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sqlglot.dialects.spark

  1from __future__ import annotations
  2
  3import typing as t
  4
  5from sqlglot import exp
  6from sqlglot.dialects.dialect import rename_func, unit_to_var
  7from sqlglot.dialects.hive import _build_with_ignore_nulls
  8from sqlglot.dialects.spark2 import Spark2, temporary_storage_provider, _build_as_cast
  9from sqlglot.helper import ensure_list, seq_get
 10from sqlglot.transforms import (
 11    ctas_with_tmp_tables_to_create_tmp_view,
 12    remove_unique_constraints,
 13    preprocess,
 14    move_partitioned_by_to_schema_columns,
 15)
 16
 17
 18def _build_datediff(args: t.List) -> exp.Expression:
 19    """
 20    Although Spark docs don't mention the "unit" argument, Spark3 added support for
 21    it at some point. Databricks also supports this variant (see below).
 22
 23    For example, in spark-sql (v3.3.1):
 24    - SELECT DATEDIFF('2020-01-01', '2020-01-05') results in -4
 25    - SELECT DATEDIFF(day, '2020-01-01', '2020-01-05') results in 4
 26
 27    See also:
 28    - https://docs.databricks.com/sql/language-manual/functions/datediff3.html
 29    - https://docs.databricks.com/sql/language-manual/functions/datediff.html
 30    """
 31    unit = None
 32    this = seq_get(args, 0)
 33    expression = seq_get(args, 1)
 34
 35    if len(args) == 3:
 36        unit = this
 37        this = args[2]
 38
 39    return exp.DateDiff(
 40        this=exp.TsOrDsToDate(this=this), expression=exp.TsOrDsToDate(this=expression), unit=unit
 41    )
 42
 43
 44def _build_dateadd(args: t.List) -> exp.Expression:
 45    expression = seq_get(args, 1)
 46
 47    if len(args) == 2:
 48        # DATE_ADD(startDate, numDays INTEGER)
 49        # https://docs.databricks.com/en/sql/language-manual/functions/date_add.html
 50        return exp.TsOrDsAdd(
 51            this=seq_get(args, 0), expression=expression, unit=exp.Literal.string("DAY")
 52        )
 53
 54    # DATE_ADD / DATEADD / TIMESTAMPADD(unit, value integer, expr)
 55    # https://docs.databricks.com/en/sql/language-manual/functions/date_add3.html
 56    return exp.TimestampAdd(this=seq_get(args, 2), expression=expression, unit=seq_get(args, 0))
 57
 58
 59def _normalize_partition(e: exp.Expression) -> exp.Expression:
 60    """Normalize the expressions in PARTITION BY (<expression>, <expression>, ...)"""
 61    if isinstance(e, str):
 62        return exp.to_identifier(e)
 63    if isinstance(e, exp.Literal):
 64        return exp.to_identifier(e.name)
 65    return e
 66
 67
 68def _dateadd_sql(self: Spark.Generator, expression: exp.TsOrDsAdd | exp.TimestampAdd) -> str:
 69    if not expression.unit or (
 70        isinstance(expression, exp.TsOrDsAdd) and expression.text("unit").upper() == "DAY"
 71    ):
 72        # Coming from Hive/Spark2 DATE_ADD or roundtripping the 2-arg version of Spark3/DB
 73        return self.func("DATE_ADD", expression.this, expression.expression)
 74
 75    this = self.func(
 76        "DATE_ADD",
 77        unit_to_var(expression),
 78        expression.expression,
 79        expression.this,
 80    )
 81
 82    if isinstance(expression, exp.TsOrDsAdd):
 83        # The 3 arg version of DATE_ADD produces a timestamp in Spark3/DB but possibly not
 84        # in other dialects
 85        return_type = expression.return_type
 86        if not return_type.is_type(exp.DataType.Type.TIMESTAMP, exp.DataType.Type.DATETIME):
 87            this = f"CAST({this} AS {return_type})"
 88
 89    return this
 90
 91
 92class Spark(Spark2):
 93    class Tokenizer(Spark2.Tokenizer):
 94        RAW_STRINGS = [
 95            (prefix + q, q)
 96            for q in t.cast(t.List[str], Spark2.Tokenizer.QUOTES)
 97            for prefix in ("r", "R")
 98        ]
 99
100    class Parser(Spark2.Parser):
101        FUNCTIONS = {
102            **Spark2.Parser.FUNCTIONS,
103            "ANY_VALUE": _build_with_ignore_nulls(exp.AnyValue),
104            "DATE_ADD": _build_dateadd,
105            "DATEADD": _build_dateadd,
106            "TIMESTAMPADD": _build_dateadd,
107            "DATEDIFF": _build_datediff,
108            "TIMESTAMP_LTZ": _build_as_cast("TIMESTAMP_LTZ"),
109            "TIMESTAMP_NTZ": _build_as_cast("TIMESTAMP_NTZ"),
110            "TRY_ELEMENT_AT": lambda args: exp.Bracket(
111                this=seq_get(args, 0), expressions=ensure_list(seq_get(args, 1)), safe=True
112            ),
113        }
114
115        def _parse_generated_as_identity(
116            self,
117        ) -> (
118            exp.GeneratedAsIdentityColumnConstraint
119            | exp.ComputedColumnConstraint
120            | exp.GeneratedAsRowColumnConstraint
121        ):
122            this = super()._parse_generated_as_identity()
123            if this.expression:
124                return self.expression(exp.ComputedColumnConstraint, this=this.expression)
125            return this
126
127    class Generator(Spark2.Generator):
128        SUPPORTS_TO_NUMBER = True
129
130        TYPE_MAPPING = {
131            **Spark2.Generator.TYPE_MAPPING,
132            exp.DataType.Type.MONEY: "DECIMAL(15, 4)",
133            exp.DataType.Type.SMALLMONEY: "DECIMAL(6, 4)",
134            exp.DataType.Type.UNIQUEIDENTIFIER: "STRING",
135            exp.DataType.Type.TIMESTAMPLTZ: "TIMESTAMP_LTZ",
136            exp.DataType.Type.TIMESTAMPNTZ: "TIMESTAMP_NTZ",
137        }
138
139        TRANSFORMS = {
140            **Spark2.Generator.TRANSFORMS,
141            exp.ArrayConstructCompact: lambda self, e: self.func(
142                "ARRAY_COMPACT", self.func("ARRAY", *e.expressions)
143            ),
144            exp.Create: preprocess(
145                [
146                    remove_unique_constraints,
147                    lambda e: ctas_with_tmp_tables_to_create_tmp_view(
148                        e, temporary_storage_provider
149                    ),
150                    move_partitioned_by_to_schema_columns,
