGE: 'IMAGE'>, <TokenType.FIRST: 'FIRST'>, <TokenType.AGGREGATEFUNCTION: 'AGGREGATEFUNCTION'>, <TokenType.INT8MULTIRANGE: 'INT8MULTIRANGE'>, <TokenType.LONGBLOB: 'LONGBLOB'>, <TokenType.CASE: 'CASE'>, <TokenType.INT: 'INT'>, <TokenType.PIVOT: 'PIVOT'>, <TokenType.OVERLAPS: 'OVERLAPS'>, <TokenType.ASC: 'ASC'>, <TokenType.SMALLSERIAL: 'SMALLSERIAL'>, <TokenType.UNIQUEIDENTIFIER: 'UNIQUEIDENTIFIER'>, <TokenType.IPADDRESS: 'IPADDRESS'>, <TokenType.OPERATOR: 'OPERATOR'>, <TokenType.REFRESH: 'REFRESH'>, <TokenType.BEGIN: 'BEGIN'>, <TokenType.NESTED: 'NESTED'>, <TokenType.HSTORE: 'HSTORE'>, <TokenType.INT128: 'INT128'>, <TokenType.UDECIMAL: 'UDECIMAL'>, <TokenType.AUTO_INCREMENT: 'AUTO_INCREMENT'>, <TokenType.FINAL: 'FINAL'>, <TokenType.FORMAT: 'FORMAT'>, <TokenType.ROLLUP: 'ROLLUP'>, <TokenType.TIMESTAMPTZ: 'TIMESTAMPTZ'>, <TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER: 'OBJECT_IDENTIFIER'>, <TokenType.SEQUENCE: 'SEQUENCE'>, <TokenType.CACHE: 'CACHE'>, <TokenType.TIMESTAMP_S: 'TIMESTAMP_S'>, <TokenType.NAME: 'NAME'>, <TokenType.UNIQUE: 'UNIQUE'>, <TokenType.COLLATE: 'COLLATE'>, <TokenType.NULL: 'NULL'>, <TokenType.REPLACE: 'REPLACE'>, <TokenType.COPY: 'COPY'>, <TokenType.USMALLINT: 'USMALLINT'>, <TokenType.INET: 'INET'>, <TokenType.DATETIME64: 'DATETIME64'>, <TokenType.VAR: 'VAR'>, <TokenType.BINARY: 'BINARY'>, <TokenType.DATERANGE: 'DATERANGE'>, <TokenType.UNKNOWN: 'UNKNOWN'>, <TokenType.NATURAL: 'NATURAL'>, <TokenType.SHOW: 'SHOW'>, <TokenType.DATE: 'DATE'>, <TokenType.BIGDECIMAL: 'BIGDECIMAL'>, <TokenType.SERIAL: 'SERIAL'>, <TokenType.SIMPLEAGGREGATEFUNCTION: 'SIMPLEAGGREGATEFUNCTION'>, <TokenType.INT4MULTIRANGE: 'INT4MULTIRANGE'>, <TokenType.CURRENT_USER: 'CURRENT_USER'>, <TokenType.ENUM16: 'ENUM16'>, <TokenType.VIEW: 'VIEW'>, <TokenType.SETTINGS: 'SETTINGS'>, <TokenType.BIGSERIAL: 'BIGSERIAL'>, <TokenType.XML: 'XML'>, <TokenType.CONSTRAINT: 'CONSTRAINT'>, <TokenType.DECIMAL: 'DECIMAL'>, <TokenType.MAP: 'MAP'>, <TokenType.CURRENT_DATETIME: 'CURRENT_DATETIME'>, <TokenType.OBJECT: 'OBJECT'>, <TokenType.STRUCT: 'STRUCT'>, <TokenType.DATE32: 'DATE32'>, <TokenType.DESC: 'DESC'>, <TokenType.ENUM: 'ENUM'>, <TokenType.WAREHOUSE: 'WAREHOUSE'>, <TokenType.UNPIVOT: 'UNPIVOT'>, <TokenType.BIGINT: 'BIGINT'>, <TokenType.PROCEDURE: 'PROCEDURE'>, <TokenType.GEOGRAPHY: 'GEOGRAPHY'>, <TokenType.DESCRIBE: 'DESCRIBE'>, <TokenType.PSEUDO_TYPE: 'PSEUDO_TYPE'>, <TokenType.MERGE: 'MERGE'>, <TokenType.ESCAPE: 'ESCAPE'>, <TokenType.WINDOW: 'WINDOW'>, <TokenType.COMMIT: 'COMMIT'>, <TokenType.IDENTIFIER: 'IDENTIFIER'>, <TokenType.DATEMULTIRANGE: 'DATEMULTIRANGE'>, <TokenType.TIME: 'TIME'>, <TokenType.ROWVERSION: 'ROWVERSION'>, <TokenType.NVARCHAR: 'NVARCHAR'>, <TokenType.CHAR: 'CHAR'>, <TokenType.MEDIUMINT: 'MEDIUMINT'>, <TokenType.PERCENT: 'PERCENT'>, <TokenType.IS: 'IS'>, <TokenType.VOLATILE: 'VOLATILE'>, <TokenType.MODEL: 'MODEL'>, <TokenType.DATABASE: 'DATABASE'>, <TokenType.TSMULTIRANGE: 'TSMULTIRANGE'>, <TokenType.UTINYINT: 'UTINYINT'>, <TokenType.MONEY: 'MONEY'>, <TokenType.MEDIUMTEXT: 'MEDIUMTEXT'>, <TokenType.ARRAY: 'ARRAY'>, <TokenType.KEEP: 'KEEP'>, <TokenType.INDEX: 'INDEX'>, <TokenType.UINT128: 'UINT128'>, <TokenType.CURRENT_DATE: 'CURRENT_DATE'>, <TokenType.TINYBLOB: 'TINYBLOB'>, <TokenType.TIMESTAMP_MS: 'TIMESTAMP_MS'>, <TokenType.JSON: 'JSON'>, <TokenType.SET: 'SET'>, <TokenType.RIGHT: 'RIGHT'>, <TokenType.BIT: 'BIT'>, <TokenType.MEDIUMBLOB: 'MEDIUMBLOB'>, <TokenType.TSRANGE: 'TSRANGE'>, <TokenType.LOWCARDINALITY: 'LOWCARDINALITY'>, <TokenType.TRUNCATE: 'TRUNCATE'>, <TokenType.LOAD: 'LOAD'>, <TokenType.TINYTEXT: 'TINYTEXT'>, <TokenType.END: 'END'>, <TokenType.TINYINT: 'TINYINT'>, <TokenType.BOOLEAN: 'BOOLEAN'>, <TokenType.TIMESTAMP: 'TIMESTAMP'>, <TokenType.COLUMN: 'COLUMN'>, <TokenType.REFERENCES: 'REFERENCES'>, <TokenType.UINT: 'UINT'>, <TokenType.KILL: 'KILL'>, <TokenType.PARTITION: 'PARTITION'>, <TokenType.UUID: 'UUID'>, <TokenType.APPLY: 'APPLY'>, <TokenType.INT256: 'INT256'>, <TokenType.TIMESTAMPNTZ: 'TIMESTAMPNTZ'>, <TokenType.HLLSKETCH: 'HLLSKETCH'>, <TokenType.FOREIGN_KEY: 'FOREIGN_KEY'>, <TokenType.UBIGINT: 'UBIGINT'>, <TokenType.ORDINALITY: 'ORDINALITY'>, <TokenType.LONGTEXT: 'LONGTEXT'>, <TokenType.USERDEFINED: 'USERDEFINED'>, <TokenType.VARCHAR: 'VARCHAR'>, <TokenType.ENUM8: 'ENUM8'>, <TokenType.OFFSET: 'OFFSET'>, <TokenType.ANTI: 'ANTI'>}
TABLE_ALIAS_TOKENS = {<TokenType.UNNEST: 'UNNEST'>, <TokenType.TEXT: 'TEXT'>, <TokenType.FILTER: 'FILTER'>, <TokenType.TIMESTAMPLTZ: 'TIMESTAMPLTZ'>, <TokenType.TSTZMULTIRANGE: 'TSTZMULTIRANGE'>, <TokenType.ANY: 'ANY'>, <TokenType.TIMESTAMP_NS: 'TIMESTAMP_NS'>, <TokenType.NCHAR: 'NCHAR'>, <TokenType.LIST: 'LIST'>, <TokenType.TEMPORARY: 'TEMPORARY'>, <TokenType.UPDATE: 'UPDATE'>, <TokenType.IPPREFIX: 'IPPREFIX'>, <TokenType.VECTOR: 'VECTOR'>, <TokenType.TRUE: 'TRUE'>, <TokenType.NUMMULTIRANGE: 'NUMMULTIRANGE'>, <TokenType.NUMRANGE: 'NUMRANGE'>, <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, <TokenType.TAG: 'TAG'>, <TokenType.UINT256: 'UINT256'>, <TokenType.SUPER: 'SUPER'>, <TokenType.RANGE: 'RANGE'>, <TokenType.DOUBLE: 'DOUBLE'>, <TokenType.VARIANT: 'VARIANT'>, <TokenType.ISNULL: 'ISNULL'>, <TokenType.YEAR: 'YEAR'>, <TokenType.INTERVAL: 'INTERVAL'>, <TokenType.TDIGEST: 'TDIGEST'>, <TokenType.GEOMETRY: 'GEOMETRY'>, <TokenType.IPV6: 'IPV6'>, <TokenType.ALL: 'ALL'>, <TokenType.NEXT: 'NEXT'>, <TokenType.TSTZRANGE: 'TSTZRANGE'>, <TokenType.EXECUTE: 'EXECUTE'>, <TokenType.TOP: 'TOP'>, <TokenType.EXISTS: 'EXISTS'>, <TokenType.BPCHAR: 'BPCHAR'>, <TokenType.DATETIME: 'DATETIME'>, <TokenType.INT8RANGE: 'INT8RANGE'>, <TokenType.JSONB: 'JSONB'>, <TokenType.FIXEDSTRING: 'FIXEDSTRING'>, <TokenType.FUNCTION: 'FUNCTION'>, <TokenType.SMALLMONEY: 'SMALLMONEY'>, <TokenType.INT4RANGE: 'INT4RANGE'>, <TokenType.DICTIONARY: 'DICTIONARY'>, <TokenType.COMMENT: 'COMMENT'>, <TokenType.ROWS: 'ROWS'>, <TokenType.SMALLINT: 'SMALLINT'>, <TokenType.ROW: 'ROW'>, <TokenType.VARBINARY: 'VARBINARY'>, <TokenType.NULLABLE: 'NULLABLE'>, <TokenType.OVERWRITE: 'OVERWRITE'>, <TokenType.STREAMLIT: 'STREAMLIT'>, <TokenType.IPV4: 'IPV4'>, <TokenType.STRAIGHT_JOIN: 'STRAIGHT_JOIN'>, <TokenType.SCHEMA: 'SCHEMA'>, <TokenType.DELETE: 'DELETE'>, <TokenType.PRAGMA: 'PRAGMA'>, <TokenType.RECURSIVE: 'RECURSIVE'>, <TokenType.DEFAULT: 'DEFAULT'>, <TokenType.DIV: 'DIV'>, <TokenType.FLOAT: 'FLOAT'>, <TokenType.STORAGE_INTEGRATION: 'STORAGE_INTEGRATION'>, <TokenType.FALSE: 'FALSE'>, <TokenType.CURRENT_TIME: 'CURRENT_TIME'>, <TokenType.TIMETZ: 'TIMETZ'>, <TokenType.USE: 'USE'>, <TokenType.TABLE: 'TABLE'>, <TokenType.UMEDIUMINT: 'UMEDIUMINT'>, <TokenType.SOME: 'SOME'>, <TokenType.CURRENT_TIMESTAMP: 'CURRENT_TIMESTAMP'>, <TokenType.IMAGE: 'IMAGE'>, <TokenType.FIRST: 