151                ]
152            ),
153            exp.PartitionedByProperty: lambda self,
154            e: f"PARTITIONED BY {self.wrap(self.expressions(sqls=[_normalize_partition(e) for e in e.this.expressions], skip_first=True))}",
155            exp.StartsWith: rename_func("STARTSWITH"),
156            exp.TsOrDsAdd: _dateadd_sql,
157            exp.TimestampAdd: _dateadd_sql,
158            exp.TryCast: lambda self, e: (
159                self.trycast_sql(e) if e.args.get("safe") else self.cast_sql(e)
160            ),
161        }
162        TRANSFORMS.pop(exp.AnyValue)
163        TRANSFORMS.pop(exp.DateDiff)
164        TRANSFORMS.pop(exp.Group)
165
166        def bracket_sql(self, expression: exp.Bracket) -> str:
167            if expression.args.get("safe"):
168                key = seq_get(self.bracket_offset_expressions(expression), 0)
169                return self.func("TRY_ELEMENT_AT", expression.this, key)
170
171            return super().bracket_sql(expression)
172
173        def computedcolumnconstraint_sql(self, expression: exp.ComputedColumnConstraint) -> str:
174            return f"GENERATED ALWAYS AS ({self.sql(expression, 'this')})"
175
176        def anyvalue_sql(self, expression: exp.AnyValue) -> str:
177            return self.function_fallback_sql(expression)
178
179        def datediff_sql(self, expression: exp.DateDiff) -> str:
180            end = self.sql(expression, "this")
181            start = self.sql(expression, "expression")
182
183            if expression.unit:
184                return self.func("DATEDIFF", unit_to_var(expression), start, end)
185
186            return self.func("DATEDIFF", end, start)
class Spark(sqlglot.dialects.spark2.Spark2):
 93class Spark(Spark2):
 94    class Tokenizer(Spark2.Tokenizer):
 95        RAW_STRINGS = [
 96            (prefix + q, q)
 97            for q in t.cast(t.List[str], Spark2.Tokenizer.QUOTES)
 98            for prefix in ("r", "R")
 99        ]
100
101    class Parser(Spark2.Parser):
102        FUNCTIONS = {
103            **Spark2.Parser.FUNCTIONS,
104            "ANY_VALUE": _build_with_ignore_nulls(exp.AnyValue),
105            "DATE_ADD": _build_dateadd,
106            "DATEADD": _build_dateadd,
107            "TIMESTAMPADD": _build_dateadd,
108            "DATEDIFF": _build_datediff,
109            "TIMESTAMP_LTZ": _build_as_cast("TIMESTAMP_LTZ"),
110            "TIMESTAMP_NTZ": _build_as_cast("TIMESTAMP_NTZ"),
111            "TRY_ELEMENT_AT": lambda args: exp.Bracket(
112                this=seq_get(args, 0), expressions=ensure_list(seq_get(args, 1)), safe=True
113            ),
114        }
115
116        def _parse_generated_as_identity(
117            self,
118        ) -> (
119            exp.GeneratedAsIdentityColumnConstraint
120            | exp.ComputedColumnConstraint
121            | exp.GeneratedAsRowColumnConstraint
122        ):
123            this = super()._parse_generated_as_identity()
124            if this.expression:
125                return self.expression(exp.ComputedColumnConstraint, this=this.expression)
126            return this
127
128    class Generator(Spark2.Generator):
129        SUPPORTS_TO_NUMBER = True
130
131        TYPE_MAPPING = {
132            **Spark2.Generator.TYPE_MAPPING,
133            exp.DataType.Type.MONEY: "DECIMAL(15, 4)",
134            exp.DataType.Type.SMALLMONEY: "DECIMAL(6, 4)",
135            exp.DataType.Type.UNIQUEIDENTIFIER: "STRING",
136            exp.DataType.Type.TIMESTAMPLTZ: "TIMESTAMP_LTZ",
137            exp.DataType.Type.TIMESTAMPNTZ: "TIMESTAMP_NTZ",
138        }
139
140        TRANSFORMS = {
141            **Spark2.Generator.TRANSFORMS,
142            exp.ArrayConstructCompact: lambda self, e: self.func(
143                "ARRAY_COMPACT", self.func("ARRAY", *e.expressions)
144            ),
145            exp.Create: preprocess(
146                [
147                    remove_unique_constraints,
148                    lambda e: ctas_with_tmp_tables_to_create_tmp_view(
149                        e, temporary_storage_provider
150                    ),
151                    move_partitioned_by_to_schema_columns,
152                ]
153            ),
154            exp.PartitionedByProperty: lambda self,
155            e: f"PARTITIONED BY {self.wrap(self.expressions(sqls=[_normalize_partition(e) for e in e.this.expressions], skip_first=True))}",
156            exp.StartsWith: rename_func("STARTSWITH"),
157            exp.TsOrDsAdd: _dateadd_sql,
158            exp.TimestampAdd: _dateadd_sql,
159            exp.TryCast: lambda self, e: (
160                self.trycast_sql(e) if e.args.get("safe") else self.cast_sql(e)
161            ),
162        }
163        TRANSFORMS.pop(exp.AnyValue)
164        TRANSFORMS.pop(exp.DateDiff)
165        TRANSFORMS.pop(exp.Group)
166
167        def bracket_sql(self, expression: exp.Bracket) -> str:
168            if expression.args.get("safe"):
169                key = seq_get(self.bracket_offset_expressions(expression), 0)
170                return self.func("TRY_ELEMENT_AT", expression.this, key)
171
172            return super().bracket_sql(expression)
173
174        def computedcolumnconstraint_sql(self, expression: exp.ComputedColumnConstraint) -> str:
175            return f"GENERATED ALWAYS AS ({self.sql(expression, 'this')})"
176
177        def anyvalue_sql(self, expression: exp.AnyValue) -> str:
178            return self.function_fallback_sql(expression)
179
180        def datediff_sql(self, expression: exp.DateDiff) -> str:
181            end = self.sql(expression, "this")
182            start = self.sql(expression, "expression")
183
184            if expression.unit:
185                return self.func("DATEDIFF", unit_to_var(expression), start, end)
186
187            return self.func("DATEDIFF", end, start)
SUPPORTS_COLUMN_JOIN_MARKS = False

Whether the old-style outer join (+) syntax is supported.

UNESCAPED_SEQUENCES: Dict[str, str] = {'\\a': '\x07', '\\b': '\x08', '\\f': '\x0c', '\\n': '\n', '\\r': '\r', '\\t': '\t', '\\v': '\x0b', '\\\\': '\\'}

Mapping of an escaped sequence (\n) to its unescaped version ( ).

tokenizer_class = <class 'Spark.Tokenizer'>
jsonpath_tokenizer_class = <class 'sqlglot.tokens.JSONPathTokenizer'>
parser_class = <class 'Spark.Parser'>
generator_class = <class 'Spark.Generator'>
TIME_TRIE: Dict = {'y': {0: True, 'y': {'y': {'y': {0: True}}, 0: True}}, 'Y': {0: True, 'Y': {'Y': {'Y': {0: True}}, 0: True}}, 'M': {'M': {'M': {'M': {0: True}, 0: True}, 0: True}, 0: True}, 'd': {'d': {0: True}, 0: True}, 'H': {'H': {0: True}, 0: True}, 'h': {'h': {0: True}, 0: True}, 'm': {'m': {0: True}, 0: True}, 's': {'s': {0: True}, 0: True}, 'S': {'S': {'S': {'S': {'S': {'S': {0: True}}}}}}, 'a': {0: True}, 'D': {'D': {0: True}, 0: True}, 'E': {0: True, 'E': {0: True, 'E': {0: True, 'E': {0: True}}}}}
FORMAT_TRIE: Dict = {'y': {0: True, 'y': {'y': {'y': {0: True}}, 0: True}}, 'Y': {0: True, 'Y': {'Y': {'Y': {0: True}}, 0: True}}, 'M': {'M': {'M': {'M': {0: True}, 0: True}, 0: True}, 0: True}, 'd': {'d': {0: True}, 0: True}, 'H': {'H': {0: True}, 0: True}, 'h': {'h': {0: True}, 0: True}, 'm': {'m': {0: True}, 0: True}, 's': {'s': {0: True}, 0: True}, 'S': {'S': {'S': {'S': {'S': {'S': {0: True}}}}}}, 'a': {0: True}, 'D': {'D': {0: True}, 0: True}, 'E': {0: True, 'E': {0: True, 'E': {0: True, 'E': {0: True}}}}}
INVERSE_TIME_MAPPING: Dict[str, str] = {'%Y': 'yyyy', '%y': 'yy', '%B': 'MMMM', '%b': 'MMM', '%m': 'MM', '%-m': 'M', '%d': 'dd', '%-d': 'd', '%H': 'HH', '%-H': 'H', '%I': 'hh', '%-I': 'h', '%M': 'mm', '%-M': 'm', '%S': 'ss', '%-S': 's', '%f': 'SSSSSS', '%p': 'a', '%j': 'DD', '%-j': 'D', '%a': 'EEE', '%A': 'EEEE'}
INVERSE_TIME_TRIE: Dict = {'%': {'Y': {0: True}, 'y': {0: True}, 'B': {0: True}, 'b': {0: True}, 'm': {0: True}, '-': {'m': {0: True}, 'd': {0: True}, 'H': {0: True}, 'I': {0: True}, 'M': {0: True}, 'S': {0: True}, 'j': {0: True}}, 'd': {0: True}, 'H': {0: True}, 'I': {0: True}, 'M': {0: True}, 'S': {0: True}, 'f': {0: True}, 'p': {0: True}, 'j': {0: True}, 'a': {0: True}, 'A': {0: True}}}
ESCAPED_SEQUENCES: Dict[str, str] = {'\x07': '\\a', '\x08': '\\b', '\x0c': '\\f', '\n': '\\n', '\r': '\\r', '\t': '\\t', '\x0b': '\\v', '\\': '\\\\'}
QUOTE_START = "'"
QUOTE_END = "'"
IDENTIFIER_START = '`'
IDENTIFIER_END = '`'
BIT_START: Optional[str] = None
BIT_END: Optional[str] = None
HEX_START: Optional[str] = "X'"
HEX_END: Optional[str] = "'"
BYTE_START: Optional[str] = None
BYTE_END: Optional[str] = None
UNICODE_START: Optional[str] = None
UNICODE_END: Optional[str] = None
class Spark.Tokenizer(sqlglot.dialects.spark2.Spark2.Tokenizer):
94    class Tokenizer(Spark2.Tokenizer):
95        RAW_STRINGS = [
96            (prefix + q, q)
97            for q in t.cast(t.List[str], Spark2.Tokenizer.QUOTES)
98            for prefix in ("r", "R")
99        ]
RAW_STRINGS = [("r'", "'"), ("R'", "'"), ('r"', '"'), ('R"', '"')]
class Spark.Parser(sqlglot.dialects.spark2.Spark2.Parser):
101    class Parser(Spark2.Parser):
102        FUNCTIONS = {
103            **Spark2.Parser.FUNCTIONS,
104            "ANY_VALUE": _build_with_ignore_nulls(exp.AnyValue),
105            "DATE_ADD": _build_dateadd,
106            "DATEADD": _build_dateadd,
107            "TIMESTAMPADD": _build_dateadd,
108            "DATEDIFF": _build_datediff,
109            "TIMESTAMP_LTZ": _build_as_cast("TIMESTAMP_LTZ"),
110            "TIMESTAMP_NTZ": _build_as_cast("TIMESTAMP_NTZ"),
111            "TRY_ELEMENT_AT": lambda args: exp.Bracket(
112                this=seq_get(args, 0), expressions=ensure_list(seq_get(args, 1)), safe=True
113            ),
114        }
115
116        def _parse_generated_as_identity(
117            self,
118        ) -> (
119            exp.GeneratedAsIdentityColumnConstraint
120            | exp.ComputedColumnConstraint
121            | exp.GeneratedAsRowColumnConstraint
122        ):
123            this = super()._parse_generated_as_identity()
124            if this.expression:
125                return self.expression(exp.ComputedColumnConstraint, this=this.expression)
126            return this

Parser consumes a list of tokens produced by the Tokenizer and produces a parsed syntax tree.