'FIRST'>, <TokenType.AGGREGATEFUNCTION: 'AGGREGATEFUNCTION'>, <TokenType.INT8MULTIRANGE: 'INT8MULTIRANGE'>, <TokenType.LONGBLOB: 'LONGBLOB'>, <TokenType.CASE: 'CASE'>, <TokenType.INT: 'INT'>, <TokenType.PIVOT: 'PIVOT'>, <TokenType.OVERLAPS: 'OVERLAPS'>, <TokenType.ASC: 'ASC'>, <TokenType.SMALLSERIAL: 'SMALLSERIAL'>, <TokenType.UNIQUEIDENTIFIER: 'UNIQUEIDENTIFIER'>, <TokenType.IPADDRESS: 'IPADDRESS'>, <TokenType.OPERATOR: 'OPERATOR'>, <TokenType.REFRESH: 'REFRESH'>, <TokenType.BEGIN: 'BEGIN'>, <TokenType.NESTED: 'NESTED'>, <TokenType.HSTORE: 'HSTORE'>, <TokenType.INT128: 'INT128'>, <TokenType.UDECIMAL: 'UDECIMAL'>, <TokenType.AUTO_INCREMENT: 'AUTO_INCREMENT'>, <TokenType.FINAL: 'FINAL'>, <TokenType.FORMAT: 'FORMAT'>, <TokenType.ROLLUP: 'ROLLUP'>, <TokenType.TIMESTAMPTZ: 'TIMESTAMPTZ'>, <TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER: 'OBJECT_IDENTIFIER'>, <TokenType.SEQUENCE: 'SEQUENCE'>, <TokenType.CACHE: 'CACHE'>, <TokenType.TIMESTAMP_S: 'TIMESTAMP_S'>, <TokenType.NAME: 'NAME'>, <TokenType.UNIQUE: 'UNIQUE'>, <TokenType.COLLATE: 'COLLATE'>, <TokenType.NULL: 'NULL'>, <TokenType.REPLACE: 'REPLACE'>, <TokenType.COPY: 'COPY'>, <TokenType.USMALLINT: 'USMALLINT'>, <TokenType.INET: 'INET'>, <TokenType.DATETIME64: 'DATETIME64'>, <TokenType.VAR: 'VAR'>, <TokenType.BINARY: 'BINARY'>, <TokenType.DATERANGE: 'DATERANGE'>, <TokenType.UNKNOWN: 'UNKNOWN'>, <TokenType.SHOW: 'SHOW'>, <TokenType.DATE: 'DATE'>, <TokenType.BIGDECIMAL: 'BIGDECIMAL'>, <TokenType.SERIAL: 'SERIAL'>, <TokenType.SIMPLEAGGREGATEFUNCTION: 'SIMPLEAGGREGATEFUNCTION'>, <TokenType.INT4MULTIRANGE: 'INT4MULTIRANGE'>, <TokenType.CURRENT_USER: 'CURRENT_USER'>, <TokenType.ENUM16: 'ENUM16'>, <TokenType.VIEW: 'VIEW'>, <TokenType.SETTINGS: 'SETTINGS'>, <TokenType.BIGSERIAL: 'BIGSERIAL'>, <TokenType.XML: 'XML'>, <TokenType.CONSTRAINT: 'CONSTRAINT'>, <TokenType.DECIMAL: 'DECIMAL'>, <TokenType.MAP: 'MAP'>, <TokenType.CURRENT_DATETIME: 'CURRENT_DATETIME'>, <TokenType.OBJECT: 'OBJECT'>, <TokenType.STRUCT: 'STRUCT'>, <TokenType.DATE32: 'DATE32'>, <TokenType.DESC: 'DESC'>, <TokenType.ENUM: 'ENUM'>, <TokenType.WAREHOUSE: 'WAREHOUSE'>, <TokenType.UNPIVOT: 'UNPIVOT'>, <TokenType.BIGINT: 'BIGINT'>, <TokenType.PROCEDURE: 'PROCEDURE'>, <TokenType.GEOGRAPHY: 'GEOGRAPHY'>, <TokenType.DESCRIBE: 'DESCRIBE'>, <TokenType.PSEUDO_TYPE: 'PSEUDO_TYPE'>, <TokenType.MERGE: 'MERGE'>, <TokenType.ESCAPE: 'ESCAPE'>, <TokenType.COMMIT: 'COMMIT'>, <TokenType.IDENTIFIER: 'IDENTIFIER'>, <TokenType.DATEMULTIRANGE: 'DATEMULTIRANGE'>, <TokenType.TIME: 'TIME'>, <TokenType.ROWVERSION: 'ROWVERSION'>, <TokenType.NVARCHAR: 'NVARCHAR'>, <TokenType.CHAR: 'CHAR'>, <TokenType.MEDIUMINT: 'MEDIUMINT'>, <TokenType.PERCENT: 'PERCENT'>, <TokenType.IS: 'IS'>, <TokenType.VOLATILE: 'VOLATILE'>, <TokenType.MODEL: 'MODEL'>, <TokenType.DATABASE: 'DATABASE'>, <TokenType.TSMULTIRANGE: 'TSMULTIRANGE'>, <TokenType.UTINYINT: 'UTINYINT'>, <TokenType.MONEY: 'MONEY'>, <TokenType.MEDIUMTEXT: 'MEDIUMTEXT'>, <TokenType.ARRAY: 'ARRAY'>, <TokenType.KEEP: 'KEEP'>, <TokenType.INDEX: 'INDEX'>, <TokenType.UINT128: 'UINT128'>, <TokenType.CURRENT_DATE: 'CURRENT_DATE'>, <TokenType.TINYBLOB: 'TINYBLOB'>, <TokenType.TIMESTAMP_MS: 'TIMESTAMP_MS'>, <TokenType.JSON: 'JSON'>, <TokenType.SET: 'SET'>, <TokenType.BIT: 'BIT'>, <TokenType.MEDIUMBLOB: 'MEDIUMBLOB'>, <TokenType.TSRANGE: 'TSRANGE'>, <TokenType.LOWCARDINALITY: 'LOWCARDINALITY'>, <TokenType.TRUNCATE: 'TRUNCATE'>, <TokenType.LOAD: 'LOAD'>, <TokenType.TINYTEXT: 'TINYTEXT'>, <TokenType.END: 'END'>, <TokenType.TINYINT: 'TINYINT'>, <TokenType.BOOLEAN: 'BOOLEAN'>, <TokenType.TIMESTAMP: 'TIMESTAMP'>, <TokenType.COLUMN: 'COLUMN'>, <TokenType.REFERENCES: 'REFERENCES'>, <TokenType.UINT: 'UINT'>, <TokenType.KILL: 'KILL'>, <TokenType.PARTITION: 'PARTITION'>, <TokenType.UUID: 'UUID'>, <TokenType.INT256: 'INT256'>, <TokenType.TIMESTAMPNTZ: 'TIMESTAMPNTZ'>, <TokenType.HLLSKETCH: 'HLLSKETCH'>, <TokenType.FOREIGN_KEY: 'FOREIGN_KEY'>, <TokenType.UBIGINT: 'UBIGINT'>, <TokenType.ORDINALITY: 'ORDINALITY'>, <TokenType.LONGTEXT: 'LONGTEXT'>, <TokenType.USERDEFINED: 'USERDEFINED'>, <TokenType.VARCHAR: 'VARCHAR'>, <TokenType.ENUM8: 'ENUM8'>}
SHOW_TRIE: Dict = {}
SET_TRIE: Dict = {'GLOBAL': {0: True}, 'LOCAL': {0: True}, 'SESSION': {0: True}, 'TRANSACTION': {0: True}}
Inherited Members
sqlglot.parser.Parser
Parser
NO_PAREN_FUNCTIONS
STRUCT_TYPE_TOKENS
NESTED_TYPE_TOKENS
ENUM_TYPE_TOKENS
AGGREGATE_TYPE_TOKENS
TYPE_TOKENS
SIGNED_TO_UNSIGNED_TYPE_TOKEN
SUBQUERY_PREDICATES
RESERVED_TOKENS
DB_CREATABLES
CREATABLES
INTERVAL_VARS
ALIAS_TOKENS
ARRAY_CONSTRUCTORS
COMMENT_TABLE_ALIAS_TOKENS
UPDATE_ALIAS_TOKENS
TRIM_TYPES
FUNC_TOKENS
CONJUNCTION
ASSIGNMENT
DISJUNCTION
EQUALITY
COMPARISON
TERM
FACTOR
TIMES
TIMESTAMPS
SET_OPERATIONS
JOIN_METHODS
JOIN_SIDES
JOIN_KINDS
JOIN_HINTS
LAMBDAS
EXPRESSION_PARSERS
UNARY_PARSERS
STRING_PARSERS
NUMERIC_PARSERS
PRIMARY_PARSERS
PLACEHOLDER_PARSERS
CONSTRAINT_PARSERS
ALTER_PARSERS
ALTER_ALTER_PARSERS
SCHEMA_UNNAMED_CONSTRAINTS
INVALID_FUNC_NAME_TOKENS
FUNCTIONS_WITH_ALIASED_ARGS
KEY_VALUE_DEFINITIONS
QUERY_MODIFIER_PARSERS
SET_PARSERS
SHOW_PARSERS
TYPE_LITERAL_PARSERS
TYPE_CONVERTERS
DDL_SELECT_TOKENS
PRE_VOLATILE_TOKENS
TRANSACTION_KIND
TRANSACTION_CHARACTERISTICS
CONFLICT_ACTIONS
CREATE_SEQUENCE
ISOLATED_LOADING_OPTIONS
USABLES
CAST_ACTIONS
SCHEMA_BINDING_OPTIONS
KEY_CONSTRAINT_OPTIONS
INSERT_ALTERNATIVES
CLONE_KEYWORDS
HISTORICAL_DATA_PREFIX
HISTORICAL_DATA_KIND
OPCLASS_FOLLOW_KEYWORDS
OPTYPE_FOLLOW_TOKENS
TABLE_INDEX_HINT_TOKENS
VIEW_ATTRIBUTES
WINDOW_ALIAS_TOKENS
WINDOW_BEFORE_PAREN_TOKENS
WINDOW_SIDES
JSON_KEY_VALUE_SEPARATOR_TOKENS
FETCH_TOKENS
ADD_CONSTRAINT_TOKENS
DISTINCT_TOKENS
NULL_TOKENS
UNNEST_OFFSET_ALIAS_TOKENS
SELECT_START_TOKENS
COPY_INTO_VARLEN_OPTIONS
STRICT_CAST
PREFIXED_PIVOT_COLUMNS
IDENTIFY_PIVOT_STRINGS
LOG_DEFAULTS_TO_LN
ALTER_TABLE_ADD_REQUIRED_FOR_EACH_COLUMN
TABLESAMPLE_CSV
DEFAULT_SAMPLING_METHOD
SET_REQUIRES_ASSIGNMENT_DELIMITER
TRIM_PATTERN_FIRST
STRING_ALIASES
MODIFIERS_ATTACHED_TO_SET_OP
SET_OP_MODIFIERS
NO_PAREN_IF_COMMANDS
COLON_IS_VARIANT_EXTRACT
VALUES_FOLLOWED_BY_PAREN
INTERVAL_SPANS
SUPPORTS_PARTITION_SELECTION
error_level
error_message_context
max_errors
dialect
reset
parse
parse_into
check_errors
raise_error
expression
validate_expression
errors
sql
sqlglot.dialects.postgres.Postgres.Parser
PROPERTY_PARSERS
FUNCTION_PARSERS
BITWISE
EXPONENT
RANGE_PARSERS
STATEMENT_PARSERS
JSON_ARROWS_REQUIRE_JSON_TYPE
COLUMN_OPERATORS
class Redshift.Tokenizer(sqlglot.dialects.postgres.Postgres.Tokenizer):
124    class Tokenizer(Postgres.Tokenizer):
125        BIT_STRINGS = []
126        HEX_STRINGS = []
127        STRING_ESCAPES = ["\\", "'"]
128
129        KEYWORDS = {