Arguments:
  • error_level: The desired error level. Default: ErrorLevel.IMMEDIATE
  • error_message_context: The amount of context to capture from a query string when displaying the error message (in number of characters). Default: 100
  • max_errors: Maximum number of error messages to include in a raised ParseError. This is only relevant if error_level is ErrorLevel.RAISE. Default: 3
FUNCTIONS = {'ABS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Abs'>>, 'ADD_MONTHS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.AddMonths'>>, 'ANONYMOUS_AGG_FUNC': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.AnonymousAggFunc'>>, 'ANY_VALUE': <function _build_with_ignore_nulls.<locals>._parse>, 'APPROX_DISTINCT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ApproxDistinct'>>, 'APPROX_COUNT_DISTINCT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ApproxDistinct'>>, 'APPROX_QUANTILE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ApproxQuantile'>>, 'APPROX_TOP_K': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ApproxTopK'>>, 'ARG_MAX': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArgMax'>>, 'ARGMAX': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArgMax'>>, 'MAX_BY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArgMax'>>, 'ARG_MIN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArgMin'>>, 'ARGMIN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArgMin'>>, 'MIN_BY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArgMin'>>, 'ARRAY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Array'>>, 'ARRAY_AGG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayAgg'>>, 'ARRAY_ALL': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayAll'>>, 'ARRAY_ANY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayAny'>>, 'ARRAY_CONCAT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayConcat'>>, 'ARRAY_CAT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayConcat'>>, 'ARRAY_CONSTRUCT_COMPACT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayConstructCompact'>>, 'ARRAY_CONTAINS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayContains'>>, 'ARRAY_HAS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayContains'>>, 'ARRAY_CONTAINS_ALL': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayContainsAll'>>, 'ARRAY_HAS_ALL': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayContainsAll'>>, 'FILTER': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayFilter'>>, 'ARRAY_FILTER': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayFilter'>>, 'ARRAY_OVERLAPS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayOverlaps'>>, 'ARRAY_SIZE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArraySize'>>, 'ARRAY_LENGTH': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArraySize'>>, 'ARRAY_SORT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArraySort'>>, 'ARRAY_SUM': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArraySum'>>, 'ARRAY_TO_STRING': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayToString'>>, 'ARRAY_JOIN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayToString'>>, 'ARRAY_UNION_AGG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayUnionAgg'>>, 'ARRAY_UNIQUE_AGG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayUniqueAgg'>>, 'AVG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Avg'>>, 'CASE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Case'>>, 'CAST': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Cast'>>, 'CAST_TO_STR_TYPE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CastToStrType'>>, 'CBRT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Cbrt'>>, 'CEIL': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Ceil'>>, 'CEILING': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Ceil'>>, 'CHR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Chr'>>, 'CHAR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Chr'>>, 'COALESCE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Coalesce'>>, 'IFNULL': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Coalesce'>>, 'NVL': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Coalesce'>>, 'COLLATE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Collate'>>, 'COMBINED_AGG_FUNC': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CombinedAggFunc'>>, 'COMBINED_PARAMETERIZED_AGG': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CombinedParameterizedAgg'>>, 'CONCAT': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'CONCAT_WS': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'CONNECT_BY_ROOT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ConnectByRoot'>>, 'CONVERT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Convert'>>, 