130            **Postgres.Tokenizer.KEYWORDS,
131            "(+)": TokenType.JOIN_MARKER,
132            "HLLSKETCH": TokenType.HLLSKETCH,
133            "MINUS": TokenType.EXCEPT,
134            "SUPER": TokenType.SUPER,
135            "TOP": TokenType.TOP,
136            "UNLOAD": TokenType.COMMAND,
137            "VARBYTE": TokenType.VARBINARY,
138        }
139        KEYWORDS.pop("VALUES")
140
141        # Redshift allows # to appear as a table identifier prefix
142        SINGLE_TOKENS = Postgres.Tokenizer.SINGLE_TOKENS.copy()
143        SINGLE_TOKENS.pop("#")
BIT_STRINGS = []
HEX_STRINGS = []
STRING_ESCAPES = ['\\', "'"]
KEYWORDS = {'{%': <TokenType.BLOCK_START: 'BLOCK_START'>, '{%+': <TokenType.BLOCK_START: 'BLOCK_START'>, '{%-': <TokenType.BLOCK_START: 'BLOCK_START'>, '%}': <TokenType.BLOCK_END: 'BLOCK_END'>, '+%}': <TokenType.BLOCK_END: 'BLOCK_END'>, '-%}': <TokenType.BLOCK_END: 'BLOCK_END'>, '{{+': <TokenType.BLOCK_START: 'BLOCK_START'>, '{{-': <TokenType.BLOCK_START: 'BLOCK_START'>, '+}}': <TokenType.BLOCK_END: 'BLOCK_END'>, '-}}': <TokenType.BLOCK_END: 'BLOCK_END'>, '==': <TokenType.EQ: 'EQ'>, '::': <TokenType.DCOLON: 'DCOLON'>, '||': <TokenType.DPIPE: 'DPIPE'>, '>=': <TokenType.GTE: 'GTE'>, '<=': <TokenType.LTE: 'LTE'>, '<>': <TokenType.NEQ: 'NEQ'>, '!=': <TokenType.NEQ: 'NEQ'>, ':=': <TokenType.COLON_EQ: 'COLON_EQ'>, '<=>': <TokenType.NULLSAFE_EQ: 'NULLSAFE_EQ'>, '->': <TokenType.ARROW: 'ARROW'>, '->>': <TokenType.DARROW: 'DARROW'>, '=>': <TokenType.FARROW: 'FARROW'>, '#>': <TokenType.HASH_ARROW: 'HASH_ARROW'>, '#>>': <TokenType.DHASH_ARROW: 'DHASH_ARROW'>, '<->': <TokenType.LR_ARROW: 'LR_ARROW'>, '&&': <TokenType.DAMP: 'DAMP'>, '??': <TokenType.DQMARK: 'DQMARK'>, 'ALL': <TokenType.ALL: 'ALL'>, 'ALWAYS': <TokenType.ALWAYS: 'ALWAYS'>, 'AND': <TokenType.AND: 'AND'>, 'ANTI': <TokenType.ANTI: 'ANTI'>, 'ANY': <TokenType.ANY: 'ANY'>, 'ASC': <TokenType.ASC: 'ASC'>, 'AS': <TokenType.ALIAS: 'ALIAS'>, 'ASOF': <TokenType.ASOF: 'ASOF'>, 'AUTOINCREMENT': <TokenType.AUTO_INCREMENT: 'AUTO_INCREMENT'>, 'AUTO_INCREMENT': <TokenType.AUTO_INCREMENT: 'AUTO_INCREMENT'>, 'BEGIN': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'BETWEEN': <TokenType.BETWEEN: 'BETWEEN'>, 'CACHE': <TokenType.CACHE: 'CACHE'>, 'UNCACHE': <TokenType.UNCACHE: 'UNCACHE'>, 'CASE': <TokenType.CASE: 'CASE'>, 'CHARACTER SET': <TokenType.CHARACTER_SET: 'CHARACTER_SET'>, 'CLUSTER BY': <TokenType.CLUSTER_BY: 'CLUSTER_BY'>, 'COLLATE': <TokenType.COLLATE: 'COLLATE'>, 'COLUMN': <TokenType.COLUMN: 'COLUMN'>, 'COMMIT': <TokenType.COMMIT: 'COMMIT'>, 'CONNECT BY': <TokenType.CONNECT_BY: 'CONNECT_BY'>, 'CONSTRAINT': <TokenType.CONSTRAINT: 'CONSTRAINT'>, 'COPY': <TokenType.COPY: 'COPY'>, 'CREATE': <TokenType.CREATE: 'CREATE'>, 'CROSS': <TokenType.CROSS: 'CROSS'>, 'CUBE': <TokenType.CUBE: 'CUBE'>, 'CURRENT_DATE': <TokenType.CURRENT_DATE: 'CURRENT_DATE'>, 'CURRENT_TIME': <TokenType.CURRENT_TIME: 'CURRENT_TIME'>, 'CURRENT_TIMESTAMP': <TokenType.CURRENT_TIMESTAMP: 'CURRENT_TIMESTAMP'>, 'CURRENT_USER': <TokenType.CURRENT_USER: 'CURRENT_USER'>, 'DATABASE': <TokenType.DATABASE: 'DATABASE'>, 'DEFAULT': <TokenType.DEFAULT: 'DEFAULT'>, 'DELETE': <TokenType.DELETE: 'DELETE'>, 'DESC': <TokenType.DESC: 'DESC'>, 'DESCRIBE': <TokenType.DESCRIBE: 'DESCRIBE'>, 'DISTINCT': <TokenType.DISTINCT: 'DISTINCT'>, 'DISTRIBUTE BY': <TokenType.DISTRIBUTE_BY: 'DISTRIBUTE_BY'>, 'DROP': <TokenType.DROP: 'DROP'>, 'ELSE': <TokenType.ELSE: 'ELSE'>, 'END': <TokenType.END: 'END'>, 'ENUM': <TokenType.ENUM: 'ENUM'>, 'ESCAPE': <TokenType.ESCAPE: 'ESCAPE'>, 'EXCEPT': <TokenType.EXCEPT: 'EXCEPT'>, 'EXECUTE': <TokenType.EXECUTE: 'EXECUTE'>, 'EXISTS': <TokenType.EXISTS: 'EXISTS'>, 'FALSE': <TokenType.FALSE: 'FALSE'>, 'FETCH': <TokenType.FETCH: 'FETCH'>, 'FILTER': <TokenType.FILTER: 'FILTER'>, 'FIRST': <TokenType.FIRST: 'FIRST'>, 'FULL': <TokenType.FULL: 'FULL'>, 'FUNCTION': <TokenType.FUNCTION: 'FUNCTION'>, 'FOR': <TokenType.FOR: 'FOR'>, 'FOREIGN KEY': <TokenType.FOREIGN_KEY: 'FOREIGN_KEY'>, 'FORMAT': <TokenType.FORMAT: 'FORMAT'>, 'FROM': <TokenType.FROM: 'FROM'>, 'GEOGRAPHY': <TokenType.GEOGRAPHY: 'GEOGRAPHY'>, 'GEOMETRY': <TokenType.GEOMETRY: 'GEOMETRY'>, 'GLOB': <TokenType.GLOB: 'GLOB'>, 'GROUP BY': <TokenType.GROUP_BY: 'GROUP_BY'>, 'GROUPING SETS': <TokenType.GROUPING_SETS: 'GROUPING_SETS'>, 'HAVING': <TokenType.HAVING: 'HAVING'>, 'ILIKE': <TokenType.ILIKE: 'ILIKE'>, 'IN': <TokenType.IN: 'IN'>, 'INDEX': <TokenType.INDEX: 'INDEX'>, 'INET': <TokenType.INET: 'INET'>, 'INNER': <TokenType.INNER: 'INNER'>, 'INSERT': <TokenType.INSERT: 'INSERT'>, 'INTERVAL': <TokenType.INTERVAL: 'INTERVAL'>, 'INTERSECT': <TokenType.INTERSECT: 'INTERSECT'>, 'INTO': <TokenType.INTO: 'INTO'>, 'IS': <TokenType.IS: 'IS'>, 'ISNULL': <TokenType.ISNULL: 'ISNULL'>, 'JOIN': <TokenType.JOIN: 'JOIN'>, 'KEEP': <TokenType.KEEP: 'KEEP'>, 'KILL': <TokenType.KILL: 'KILL'>, 'LATERAL': <TokenType.LATERAL: 'LATERAL'>, 'LEFT': <TokenType.LEFT: 'LEFT'>, 'LIKE': <TokenType.LIKE: 'LIKE'>, 'LIMIT': <TokenType.LIMIT: 'LIMIT'>, 'LOAD': <TokenType.LOAD: 'LOAD'>, 'LOCK': <TokenType.LOCK: 'LOCK'>, 'MERGE': <TokenType.MERGE: 'MERGE'>, 'NATURAL': <TokenType.NATURAL: 'NATURAL'>, 'NEXT': <TokenType.NEXT: 'NEXT'>, 'NOT': <TokenType.NOT: 'NOT'>, 'NOTNULL': <TokenType.NOTNULL: 'NOTNULL'>, 'NULL': <TokenType.NULL: 'NULL'>, 'OBJECT': <TokenType.OBJECT: 'OBJECT'>, 'OFFSET': <TokenType.OFFSET: 'OFFSET'>, 'ON': <TokenType.ON: 'ON'>, 'OR': <TokenType.OR: 'OR'>, 'XOR': <TokenType.XOR: 'XOR'>, 'ORDER BY': <TokenType.ORDER_BY: 'ORDER_BY'>, 'ORDINALITY': <TokenType.ORDINALITY: 'ORDINALITY'>, 'OUTER': <TokenType.OUTER: 'OUTER'>, 'OVER': <TokenType.OVER: 'OVER'>, 'OVERLAPS': <TokenType.OVERLAPS: 'OVERLAPS'>, 'OVERWRITE': <TokenType.OVERWRITE: 'OVERWRITE'>, 'PARTITION': <TokenType.PARTITION: 'PARTITION'>, 'PARTITION BY': <TokenType.PARTITION_BY: 'PARTITION_BY'>, 'PARTITIONED BY': <TokenType.PARTITION_BY: 'PARTITION_BY'>, 'PARTITIONED_BY': <TokenType.PARTITION_BY: 'PARTITION_BY'>, 'PERCENT': <TokenType.PERCENT: 'PERCENT'>, 'PIVOT': <TokenType.PIVOT: 'PIVOT'>, 'PRAGMA': <TokenType.PRAGMA: 'PRAGMA'>, 'PRIMARY KEY': <TokenType.PRIMARY_KEY: 'PRIMARY_KEY'>, 'PROCEDURE': <TokenType.PROCEDURE: 'PROCEDURE'>, 'QUALIFY': <TokenType.QUALIFY: 'QUALIFY'>, 'RANGE': <TokenType.RANGE: 'RANGE'>, 'RECURSIVE': <TokenType.RECURSIVE: 'RECURSIVE'>, 'REGEXP': <TokenType.RLIKE: 'RLIKE'>, 'REPLACE': <TokenType.REPLACE: 'REPLACE'>, 'RETURNING': <TokenType.RETURNING: 'RETURNING'>, 'REFERENCES': <TokenType.REFERENCES: 'REFERENCES'>, 'RIGHT': <TokenType.RIGHT: 'RIGHT'>, 'RLIKE': <TokenType.RLIKE: 'RLIKE'>, 'ROLLBACK': <TokenType.ROLLBACK: 'ROLLBACK'>, 'ROLLUP': <TokenType.ROLLUP: 'ROLLUP'>, 'ROW': <TokenType.ROW: 'ROW'>, 'ROWS': <TokenType.ROWS: 'ROWS'>, 