'CORR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Corr'>>, 'COUNT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Count'>>, 'COUNT_IF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CountIf'>>, 'COUNTIF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CountIf'>>, 'COVAR_POP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CovarPop'>>, 'COVAR_SAMP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CovarSamp'>>, 'CURRENT_DATE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CurrentDate'>>, 'CURRENT_DATETIME': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CurrentDatetime'>>, 'CURRENT_TIME': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CurrentTime'>>, 'CURRENT_TIMESTAMP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CurrentTimestamp'>>, 'CURRENT_USER': <bound method 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Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SHA2'>>, 'SAFE_DIVIDE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SafeDivide'>>, 'SIGN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Sign'>>, 'SIGNUM': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Sign'>>, 'SORT_ARRAY': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SortArray'>>, 'SPLIT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RegexpSplit'>>, 'SQRT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Sqrt'>>, 'STANDARD_HASH': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StandardHash'>>, 'STAR_MAP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StarMap'>>, 'STARTS_WITH': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StartsWith'>>, 'STARTSWITH': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StartsWith'>>, 'STDDEV': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of 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'sqlglot.expressions.StructExtract'>>, 'STUFF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Stuff'>>, 'INSERT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Stuff'>>, 'SUBSTRING': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Substring'>>, 'SUM': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Sum'>>, 'TIME': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Time'>>, 'TIME_ADD': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeAdd'>>, 'TIME_DIFF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeDiff'>>, 'TIME_FROM_PARTS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeFromParts'>>, 'TIMEFROMPARTS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeFromParts'>>, 'TIME_STR_TO_DATE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeStrToDate'>>, 'TIME_STR_TO_TIME': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeStrToTime'>>, 'TIME_STR_TO_UNIX': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeStrToUnix'>>, 'TIME_SUB': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeSub'>>, 'TIME_TO_STR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeToStr'>>, 'TIME_TO_TIME_STR': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'TIME_TO_UNIX': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeToUnix'>>, 'TIME_TRUNC': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeTrunc'>>, 'TIMESTAMP': <function _build_as_cast.<locals>.<lambda>>, 'TIMESTAMP_ADD': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimestampAdd'>>, 'TIMESTAMPDIFF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimestampDiff'>>, 'TIMESTAMP_DIFF': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimestampDiff'>>, 'TIMESTAMP_FROM_PARTS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 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Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.UnixDate'>>, 'UNIX_TO_STR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.UnixToStr'>>, 'UNIX_TO_TIME': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.UnixToTime'>>, 'UNIX_TO_TIME_STR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.UnixToTimeStr'>>, 'UNNEST': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'UPPER': <function build_upper>, 'UCASE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Upper'>>, 'VAR_MAP': <function build_var_map>, 'VARIANCE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Variance'>>, 'VARIANCE_SAMP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Variance'>>, 'VAR_SAMP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Variance'>>, 'VARIANCE_POP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.VariancePop'>>, 'VAR_POP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.VariancePop'>>, 'WEEK': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Week'>>, 'WEEK_OF_YEAR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.WeekOfYear'>>, 'WEEKOFYEAR': <function Spark2.Parser.