'SCHEMA': <TokenType.SCHEMA: 'SCHEMA'>, 'SELECT': <TokenType.SELECT: 'SELECT'>, 'SEMI': <TokenType.SEMI: 'SEMI'>, 'SET': <TokenType.SET: 'SET'>, 'SETTINGS': <TokenType.SETTINGS: 'SETTINGS'>, 'SHOW': <TokenType.SHOW: 'SHOW'>, 'SIMILAR TO': <TokenType.SIMILAR_TO: 'SIMILAR_TO'>, 'SOME': <TokenType.SOME: 'SOME'>, 'SORT BY': <TokenType.SORT_BY: 'SORT_BY'>, 'START WITH': <TokenType.START_WITH: 'START_WITH'>, 'STRAIGHT_JOIN': <TokenType.STRAIGHT_JOIN: 'STRAIGHT_JOIN'>, 'TABLE': <TokenType.TABLE: 'TABLE'>, 'TABLESAMPLE': <TokenType.TABLE_SAMPLE: 'TABLE_SAMPLE'>, 'TEMP': <TokenType.TEMPORARY: 'TEMPORARY'>, 'TEMPORARY': <TokenType.TEMPORARY: 'TEMPORARY'>, 'THEN': <TokenType.THEN: 'THEN'>, 'TRUE': <TokenType.TRUE: 'TRUE'>, 'TRUNCATE': <TokenType.TRUNCATE: 'TRUNCATE'>, 'UNION': <TokenType.UNION: 'UNION'>, 'UNKNOWN': <TokenType.UNKNOWN: 'UNKNOWN'>, 'UNNEST': <TokenType.UNNEST: 'UNNEST'>, 'UNPIVOT': <TokenType.UNPIVOT: 'UNPIVOT'>, 'UPDATE': <TokenType.UPDATE: 'UPDATE'>, 'USE': <TokenType.USE: 'USE'>, 'USING': <TokenType.USING: 'USING'>, 'UUID': <TokenType.UUID: 'UUID'>, 'VIEW': <TokenType.VIEW: 'VIEW'>, 'VOLATILE': <TokenType.VOLATILE: 'VOLATILE'>, 'WHEN': <TokenType.WHEN: 'WHEN'>, 'WHERE': <TokenType.WHERE: 'WHERE'>, 'WINDOW': <TokenType.WINDOW: 'WINDOW'>, 'WITH': <TokenType.WITH: 'WITH'>, 'APPLY': <TokenType.APPLY: 'APPLY'>, 'ARRAY': <TokenType.ARRAY: 'ARRAY'>, 'BIT': <TokenType.BIT: 'BIT'>, 'BOOL': <TokenType.BOOLEAN: 'BOOLEAN'>, 'BOOLEAN': <TokenType.BOOLEAN: 'BOOLEAN'>, 'BYTE': <TokenType.TINYINT: 'TINYINT'>, 'MEDIUMINT': <TokenType.MEDIUMINT: 'MEDIUMINT'>, 'INT1': <TokenType.TINYINT: 'TINYINT'>, 'TINYINT': <TokenType.TINYINT: 'TINYINT'>, 'INT16': <TokenType.SMALLINT: 'SMALLINT'>, 'SHORT': <TokenType.SMALLINT: 'SMALLINT'>, 'SMALLINT': <TokenType.SMALLINT: 'SMALLINT'>, 'INT128': <TokenType.INT128: 'INT128'>, 'HUGEINT': <TokenType.INT128: 'INT128'>, 'INT2': <TokenType.SMALLINT: 'SMALLINT'>, 'INTEGER': <TokenType.INT: 'INT'>, 'INT': <TokenType.INT: 'INT'>, 'INT4': <TokenType.INT: 'INT'>, 'INT32': <TokenType.INT: 'INT'>, 'INT64': <TokenType.BIGINT: 'BIGINT'>, 'LONG': <TokenType.BIGINT: 'BIGINT'>, 'BIGINT': <TokenType.BIGINT: 'BIGINT'>, 'INT8': <TokenType.BIGINT: 'BIGINT'>, 'UINT': <TokenType.UINT: 'UINT'>, 'DEC': <TokenType.DECIMAL: 'DECIMAL'>, 'DECIMAL': <TokenType.DECIMAL: 'DECIMAL'>, 'BIGDECIMAL': <TokenType.BIGDECIMAL: 'BIGDECIMAL'>, 'BIGNUMERIC': <TokenType.BIGDECIMAL: 'BIGDECIMAL'>, 'LIST': <TokenType.LIST: 'LIST'>, 'MAP': <TokenType.MAP: 'MAP'>, 'NULLABLE': <TokenType.NULLABLE: 'NULLABLE'>, 'NUMBER': <TokenType.DECIMAL: 'DECIMAL'>, 'NUMERIC': <TokenType.DECIMAL: 'DECIMAL'>, 'FIXED': <TokenType.DECIMAL: 'DECIMAL'>, 'REAL': <TokenType.FLOAT: 'FLOAT'>, 'FLOAT': <TokenType.DOUBLE: 'DOUBLE'>, 'FLOAT4': <TokenType.FLOAT: 'FLOAT'>, 'FLOAT8': <TokenType.DOUBLE: 'DOUBLE'>, 'DOUBLE': <TokenType.DOUBLE: 'DOUBLE'>, 'DOUBLE PRECISION': <TokenType.DOUBLE: 'DOUBLE'>, 'JSON': <TokenType.JSON: 'JSON'>, 'JSONB': <TokenType.JSONB: 'JSONB'>, 'CHAR': <TokenType.CHAR: 'CHAR'>, 'CHARACTER': <TokenType.CHAR: 'CHAR'>, 'NCHAR': <TokenType.NCHAR: 'NCHAR'>, 'VARCHAR': <TokenType.VARCHAR: 'VARCHAR'>, 'VARCHAR2': <TokenType.VARCHAR: 'VARCHAR'>, 'NVARCHAR': <TokenType.NVARCHAR: 'NVARCHAR'>, 'NVARCHAR2': <TokenType.NVARCHAR: 'NVARCHAR'>, 'BPCHAR': <TokenType.BPCHAR: 'BPCHAR'>, 'STR': <TokenType.TEXT: 'TEXT'>, 'STRING': <TokenType.TEXT: 'TEXT'>, 'TEXT': <TokenType.TEXT: 'TEXT'>, 'LONGTEXT': <TokenType.LONGTEXT: 'LONGTEXT'>, 'MEDIUMTEXT': <TokenType.MEDIUMTEXT: 'MEDIUMTEXT'>, 'TINYTEXT': <TokenType.TINYTEXT: 'TINYTEXT'>, 'CLOB': <TokenType.TEXT: 'TEXT'>, 'LONGVARCHAR': <TokenType.TEXT: 'TEXT'>, 'BINARY': <TokenType.BINARY: 'BINARY'>, 'BLOB': <TokenType.VARBINARY: 'VARBINARY'>, 'LONGBLOB': <TokenType.LONGBLOB: 'LONGBLOB'>, 'MEDIUMBLOB': <TokenType.MEDIUMBLOB: 'MEDIUMBLOB'>, 'TINYBLOB': <TokenType.TINYBLOB: 'TINYBLOB'>, 'BYTEA': <TokenType.VARBINARY: 'VARBINARY'>, 'VARBINARY': <TokenType.VARBINARY: 'VARBINARY'>, 'TIME': <TokenType.TIME: 'TIME'>, 'TIMETZ': <TokenType.TIMETZ: 'TIMETZ'>, 'TIMESTAMP': <TokenType.TIMESTAMP: 'TIMESTAMP'>, 'TIMESTAMPTZ': <TokenType.TIMESTAMPTZ: 'TIMESTAMPTZ'>, 'TIMESTAMPLTZ': <TokenType.TIMESTAMPLTZ: 'TIMESTAMPLTZ'>, 'TIMESTAMP_LTZ': <TokenType.TIMESTAMPLTZ: 'TIMESTAMPLTZ'>, 'TIMESTAMPNTZ': <TokenType.TIMESTAMPNTZ: 'TIMESTAMPNTZ'>, 'TIMESTAMP_NTZ': <TokenType.TIMESTAMPNTZ: 'TIMESTAMPNTZ'>, 'DATE': <TokenType.DATE: 'DATE'>, 'DATETIME': <TokenType.DATETIME: 'DATETIME'>, 'INT4RANGE': <TokenType.INT4RANGE: 'INT4RANGE'>, 'INT4MULTIRANGE': <TokenType.INT4MULTIRANGE: 'INT4MULTIRANGE'>, 'INT8RANGE': <TokenType.INT8RANGE: 'INT8RANGE'>, 'INT8MULTIRANGE': <TokenType.INT8MULTIRANGE: 'INT8MULTIRANGE'>, 'NUMRANGE': <TokenType.NUMRANGE: 'NUMRANGE'>, 'NUMMULTIRANGE': <TokenType.NUMMULTIRANGE: 'NUMMULTIRANGE'>, 'TSRANGE': <TokenType.TSRANGE: 'TSRANGE'>, 'TSMULTIRANGE': <TokenType.TSMULTIRANGE: 'TSMULTIRANGE'>, 'TSTZRANGE': <TokenType.TSTZRANGE: 'TSTZRANGE'>, 'TSTZMULTIRANGE': <TokenType.TSTZMULTIRANGE: 'TSTZMULTIRANGE'>, 'DATERANGE': <TokenType.DATERANGE: 'DATERANGE'>, 'DATEMULTIRANGE': <TokenType.DATEMULTIRANGE: 'DATEMULTIRANGE'>, 'UNIQUE': <TokenType.UNIQUE: 'UNIQUE'>, 'VECTOR': <TokenType.VECTOR: 'VECTOR'>, 'STRUCT': <TokenType.STRUCT: 'STRUCT'>, 'SEQUENCE': <TokenType.SEQUENCE: 'SEQUENCE'>, 'VARIANT': <TokenType.VARIANT: 'VARIANT'>, 'ALTER': <TokenType.ALTER: 'ALTER'>, 'ANALYZE': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'CALL': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'COMMENT': <TokenType.COMMENT: 'COMMENT'>, 'EXPLAIN': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'GRANT': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'OPTIMIZE': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'PREPARE': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'VACUUM': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'USER-DEFINED': <TokenType.USERDEFINED: 'USERDEFINED'>, 'FOR VERSION': <TokenType.VERSION_SNAPSHOT: 'VERSION_SNAPSHOT'>, 'FOR TIMESTAMP': <TokenType.TIMESTAMP_SNAPSHOT: 'TIMESTAMP_SNAPSHOT'>, '~~': <TokenType.LIKE: 'LIKE'>, '~~*': <TokenType.ILIKE: 'ILIKE'>, '~*': <TokenType.IRLIKE: 'IRLIKE'>, '~': <TokenType.RLIKE: 'RLIKE'>, '@@': <TokenType.DAT: 'DAT'>, '@>': <TokenType.AT_GT: 'AT_GT'>, '<@': <TokenType.LT_AT: 'LT_AT'>, '|/': <TokenType.PIPE_SLASH: 'PIPE_SLASH'>, '||/': <TokenType.DPIPE_SLASH: 'DPIPE_SLASH'>, 'BEGIN TRANSACTION': <TokenType.BEGIN: 'BEGIN'>, 'BIGSERIAL': <TokenType.BIGSERIAL: 'BIGSERIAL'>, 'CHARACTER VARYING': <TokenType.VARCHAR: 'VARCHAR'>, 'CONSTRAINT TRIGGER': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'CSTRING': <TokenType.PSEUDO_TYPE: 'PSEUDO_TYPE'>, 'DECLARE': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'DO': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'EXEC': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'HSTORE': <TokenType.HSTORE: 'HSTORE'>, 'MONEY': <TokenType.MONEY: 'MONEY'>, 'NAME': <TokenType.NAME: 'NAME'>, 'OID': <TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER: 'OBJECT_IDENTIFIER'>, 'ONLY': <TokenType.ONLY: 'ONLY'>, 'OPERATOR': <TokenType.OPERATOR: 'OPERATOR'>, 'REFRESH': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'REINDEX': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'RESET': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'REVOKE': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'SERIAL': <TokenType.SERIAL: 'SERIAL'>, 'SMALLSERIAL': <TokenType.SMALLSERIAL: 'SMALLSERIAL'>, 'REGCLASS': <TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER: 'OBJECT_IDENTIFIER'>, 'REGCOLLATION': <TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER: 'OBJECT_IDENTIFIER'>, 'REGCONFIG': <TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER: 'OBJECT_IDENTIFIER'>, 'REGDICTIONARY': <TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER: 'OBJECT_IDENTIFIER'>, 'REGNAMESPACE': <TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER: 'OBJECT_IDENTIFIER'>, 'REGOPER': <TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER: 'OBJECT_IDENTIFIER'>, 'REGOPERATOR': <TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER: 'OBJECT_IDENTIFIER'>, 'REGPROC': <TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER: 'OBJECT_IDENTIFIER'>, 'REGPROCEDURE': <TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER: 'OBJECT_IDENTIFIER'>, 'REGROLE': <TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER: 'OBJECT_IDENTIFIER'>, 'REGTYPE': <TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER: 'OBJECT_IDENTIFIER'>, '(+)': <TokenType.JOIN_MARKER: 'JOIN_MARKER'>, 'HLLSKETCH': <TokenType.HLLSKETCH: 'HLLSKETCH'>, 'MINUS': <TokenType.EXCEPT: 'EXCEPT'>, 'SUPER': <TokenType.SUPER: 'SUPER'>, 'TOP': <TokenType.TOP: 'TOP'>, 'UNLOAD': <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, 'VARBYTE': <TokenType.VARBINARY: 'VARBINARY'>}
SINGLE_TOKENS = {'(': <TokenType.L_PAREN: 'L_PAREN'>, ')': <TokenType.R_PAREN: 'R_PAREN'>, '[': <TokenType.L_BRACKET: 'L_BRACKET'>, ']': <TokenType.R_BRACKET: 'R_BRACKET'>, '{': <TokenType.L_BRACE: 'L_BRACE'>, '}': <TokenType.R_BRACE: 'R_BRACE'>, '&': <TokenType.AMP: 'AMP'>, '^': <TokenType.CARET: 'CARET'>, ':': <TokenType.COLON: 'COLON'>, ',': <TokenType.COMMA: 'COMMA'>, '.': <TokenType.DOT: 'DOT'>, '-': <TokenType.DASH: 'DASH'>, '=': <TokenType.EQ: 'EQ'>, '>': <TokenType.GT: 'GT'>, '<': <TokenType.LT: 'LT'>, '%': <TokenType.MOD: 'MOD'>, '!': <TokenType.NOT: 'NOT'>, '|': <TokenType.PIPE: 'PIPE'>, '+': <TokenType.PLUS: 'PLUS'>, ';': <TokenType.SEMICOLON: 'SEMICOLON'>, '/': <TokenType.SLASH: 'SLASH'>, '\\': <TokenType.BACKSLASH: 'BACKSLASH'>, '*': <TokenType.STAR: 'STAR'>, '~': <TokenType.TILDA: 'TILDA'>, '?': <TokenType.PLACEHOLDER: 'PLACEHOLDER'>, '@': <TokenType.PARAMETER: 'PARAMETER'>, "'": <TokenType.UNKNOWN: 'UNKNOWN'>, '`': <TokenType.UNKNOWN: 'UNKNOWN'>, '"': <TokenType.UNKNOWN: 'UNKNOWN'>, '$': <TokenType.HEREDOC_STRING: 'HEREDOC_STRING'>}
class Redshift.Generator(sqlglot.dialects.postgres.Postgres.Generator):
145    class Generator(Postgres.Generator):
146        LOCKING_READS_SUPPORTED = False
147        QUERY_HINTS = False
148        VALUES_AS_TABLE = False
149        TZ_TO_WITH_TIME_ZONE = True
150        NVL2_SUPPORTED = True
151        LAST_DAY_SUPPORTS_DATE_PART = False
152        CAN_IMPLEMENT_ARRAY_ANY = False
153        MULTI_ARG_DISTINCT = True
154        COPY_PARAMS_ARE_WRAPPED = False
155        HEX_FUNC = "TO_HEX"
156        PARSE_JSON_NAME = "JSON_PARSE"
157
158        # Redshift doesn't have `WITH` as part of their with_properties so we remove it
159        WITH_PROPERTIES_PREFIX = " "
160
161        TYPE_MAPPING = {
162            **Postgres.Generator.TYPE_MAPPING,
163            exp.DataType.Type.BINARY: "VARBYTE",
164            exp.DataType.Type.INT: "INTEGER",
165            exp.DataType.Type.TIMETZ: "TIME",
166            exp.DataType.Type.TIMESTAMPTZ: "TIMESTAMP",
167            exp.DataType.Type.VARBINARY: "VARBYTE",
168            exp.DataType.Type.ROWVERSION: "VARBYTE",
169        }
170
171        TRANSFORMS = {
172            **Postgres.Generator.TRANSFORMS,
173            exp.Concat: concat_to_dpipe_sql,
174            exp.ConcatWs: concat_ws_to_dpipe_sql,
175            exp.ApproxDistinct: lambda self,
176            e: f"APPROXIMATE COUNT(DISTINCT {self.sql(e, 'this')})",
177            exp.CurrentTimestamp: lambda self, e: (
178                "SYSDATE" if e.args.get("transaction") else "GETDATE()"
179            ),
180            exp.DateAdd: date_delta_sql("DATEADD"),
181            exp.DateDiff: date_delta_sql("DATEDIFF"),
182            exp.DistKeyProperty: lambda self, e: self.func("DISTKEY", e.this),
183            exp.DistStyleProperty: lambda self, e: self.naked_property(e),
184            exp.FromBase: rename_func("STRTOL"),
185            exp.GeneratedAsIdentityColumnConstraint: generatedasidentitycolumnconstraint_sql,
186            exp.JSONExtract: json_extract_segments("JSON_EXTRACT_PATH_TEXT"),
187            exp.JSONExtractScalar: json_extract_segments("JSON_EXTRACT_PATH_TEXT"),
188            exp.GroupConcat: rename_func("LISTAGG"),
189            exp.Hex: lambda self, e: self.func("UPPER", self.func("TO_HEX", self.sql(e, "this"))),
190            exp.Select: transforms.preprocess(
191                [
192                    transforms.eliminate_distinct_on,
193                    transforms.eliminate_semi_and_anti_joins,
194                    transforms.unqualify_unnest,
195                ]
196            ),
197            exp.SortKeyProperty: lambda self,
198            e: f"{'COMPOUND ' if e.args['compound'] else ''}SORTKEY({self.format_args(*e.this)})",
199            exp.StartsWith: lambda self,
200            e: f"{self.sql(e.this)} LIKE {self.sql(e.expression)} || '%'",
201            exp.StringToArray: rename_func("SPLIT_TO_ARRAY"),
202            exp.TableSample: no_tablesample_sql,
203            exp.TsOrDsAdd: date_delta_sql("DATEADD"),
204            exp.TsOrDsDiff: date_delta_sql("DATEDIFF"),
205            exp.UnixToTime: lambda self,
206            e: f"(TIMESTAMP 'epoch' + {self.sql(e.this)} * INTERVAL '1 SECOND')",
207        }
208
209        # Postgres maps exp.Pivot to no_pivot_sql, but Redshift support pivots
210        TRANSFORMS.pop(exp.Pivot)
211
212        # Postgres doesn't support JSON_PARSE, but Redshift does
213        TRANSFORMS.pop(exp.ParseJSON)
214
215        # Redshift uses the POW | POWER (expr1, expr2) syntax instead of expr1 ^ expr2 (postgres)