<lambda>>, 'WHEN': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.When'>>, 'X_M_L_TABLE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.XMLTable'>>, 'XOR': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Xor'>>, 'YEAR': <function Hive.Parser.<lambda>>, 'GLOB': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'JSON_EXTRACT_PATH_TEXT': <function build_extract_json_with_path.<locals>._builder>, 'LIKE': <function build_like>, 'LOG2': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'LOG10': <function Parser.<lambda>>, 'MOD': <function build_mod>, 'TO_HEX': <function build_hex>, 'BASE64': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ToBase64'>>, 'COLLECT_LIST': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayAgg'>>, 'COLLECT_SET': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayUniqueAgg'>>, 'DATE_FORMAT': <function Hive.Parser.<lambda>>, 'FROM_UNIXTIME': <function build_formatted_time.<locals>._builder>, 'GET_JSON_OBJECT': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONExtractScalar'>>, 'LOCATE': <function locate_to_strposition>, 'PERCENTILE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Quantile'>>, 'PERCENTILE_APPROX': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ApproxQuantile'>>, 'SIZE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArraySize'>>, 'TO_DATE': <function build_formatted_time.<locals>._builder>, 'TO_JSON': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONFormat'>>, 'TRUNC': <function Spark2.Parser.<lambda>>, 'UNBASE64': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.FromBase64'>>, 'UNIX_TIMESTAMP': <function Hive.Parser.<lambda>>, 'AGGREGATE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Reduce'>>, 'APPROX_PERCENTILE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ApproxQuantile'>>, 'BOOLEAN': <function _build_as_cast.<locals>.<lambda>>, 'DOUBLE': <function _build_as_cast.<locals>.<lambda>>, 'FLOAT': <function _build_as_cast.<locals>.<lambda>>, 'FROM_UTC_TIMESTAMP': <function Spark2.Parser.<lambda>>, 'INT': <function _build_as_cast.<locals>.<lambda>>, 'MAP_FROM_ARRAYS': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Map'>>, 'RLIKE': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RegexpLike'>>, 'SHIFTLEFT': <function binary_from_function.<locals>.<lambda>>, 'SHIFTRIGHT': <function binary_from_function.<locals>.<lambda>>, 'STRING': <function _build_as_cast.<locals>.<lambda>>, 'TO_TIMESTAMP': <function Spark2.Parser.<lambda>>, 'TO_UNIX_TIMESTAMP': <bound method Func.from_arg_list of <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StrToUnix'>>, 'TO_UTC_TIMESTAMP': <function Spark2.Parser.<lambda>>, 'DATEADD': <function _build_dateadd>, 'TIMESTAMPADD': <function _build_dateadd>, 'TIMESTAMP_LTZ': <function _build_as_cast.<locals>.<lambda>>, 'TIMESTAMP_NTZ': <function _build_as_cast.<locals>.<lambda>>, 'TRY_ELEMENT_AT': <function Spark.Parser.<lambda>>}
ID_VAR_TOKENS = {<TokenType.SERIAL: 'SERIAL'>, <TokenType.TSMULTIRANGE: 'TSMULTIRANGE'>, <TokenType.MAP: 'MAP'>, <TokenType.GEOGRAPHY: 'GEOGRAPHY'>, <TokenType.COMMIT: 'COMMIT'>, <TokenType.NESTED: 'NESTED'>, <TokenType.CURRENT_USER: 'CURRENT_USER'>, <TokenType.DICTIONARY: 'DICTIONARY'>, <TokenType.SMALLINT: 'SMALLINT'>, <TokenType.TABLE: 'TABLE'>, <TokenType.LOAD: 'LOAD'>, <TokenType.EXISTS: 'EXISTS'>, <TokenType.ESCAPE: 'ESCAPE'>, <TokenType.TDIGEST: 'TDIGEST'>, <TokenType.SIMPLEAGGREGATEFUNCTION: 'SIMPLEAGGREGATEFUNCTION'>, <TokenType.DECIMAL: 'DECIMAL'>, <TokenType.INT4MULTIRANGE: 'INT4MULTIRANGE'>, <TokenType.BIT: 'BIT'>, <TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER: 'OBJECT_IDENTIFIER'>, <TokenType.DATE32: 'DATE32'>, <TokenType.CURRENT_TIME: 'CURRENT_TIME'>, <TokenType.TIME: 'TIME'>, <TokenType.CURRENT_TIMESTAMP: 'CURRENT_TIMESTAMP'>, <TokenType.SMALLSERIAL: 'SMALLSERIAL'>, <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, <TokenType.TINYBLOB: 'TINYBLOB'>, <TokenType.SUPER: 'SUPER'>, <TokenType.PERCENT: 'PERCENT'>, <TokenType.USMALLINT: 'USMALLINT'>, <TokenType.TRUNCATE: 'TRUNCATE'>, <TokenType.NCHAR: 'NCHAR'>, <TokenType.HLLSKETCH: 'HLLSKETCH'>, <TokenType.CONSTRAINT: 'CONSTRAINT'>, <TokenType.CACHE: 'CACHE'>, <TokenType.BIGSERIAL: 'BIGSERIAL'>, <TokenType.OFFSET: 'OFFSET'>, <TokenType.VIEW: 'VIEW'>, <TokenType.FALSE: 'FALSE'>, <TokenType.WINDOW: 'WINDOW'>, <TokenType.FIRST: 'FIRST'>, <TokenType.JSONB: 'JSONB'>, <TokenType.NULL: 'NULL'>, <TokenType.UINT: 'UINT'>, <TokenType.INET: 'INET'>, <TokenType.UNIQUE: 'UNIQUE'>, <TokenType.SCHEMA: 'SCHEMA'>, <TokenType.DESCRIBE: 'DESCRIBE'>, <TokenType.FILTER: 'FILTER'>, <TokenType.NULLABLE: 'NULLABLE'>, <TokenType.DATETIME: 