216        TRANSFORMS.pop(exp.Pow)
217
218        # Redshift supports these functions
219        TRANSFORMS.pop(exp.AnyValue)
220        TRANSFORMS.pop(exp.LastDay)
221        TRANSFORMS.pop(exp.SHA2)
222
223        RESERVED_KEYWORDS = {
224            "aes128",
225            "aes256",
226            "all",
227            "allowoverwrite",
228            "analyse",
229            "analyze",
230            "and",
231            "any",
232            "array",
233            "as",
234            "asc",
235            "authorization",
236            "az64",
237            "backup",
238            "between",
239            "binary",
240            "blanksasnull",
241            "both",
242            "bytedict",
243            "bzip2",
244            "case",
245            "cast",
246            "check",
247            "collate",
248            "column",
249            "constraint",
250            "create",
251            "credentials",
252            "cross",
253            "current_date",
254            "current_time",
255            "current_timestamp",
256            "current_user",
257            "current_user_id",
258            "default",
259            "deferrable",
260            "deflate",
261            "defrag",
262            "delta",
263            "delta32k",
264            "desc",
265            "disable",
266            "distinct",
267            "do",
268            "else",
269            "emptyasnull",
270            "enable",
271            "encode",
272            "encrypt     ",
273            "encryption",
274            "end",
275            "except",
276            "explicit",
277            "false",
278            "for",
279            "foreign",
280            "freeze",
281            "from",
282            "full",
283            "globaldict256",
284            "globaldict64k",
285            "grant",
286            "group",
287            "gzip",
288            "having",
289            "identity",
290            "ignore",
291            "ilike",
292            "in",
293            "initially",
294            "inner",
295            "intersect",
296            "interval",
297            "into",
298            "is",
299            "isnull",
300            "join",
301            "leading",
302            "left",
303            "like",
304            "limit",
305            "localtime",
306            "localtimestamp",
307            "lun",
308            "luns",
309            "lzo",
310            "lzop",
311            "minus",
312            "mostly16",
313            "mostly32",
314            "mostly8",
315            "natural",
316            "new",
317            "not",
318            "notnull",
319            "null",
320            "nulls",
321            "off",
322            "offline",
323            "offset",
324            "oid",
325            "old",
326            "on",
327            "only",
328            "open",
329            "or",
330            "order",
331            "outer",
332            "overlaps",
333            "parallel",
334            "partition",
335            "percent",
336            "permissions",
337            "pivot",
338            "placing",
339            "primary",
340            "raw",
341            "readratio",
342            "recover",
343            "references",
344            "rejectlog",
345            "resort",
346            "respect",
347            "restore",
348            "right",
349            "select",
350            "session_user",
351            "similar",
352            "snapshot",
353            "some",
354            "sysdate",
355            "system",
356            "table",
357            "tag",
358            "tdes",
359            "text255",
360            "text32k",
361            "then",
362            "timestamp",
363            "to",
364            "top",
365            "trailing",
366            "true",
367            "truncatecolumns",
368            "type",
369            "union",
370            "unique",
371            "unnest",
372            "unpivot",
373            "user",
374            "using",
375            "verbose",
376            "wallet",
377            "when",
378            "where",
379            "with",
380            "without",
381        }
382
383        def unnest_sql(self, expression: exp.Unnest) -> str:
384            args = expression.expressions
385            num_args = len(args)
386
387            if num_args > 1:
388                self.unsupported(f"Unsupported number of arguments in UNNEST: {num_args}")
389                return ""
390
391            arg = self.sql(seq_get(args, 0))
392            alias = self.expressions(expression.args.get("alias"), key="columns", flat=True)
393            return f"{arg} AS {alias}" if alias else arg
394
395        def cast_sql(self, expression: exp.Cast, safe_prefix: t.Optional[str] = None) -> str:
396            if expression.is_type(exp.DataType.Type.JSON):
397                # Redshift doesn't support a JSON type, so casting to it is treated as a noop
398                return self.sql(expression, "this")
399
400            return super().cast_sql(expression, safe_prefix=safe_prefix)
401
402        def datatype_sql(self, expression: exp.DataType) -> str:
403            """
404            Redshift converts the `TEXT` data type to `VARCHAR(255)` by default when people more generally mean
405            VARCHAR of max length which is `VARCHAR(max)` in Redshift. Therefore if we get a `TEXT` data type
406            without precision we convert it to `VARCHAR(max)` and if it does have precision then we just convert
407            `TEXT` to `VARCHAR`.
408            """
409            if expression.is_type("text"):
410                expression.set("this", exp.DataType.Type.VARCHAR)
411                precision = expression.args.get("expressions")
412
413                if not precision:
414                    expression.append("expressions", exp.var("MAX"))
415
416            return super().datatype_sql(expression)
417
418        def alterset_sql(self, expression: exp.AlterSet) -> str:
419            exprs = self.expressions(expression, flat=True)
420            exprs = f" TABLE PROPERTIES ({exprs})" if exprs else ""
421            location = self.sql(expression, "location")
422            location = f" LOCATION {location}" if location else ""
423            file_format = self.expressions(expression, key="file_format", flat=True, sep=" ")
424            file_format = f" FILE FORMAT {file_format}" if file_format else ""
425
426            return f"SET{exprs}{location}{file_format}"

Generator converts a given syntax tree to the corresponding SQL string.

Arguments:
  • pretty: Whether to format the produced SQL string. Default: False.
  • identify: Determines when an identifier should be quoted. Possible values are: False (default): Never quote, except in cases where it's mandatory by the dialect. True or 'always': Always quote. 'safe': Only quote identifiers that are case insensitive.
  • normalize: Whether to normalize identifiers to lowercase. Default: False.
  • pad: The pad size in a formatted string. For example, this affects the indentation of a projection in a query, relative to its nesting level. Default: 2.
  • indent: The indentation size in a formatted string. For example, this affects the indentation of subqueries and filters under a WHERE clause. Default: 2.
  • normalize_functions: How to normalize function names. Possible values are: "upper" or True (default): Convert names to uppercase. "lower": Convert names to lowercase. False: Disables function name normalization.
  • unsupported_level: Determines the generator's behavior when it encounters unsupported expressions. Default ErrorLevel.WARN.
  • max_unsupported: Maximum number of unsupported messages to include in a raised UnsupportedError. This is only relevant if unsupported_level is ErrorLevel.RAISE. Default: 3
  • leading_comma: Whether the comma is leading or trailing in select expressions. This is only relevant when generating in pretty mode. Default: False
  • max_text_width: The max number of characters in a segment before creating new lines in pretty mode. The default is on the smaller end because the length only represents a segment and not the true line length. Default: 80
  • comments: Whether to preserve comments in the output SQL code. Default: True
LOCKING_READS_SUPPORTED = False
QUERY_HINTS = False
VALUES_AS_TABLE = False
TZ_TO_WITH_TIME_ZONE = True
NVL2_SUPPORTED = True
LAST_DAY_SUPPORTS_DATE_PART = False
CAN_IMPLEMENT_ARRAY_ANY = False
MULTI_ARG_DISTINCT = True
COPY_PARAMS_ARE_WRAPPED = False
HEX_FUNC = 'TO_HEX'
PARSE_JSON_NAME = 'JSON_PARSE'
WITH_PROPERTIES_PREFIX = ' '
TYPE_MAPPING = {<Type.NCHAR: 'NCHAR'>: 'CHAR', <Type.NVARCHAR: 'NVARCHAR'>: 'VARCHAR', <Type.MEDIUMTEXT: 'MEDIUMTEXT'>: 'TEXT', <Type.LONGTEXT: 'LONGTEXT'>: 'TEXT', <Type.TINYTEXT: 'TINYTEXT'>: 'TEXT', <Type.MEDIUMBLOB: 'MEDIUMBLOB'>: 'BLOB', <Type.LONGBLOB: 'LONGBLOB'>: 'BLOB', <Type.TINYBLOB: 'TINYBLOB'>: 'BLOB', <Type.INET: 'INET'>: 'INET', <Type.ROWVERSION: 'ROWVERSION'>: 'VARBYTE', <Type.TINYINT: 'TINYINT'>: 'SMALLINT', <Type.FLOAT: 'FLOAT'>: 'REAL', <Type.DOUBLE: 'DOUBLE'>: 'DOUBLE PRECISION', <Type.BINARY: 'BINARY'>: 'VARBYTE', <Type.VARBINARY: 'VARBINARY'>: 'VARBYTE', <Type.DATETIME: 'DATETIME'>: 'TIMESTAMP', <Type.INT: 'INT'>: 'INTEGER', <Type.TIMETZ: 'TIMETZ'>: 'TIME', <Type.TIMESTAMPTZ: 'TIMESTAMPTZ'>: 'TIMESTAMP'}
TRANSFORMS = {<class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONPathKey'>: <function json_path_key_only_name>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONPathRoot'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONPathSubscript'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.AllowedValuesProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.AutoRefreshProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.BackupProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CaseSpecificColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CharacterSetColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CharacterSetProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ClusteredColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CollateColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ConnectByRoot'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CopyGrantsProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateFormatColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DefaultColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DynamicProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.EncodeColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.EphemeralColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ExcludeColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ExecuteAsProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ExternalProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.GlobalProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.HeapProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.IcebergProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.InheritsProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.InlineLengthColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.InputModelProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.IntervalSpan'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONExtract'>: <function json_extract_segments.<locals>._json_extract_segments>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONExtractScalar'>: <function json_extract_segments.<locals>._json_extract_segments>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LanguageProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LocationProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LogProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.MaterializedProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.NonClusteredColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.NoPrimaryIndexProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.NotForReplicationColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.OnCommitProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.OnProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.OnUpdateColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.OutputModelProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.PathColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ProjectionPolicyColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RemoteWithConnectionModelProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ReturnsProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SampleProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SecureProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SetConfigProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SetProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SettingsProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SharingProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SqlReadWriteProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SqlSecurityProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StabilityProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StrictProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TemporaryProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TagColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TitleColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Timestamp'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ToMap'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ToTableProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TransformModelProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TransientProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.UppercaseColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.UnloggedProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.VarMap'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ViewAttributeProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.VolatileProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.WithJournalTableProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.WithSchemaBindingProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.WithOperator'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Array'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayConcat'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayContainsAll'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayOverlaps'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayFilter'>: <function filter_array_using_unnest>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArraySize'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.BitwiseXor'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ColumnDef'>: <function preprocess.<locals>._to_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CurrentDate'>: <function no_paren_current_date_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CurrentTimestamp'>: <function Redshift.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CurrentUser'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateAdd'>: <function date_delta_sql.<locals>._delta_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateDiff'>: <function date_delta_sql.<locals>._delta_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateStrToDate'>: <function datestrtodate_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateSub'>: <function _date_add_sql.<locals>.func>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Explode'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.GroupConcat'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.IntDiv'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONBExtract'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONBExtractScalar'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONBContains'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LogicalOr'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LogicalAnd'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Max'>: <function max_or_greatest>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.MapFromEntries'>: <function no_map_from_entries_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Min'>: <function min_or_least>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Merge'>: <function merge_without_target_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.PartitionedByProperty'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.PercentileCont'>: <function preprocess.<locals>._to_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.PercentileDisc'>: <function preprocess.<locals>._to_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Rand'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RegexpLike'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RegexpILike'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Select'>: <function preprocess.<locals>._to_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StrPosition'>: <function str_position_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StrToDate'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StrToTime'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StructExtract'>: <function struct_extract_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Substring'>: <function _substring_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeFromParts'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimestampFromParts'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimestampTrunc'>: <function timestamptrunc_sql.<locals>._timestamptrunc_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeStrToTime'>: <function timestrtotime_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeToStr'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ToChar'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Trim'>: <function trim_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TryCast'>: <function no_trycast_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TsOrDsAdd'>: <function date_delta_sql.<locals>._delta_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TsOrDsDiff'>: <function date_delta_sql.<locals>._delta_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.UnixToTime'>: <function Redshift.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeToUnix'>: <function Postgres.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.VariancePop'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Variance'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Xor'>: <function bool_xor_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Concat'>: <function concat_to_dpipe_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ConcatWs'>: <function concat_ws_to_dpipe_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ApproxDistinct'>: <function Redshift.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DistKeyProperty'>: <function Redshift.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DistStyleProperty'>: <function Redshift.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.FromBase'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.GeneratedAsIdentityColumnConstraint'>: <function generatedasidentitycolumnconstraint_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Hex'>: <function Redshift.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SortKeyProperty'>: <function Redshift.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StartsWith'>: <function Redshift.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StringToArray'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TableSample'>: <function no_tablesample_sql>}
RESERVED_KEYWORDS = {'select', 'inner', 'nulls', 'identity', 'right', 'explicit', 'isnull', 'notnull', 'disable', 'and', 'both', 'new', 'verbose', 'minus', 'pivot', 'having', 'current_user_id', 'enable', 'references', 'allowoverwrite', 'bytedict', 'some', 'like', 'where', 'wallet', 'constraint', 'default', 'unnest', 'else', 'unique', 'parallel', 'text32k', 'similar', 'current_time', 'initially', 'globaldict256', 'top', 'grant', 'intersect', 'defrag', 'encrypt ', 'all', 'without', 'interval', 'for', 'is', 'on', 'null', 'cast', 'between', 'any', 'mostly8', 'gzip', 'tdes', 'delta32k', 'encode', 'asc', 'bzip2', 'placing', 'check', 'user', 'encryption', 'localtime', 'rejectlog', 'with', 'true', 'in', 'ilike', 'sysdate', 'column', 'freeze', 'foreign', 'type', 'using', 'permissions', 'trailing', 'end', 'analyse', 'analyze', 'credentials', 'off', 'mostly16', 'except', 'text255', 'into', 'or', 'current_timestamp', 'mostly32', 'aes256', 'offset', 'as', 'snapshot', 'raw', 'truncatecolumns', 'az64', 'lzo', 'full', 'session_user', 'join', 'recover', 'do', 'tag', 'respect', 'desc', 'globaldict64k', 'distinct', 'then', 'case', 'order', 'backup', 'lun', 'leading', 'group', 'partition', 'authorization', 'restore', 'blanksasnull', 'percent', 'unpivot', 'deflate', 'to', 'when', 'resort', 'only', 'delta', 'create', 'current_date', 'emptyasnull', 'binary', 'left', 'offline', 'limit', 'luns', 'deferrable', 'primary', 'array', 'table', 'current_user', 'natural', 'timestamp', 'union', 'lzop', 'false', 'not', 'old', 'collate', 'open', 'system', 'oid', 'localtimestamp', 'readratio', 'overlaps', 'ignore', 'outer', 'from', 'aes128', 'cross'}
def unnest_sql(self, expression: sqlglot.expressions.Unnest) -> str:
383        def unnest_sql(self, expression: exp.Unnest) -> str:
384            args = expression.expressions
385            num_args = len(args)
386
387            if num_args > 1:
388                self.unsupported(f"Unsupported number of arguments in UNNEST: {num_args}")
389                return ""
390
391            arg = self.sql(seq_get(args, 0))
392            alias = self.expressions(expression.args.get("alias"), key="columns", flat=True)
393            return f"{arg} AS {alias}" if alias else arg
def cast_sql( self, expression: sqlglot.expressions.Cast, safe_prefix: Optional[str] = None) -> str:
395        def cast_sql(self, expression: exp.Cast, safe_prefix: t.Optional[str] = None) -> str:
396            if expression.is_type(exp.DataType.Type.JSON):
397                # Redshift doesn't support a JSON type, so casting to it is treated as a noop
398                return self.sql(expression, "this")
399
400            return super().cast_sql(expression, safe_prefix=safe_prefix)
def datatype_sql(self, expression: sqlglot.expressions.DataType) -> str:
402        def datatype_sql(self, expression: exp.DataType) -> str:
403            """
404            Redshift converts the `TEXT` data type to `VARCHAR(255)` by default when people more generally mean
405            VARCHAR of max length which is `VARCHAR(max)` in Redshift. Therefore if we get a `TEXT` data type
406            without precision we convert it to `VARCHAR(max)` and if it does have precision then we just convert
407            `TEXT` to `VARCHAR`.