'DATETIME'>, <TokenType.VARIANT: 'VARIANT'>, <TokenType.USE: 'USE'>, <TokenType.FIXEDSTRING: 'FIXEDSTRING'>, <TokenType.INT: 'INT'>, <TokenType.IPV6: 'IPV6'>, <TokenType.FLOAT: 'FLOAT'>, <TokenType.STORAGE_INTEGRATION: 'STORAGE_INTEGRATION'>, <TokenType.CASE: 'CASE'>, <TokenType.INT8RANGE: 'INT8RANGE'>, <TokenType.DESC: 'DESC'>, <TokenType.CURRENT_DATETIME: 'CURRENT_DATETIME'>, <TokenType.BEGIN: 'BEGIN'>, <TokenType.INT8MULTIRANGE: 'INT8MULTIRANGE'>, <TokenType.KILL: 'KILL'>, <TokenType.TSRANGE: 'TSRANGE'>, <TokenType.IPPREFIX: 'IPPREFIX'>, <TokenType.TINYINT: 'TINYINT'>, <TokenType.STRUCT: 'STRUCT'>, <TokenType.OPERATOR: 'OPERATOR'>, <TokenType.FINAL: 'FINAL'>, <TokenType.REPLACE: 'REPLACE'>, <TokenType.ENUM8: 'ENUM8'>, <TokenType.INT4RANGE: 'INT4RANGE'>, <TokenType.BOOLEAN: 'BOOLEAN'>, <TokenType.DELETE: 'DELETE'>, <TokenType.VAR: 'VAR'>, <TokenType.NVARCHAR: 'NVARCHAR'>, <TokenType.TEXT: 'TEXT'>, <TokenType.TIMESTAMP_NS: 'TIMESTAMP_NS'>, <TokenType.UPDATE: 'UPDATE'>, <TokenType.BIGDECIMAL: 'BIGDECIMAL'>, <TokenType.ROW: 'ROW'>, <TokenType.NAME: 'NAME'>, <TokenType.UINT128: 'UINT128'>, <TokenType.UNIQUEIDENTIFIER: 'UNIQUEIDENTIFIER'>, <TokenType.TRUE: 'TRUE'>, <TokenType.PRAGMA: 'PRAGMA'>, <TokenType.WAREHOUSE: 'WAREHOUSE'>, <TokenType.NUMMULTIRANGE: 'NUMMULTIRANGE'>, <TokenType.JSON: 'JSON'>, <TokenType.OVERLAPS: 'OVERLAPS'>, <TokenType.ALL: 'ALL'>, <TokenType.TIMETZ: 'TIMETZ'>, <TokenType.MEDIUMTEXT: 'MEDIUMTEXT'>, <TokenType.UDECIMAL: 'UDECIMAL'>, <TokenType.ROWS: 'ROWS'>, <TokenType.XML: 'XML'>, <TokenType.UBIGINT: 'UBIGINT'>, <TokenType.PSEUDO_TYPE: 'PSEUDO_TYPE'>, <TokenType.NEXT: 'NEXT'>, <TokenType.UNKNOWN: 'UNKNOWN'>, <TokenType.ROWVERSION: 'ROWVERSION'>, <TokenType.ANY: 'ANY'>, <TokenType.MONEY: 'MONEY'>, <TokenType.TIMESTAMP_MS: 'TIMESTAMP_MS'>, <TokenType.OVERWRITE: 'OVERWRITE'>, <TokenType.OBJECT: 'OBJECT'>, <TokenType.LONGTEXT: 'LONGTEXT'>, <TokenType.UINT256: 'UINT256'>, <TokenType.REFRESH: 'REFRESH'>, <TokenType.LIST: 'LIST'>, <TokenType.STREAMLIT: 'STREAMLIT'>, <TokenType.VARCHAR: 'VARCHAR'>, <TokenType.DATE: 'DATE'>, <TokenType.INT256: 'INT256'>, <TokenType.PIVOT: 'PIVOT'>, <TokenType.TIMESTAMPTZ: 'TIMESTAMPTZ'>, <TokenType.TOP: 'TOP'>, <TokenType.LOWCARDINALITY: 'LOWCARDINALITY'>, <TokenType.CURRENT_DATE: 'CURRENT_DATE'>, <TokenType.SEQUENCE: 'SEQUENCE'>, <TokenType.PROCEDURE: 'PROCEDURE'>, <TokenType.FOREIGN_KEY: 'FOREIGN_KEY'>, <TokenType.ENUM: 'ENUM'>, <TokenType.IDENTIFIER: 'IDENTIFIER'>, <TokenType.FULL: 'FULL'>, <TokenType.MEDIUMINT: 'MEDIUMINT'>, <TokenType.IPADDRESS: 'IPADDRESS'>, <TokenType.ANTI: 'ANTI'>, <TokenType.COPY: 'COPY'>, <TokenType.DATEMULTIRANGE: 'DATEMULTIRANGE'>, <TokenType.VARBINARY: 'VARBINARY'>, <TokenType.YEAR: 'YEAR'>, <TokenType.TSTZRANGE: 'TSTZRANGE'>, <TokenType.DIV: 'DIV'>, <TokenType.FUNCTION: 'FUNCTION'>, <TokenType.COLLATE: 'COLLATE'>, <TokenType.ENUM16: 'ENUM16'>, <TokenType.RANGE: 'RANGE'>, <TokenType.INT128: 'INT128'>, <TokenType.UTINYINT: 'UTINYINT'>, <TokenType.AUTO_INCREMENT: 'AUTO_INCREMENT'>, <TokenType.ASC: 'ASC'>, <TokenType.ROLLUP: 'ROLLUP'>, <TokenType.DATERANGE: 'DATERANGE'>, <TokenType.EXECUTE: 'EXECUTE'>, <TokenType.ASOF: 'ASOF'>, <TokenType.DATABASE: 'DATABASE'>, <TokenType.REFERENCES: 'REFERENCES'>, <TokenType.TSTZMULTIRANGE: 'TSTZMULTIRANGE'>, <TokenType.TIMESTAMPNTZ: 'TIMESTAMPNTZ'>, <TokenType.UNNEST: 'UNNEST'>, <TokenType.DOUBLE: 'DOUBLE'>, <TokenType.TINYTEXT: 'TINYTEXT'>, <TokenType.MERGE: 'MERGE'>, <TokenType.TIMESTAMP_S: 'TIMESTAMP_S'>, <TokenType.USERDEFINED: 'USERDEFINED'>, <TokenType.SEMI: 'SEMI'>, <TokenType.IMAGE: 'IMAGE'>, <TokenType.RIGHT: 'RIGHT'>, <TokenType.COMMENT: 'COMMENT'>, <TokenType.KEEP: 'KEEP'>, <TokenType.HSTORE: 'HSTORE'>, <TokenType.AGGREGATEFUNCTION: 'AGGREGATEFUNCTION'>, <TokenType.NATURAL: 'NATURAL'>, <TokenType.TAG: 'TAG'>, <TokenType.SOME: 'SOME'>, <TokenType.LONGBLOB: 'LONGBLOB'>, <TokenType.MODEL: 'MODEL'>, <TokenType.GEOMETRY: 'GEOMETRY'>, <TokenType.BIGINT: 'BIGINT'>, <TokenType.TIMESTAMP: 'TIMESTAMP'>, <TokenType.SMALLMONEY: 'SMALLMONEY'>, <TokenType.IPV4: 'IPV4'>, <TokenType.RECURSIVE: 'RECURSIVE'>, <TokenType.PARTITION: 'PARTITION'>, <TokenType.APPLY: 'APPLY'>, <TokenType.BINARY: 'BINARY'>, <TokenType.ISNULL: 'ISNULL'>, <TokenType.SHOW: 'SHOW'>, <TokenType.UNPIVOT: 'UNPIVOT'>, <TokenType.SET: 'SET'>, <TokenType.STRAIGHT_JOIN: 'STRAIGHT_JOIN'>, <TokenType.BPCHAR: 'BPCHAR'>, <TokenType.NUMRANGE: 'NUMRANGE'>, <TokenType.MEDIUMBLOB: 'MEDIUMBLOB'>, <TokenType.COLUMN: 'COLUMN'>, <TokenType.END: 'END'>, <TokenType.CHAR: 'CHAR'>, <TokenType.FORMAT: 'FORMAT'>, <TokenType.LEFT: 'LEFT'>, <TokenType.ORDINALITY: 'ORDINALITY'>, <TokenType.INDEX: 'INDEX'>, <TokenType.INTERVAL: 'INTERVAL'>, <TokenType.ARRAY: 'ARRAY'>, <TokenType.UUID: 'UUID'>, <TokenType.DEFAULT: 'DEFAULT'>, <TokenType.TIMESTAMPLTZ: 'TIMESTAMPLTZ'>, <TokenType.DATETIME64: 'DATETIME64'>, <TokenType.IS: 'IS'>, <TokenType.TEMPORARY: 'TEMPORARY'>, <TokenType.VOLATILE: 'VOLATILE'>, <TokenType.SETTINGS: 'SETTINGS'>, <TokenType.UMEDIUMINT: 'UMEDIUMINT'>}