408            """
409            if expression.is_type("text"):
410                expression.set("this", exp.DataType.Type.VARCHAR)
411                precision = expression.args.get("expressions")
412
413                if not precision:
414                    expression.append("expressions", exp.var("MAX"))
415
416            return super().datatype_sql(expression)

Redshift converts the TEXT data type to VARCHAR(255) by default when people more generally mean VARCHAR of max length which is VARCHAR(max) in Redshift. Therefore if we get a TEXT data type without precision we convert it to VARCHAR(max) and if it does have precision then we just convert TEXT to VARCHAR.

def alterset_sql(self, expression: sqlglot.expressions.AlterSet) -> str:
418        def alterset_sql(self, expression: exp.AlterSet) -> str:
419            exprs = self.expressions(expression, flat=True)
420            exprs = f" TABLE PROPERTIES ({exprs})" if exprs else ""
421            location = self.sql(expression, "location")
422            location = f" LOCATION {location}" if location else ""
423            file_format = self.expressions(expression, key="file_format", flat=True, sep=" ")
424            file_format = f" FILE FORMAT {file_format}" if file_format else ""
425
426            return f"SET{exprs}{location}{file_format}"
SELECT_KINDS: Tuple[str, ...] = ()
TRY_SUPPORTED = False
SUPPORTS_UESCAPE = False
AFTER_HAVING_MODIFIER_TRANSFORMS = {'windows': <function Generator.<lambda>>, 'qualify': <function Generator.<lambda>>}
Inherited Members
sqlglot.generator.Generator
Generator
NULL_ORDERING_SUPPORTED
IGNORE_NULLS_IN_FUNC
EXPLICIT_SET_OP
WRAP_DERIVED_VALUES
CREATE_FUNCTION_RETURN_AS
MATCHED_BY_SOURCE
INTERVAL_ALLOWS_PLURAL_FORM
LIMIT_FETCH
LIMIT_ONLY_LITERALS
GROUPINGS_SEP
INDEX_ON
QUERY_HINT_SEP
IS_BOOL_ALLOWED
DUPLICATE_KEY_UPDATE_WITH_SET
LIMIT_IS_TOP
RETURNING_END
EXTRACT_ALLOWS_QUOTES
ALTER_TABLE_INCLUDE_COLUMN_KEYWORD
UNNEST_WITH_ORDINALITY
AGGREGATE_FILTER_SUPPORTED
SEMI_ANTI_JOIN_WITH_SIDE
COMPUTED_COLUMN_WITH_TYPE
SUPPORTS_TABLE_COPY
TABLESAMPLE_REQUIRES_PARENS
TABLESAMPLE_KEYWORDS
TABLESAMPLE_WITH_METHOD
COLLATE_IS_FUNC
DATA_TYPE_SPECIFIERS_ALLOWED
ENSURE_BOOLS
CTE_RECURSIVE_KEYWORD_REQUIRED
SUPPORTS_SINGLE_ARG_CONCAT
SUPPORTS_TABLE_ALIAS_COLUMNS
UNPIVOT_ALIASES_ARE_IDENTIFIERS
JSON_KEY_VALUE_PAIR_SEP
INSERT_OVERWRITE
SUPPORTS_CREATE_TABLE_LIKE
JSON_PATH_BRACKETED_KEY_SUPPORTED
JSON_PATH_SINGLE_QUOTE_ESCAPE
SUPPORTS_TO_NUMBER
SET_OP_MODIFIERS
COPY_PARAMS_EQ_REQUIRED
STAR_EXCEPT
QUOTE_JSON_PATH
PAD_FILL_PATTERN_IS_REQUIRED
TIME_PART_SINGULARS
TOKEN_MAPPING
STRUCT_DELIMITER
NAMED_PLACEHOLDER_TOKEN
WITH_SEPARATED_COMMENTS
EXCLUDE_COMMENTS
UNWRAPPED_INTERVAL_VALUES
PARAMETERIZABLE_TEXT_TYPES
EXPRESSIONS_WITHOUT_NESTED_CTES
SENTINEL_LINE_BREAK
pretty
identify
normalize
pad
unsupported_level
max_unsupported
leading_comma
max_text_width
comments
dialect
normalize_functions
unsupported_messages
generate
preprocess
unsupported
sep
seg
pad_comment
maybe_comment
wrap
no_identify
normalize_func
indent
sql
uncache_sql
cache_sql
characterset_sql
column_parts
column_sql
columnposition_sql
columndef_sql
columnconstraint_sql
computedcolumnconstraint_sql
autoincrementcolumnconstraint_sql
compresscolumnconstraint_sql
generatedasidentitycolumnconstraint_sql
generatedasrowcolumnconstraint_sql
periodforsystemtimeconstraint_sql
notnullcolumnconstraint_sql
transformcolumnconstraint_sql
primarykeycolumnconstraint_sql
uniquecolumnconstraint_sql
createable_sql
create_sql
sequenceproperties_sql
clone_sql
describe_sql
heredoc_sql
prepend_ctes
with_sql
cte_sql
tablealias_sql
bitstring_sql
hexstring_sql
bytestring_sql
unicodestring_sql
rawstring_sql
datatypeparam_sql
directory_sql
delete_sql
drop_sql
except_sql
except_op
fetch_sql
filter_sql
hint_sql
indexparameters_sql
index_sql
identifier_sql
hex_sql
lowerhex_sql
inputoutputformat_sql
national_sql
partition_sql
properties_sql
root_properties
properties
with_properties
locate_properties
property_name
property_sql
likeproperty_sql
fallbackproperty_sql
journalproperty_sql
freespaceproperty_sql
checksumproperty_sql
mergeblockratioproperty_sql
datablocksizeproperty_sql
blockcompressionproperty_sql
isolatedloadingproperty_sql
partitionboundspec_sql
partitionedofproperty_sql
lockingproperty_sql
withdataproperty_sql
withsystemversioningproperty_sql
insert_sql
intersect_sql
intersect_op
introducer_sql
kill_sql
pseudotype_sql
objectidentifier_sql
onconflict_sql
returning_sql
rowformatdelimitedproperty_sql
withtablehint_sql
indextablehint_sql
historicaldata_sql
table_parts
table_sql
tablesample_sql
pivot_sql
version_sql
tuple_sql
update_sql
values_sql
var_sql
into_sql
from_sql
group_sql
having_sql
connect_sql
prior_sql
join_sql
lambda_sql
lateral_op
lateral_sql
limit_sql
offset_sql
setitem_sql
set_sql
pragma_sql
lock_sql
literal_sql
escape_str
loaddata_sql
null_sql
boolean_sql
order_sql
withfill_sql
cluster_sql
distribute_sql
sort_sql
ordered_sql
matchrecognizemeasure_sql
matchrecognize_sql
query_modifiers
options_modifier
queryoption_sql
offset_limit_modifiers
after_limit_modifiers
select_sql
schema_sql
schema_columns_sql
star_sql
parameter_sql
sessionparameter_sql
placeholder_sql
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set_operations
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where_sql
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between_sql
bracket_offset_expressions
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constraint_sql
nextvaluefor_sql
extract_sql
trim_sql
convert_concat_args
concat_sql
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check_sql
foreignkey_sql
primarykey_sql
if_sql
jsonkeyvalue_sql
jsonpath_sql
json_path_part
formatjson_sql
jsonobject_sql
jsonobjectagg_sql
jsonarray_sql
jsonarrayagg_sql
jsoncolumndef_sql
jsonschema_sql
jsontable_sql
openjsoncolumndef_sql
openjson_sql
in_sql
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interval_sql
return_sql
reference_sql
anonymous_sql
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neg_sql
not_sql
alias_sql
pivotalias_sql
aliases_sql
atindex_sql
attimezone_sql
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add_sql
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xor_sql
connector_sql
bitwiseand_sql
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currentdate_sql
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binary
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anyvalue_sql
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nvl2_sql
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unixdate_sql
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scope_resolution
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sqlglot.dialects.postgres.Postgres.Generator
SINGLE_STRING_INTERVAL
RENAME_TABLE_WITH_DB
JOIN_HINTS
TABLE_HINTS
PARAMETER_TOKEN
TABLESAMPLE_SIZE_IS_ROWS
TABLESAMPLE_SEED_KEYWORD
SUPPORTS_SELECT_INTO
JSON_TYPE_REQUIRED_FOR_EXTRACTION
SUPPORTS_UNLOGGED_TABLES
LIKE_PROPERTY_INSIDE_SCHEMA
COPY_HAS_INTO_KEYWORD
SUPPORTED_JSON_PATH_PARTS
PROPERTIES_LOCATION
schemacommentproperty_sql
commentcolumnconstraint_sql
bracket_sql
matchagainst_sql