TABLE_ALIAS_TOKENS = {<TokenType.SERIAL: 'SERIAL'>, <TokenType.TSMULTIRANGE: 'TSMULTIRANGE'>, <TokenType.MAP: 'MAP'>, <TokenType.GEOGRAPHY: 'GEOGRAPHY'>, <TokenType.COMMIT: 'COMMIT'>, <TokenType.NESTED: 'NESTED'>, <TokenType.CURRENT_USER: 'CURRENT_USER'>, <TokenType.DICTIONARY: 'DICTIONARY'>, <TokenType.SMALLINT: 'SMALLINT'>, <TokenType.TABLE: 'TABLE'>, <TokenType.LOAD: 'LOAD'>, <TokenType.EXISTS: 'EXISTS'>, <TokenType.ESCAPE: 'ESCAPE'>, <TokenType.TDIGEST: 'TDIGEST'>, <TokenType.SIMPLEAGGREGATEFUNCTION: 'SIMPLEAGGREGATEFUNCTION'>, <TokenType.DECIMAL: 'DECIMAL'>, <TokenType.INT4MULTIRANGE: 'INT4MULTIRANGE'>, <TokenType.BIT: 'BIT'>, <TokenType.OBJECT_IDENTIFIER: 'OBJECT_IDENTIFIER'>, <TokenType.DATE32: 'DATE32'>, <TokenType.CURRENT_TIME: 'CURRENT_TIME'>, <TokenType.TIME: 'TIME'>, <TokenType.CURRENT_TIMESTAMP: 'CURRENT_TIMESTAMP'>, <TokenType.SMALLSERIAL: 'SMALLSERIAL'>, <TokenType.COMMAND: 'COMMAND'>, <TokenType.TINYBLOB: 'TINYBLOB'>, <TokenType.SUPER: 'SUPER'>, <TokenType.PERCENT: 'PERCENT'>, <TokenType.USMALLINT: 'USMALLINT'>, <TokenType.TRUNCATE: 'TRUNCATE'>, <TokenType.NCHAR: 'NCHAR'>, <TokenType.HLLSKETCH: 'HLLSKETCH'>, <TokenType.CONSTRAINT: 'CONSTRAINT'>, <TokenType.CACHE: 'CACHE'>, <TokenType.BIGSERIAL: 'BIGSERIAL'>, <TokenType.VIEW: 'VIEW'>, <TokenType.FALSE: 'FALSE'>, <TokenType.JSONB: 'JSONB'>, <TokenType.FIRST: 'FIRST'>, <TokenType.NULL: 'NULL'>, <TokenType.UINT: 'UINT'>, <TokenType.INET: 'INET'>, <TokenType.UNIQUE: 'UNIQUE'>, <TokenType.SCHEMA: 'SCHEMA'>, <TokenType.DESCRIBE: 'DESCRIBE'>, <TokenType.FILTER: 'FILTER'>, <TokenType.NULLABLE: 'NULLABLE'>, <TokenType.DATETIME: 'DATETIME'>, <TokenType.VARIANT: 'VARIANT'>, <TokenType.USE: 'USE'>, <TokenType.FIXEDSTRING: 'FIXEDSTRING'>, <TokenType.INT: 'INT'>, <TokenType.IPV6: 'IPV6'>, <TokenType.FLOAT: 'FLOAT'>, <TokenType.STORAGE_INTEGRATION: 'STORAGE_INTEGRATION'>, <TokenType.CASE: 'CASE'>, <TokenType.INT8RANGE: 'INT8RANGE'>, <TokenType.DESC: 'DESC'>, <TokenType.CURRENT_DATETIME: 'CURRENT_DATETIME'>, <TokenType.BEGIN: 'BEGIN'>, <TokenType.INT8MULTIRANGE: 'INT8MULTIRANGE'>, <TokenType.KILL: 'KILL'>, <TokenType.TSRANGE: 'TSRANGE'>, <TokenType.IPPREFIX: 'IPPREFIX'>, <TokenType.TINYINT: 'TINYINT'>, <TokenType.STRUCT: 'STRUCT'>, <TokenType.OPERATOR: 'OPERATOR'>, <TokenType.FINAL: 'FINAL'>, <TokenType.REPLACE: 'REPLACE'>, <TokenType.ENUM8: 'ENUM8'>, <TokenType.INT4RANGE: 'INT4RANGE'>, <TokenType.BOOLEAN: 'BOOLEAN'>, <TokenType.DELETE: 'DELETE'>, <TokenType.VAR: 'VAR'>, <TokenType.NVARCHAR: 'NVARCHAR'>, <TokenType.TEXT: 'TEXT'>, <TokenType.TIMESTAMP_NS: 'TIMESTAMP_NS'>, <TokenType.UPDATE: 'UPDATE'>, <TokenType.BIGDECIMAL: 'BIGDECIMAL'>, <TokenType.ROW: 'ROW'>, <TokenType.NAME: 'NAME'>, <TokenType.UINT128: 'UINT128'>, <TokenType.UNIQUEIDENTIFIER: 'UNIQUEIDENTIFIER'>, <TokenType.TRUE: 'TRUE'>, <TokenType.PRAGMA: 'PRAGMA'>, <TokenType.WAREHOUSE: 'WAREHOUSE'>, <TokenType.NUMMULTIRANGE: 'NUMMULTIRANGE'>, <TokenType.JSON: 'JSON'>, <TokenType.OVERLAPS: 'OVERLAPS'>, <TokenType.ALL: 'ALL'>, <TokenType.TIMETZ: 'TIMETZ'>, <TokenType.MEDIUMTEXT: 'MEDIUMTEXT'>, <TokenType.UDECIMAL: 'UDECIMAL'>, <TokenType.ROWS: 'ROWS'>, <TokenType.XML: 'XML'>, <TokenType.UBIGINT: 'UBIGINT'>, <TokenType.PSEUDO_TYPE: 'PSEUDO_TYPE'>, <TokenType.NEXT: 'NEXT'>, <TokenType.UNKNOWN: 'UNKNOWN'>, <TokenType.ROWVERSION: 'ROWVERSION'>, <TokenType.ANY: 'ANY'>, <TokenType.MONEY: 'MONEY'>, <TokenType.TIMESTAMP_MS: 'TIMESTAMP_MS'>, <TokenType.OVERWRITE: 'OVERWRITE'>, <TokenType.OBJECT: 'OBJECT'>, <TokenType.LONGTEXT: 'LONGTEXT'>, <TokenType.UINT256: 'UINT256'>, <TokenType.REFRESH: 'REFRESH'>, <TokenType.LIST: 'LIST'>, <TokenType.STREAMLIT: 'STREAMLIT'>, <TokenType.VARCHAR: 'VARCHAR'>, <TokenType.INT256: 'INT256'>, <TokenType.PIVOT: 'PIVOT'>, <TokenType.TIMESTAMPTZ: 'TIMESTAMPTZ'>, <TokenType.TOP: 'TOP'>, <TokenType.LOWCARDINALITY: 'LOWCARDINALITY'>, <TokenType.CURRENT_DATE: 'CURRENT_DATE'>, <TokenType.SEQUENCE: 'SEQUENCE'>, <TokenType.PROCEDURE: 'PROCEDURE'>, <TokenType.FOREIGN_KEY: 'FOREIGN_KEY'>, <TokenType.ENUM: 'ENUM'>, <TokenType.IDENTIFIER: 'IDENTIFIER'>, <TokenType.MEDIUMINT: 'MEDIUMINT'>, <TokenType.IPADDRESS: 'IPADDRESS'>, <TokenType.COPY: 'COPY'>, <TokenType.DATEMULTIRANGE: 'DATEMULTIRANGE'>, <TokenType.VARBINARY: 'VARBINARY'>, <TokenType.YEAR: 'YEAR'>, <TokenType.TSTZRANGE: 'TSTZRANGE'>, <TokenType.DIV: 'DIV'>, <TokenType.FUNCTION: 'FUNCTION'>, <TokenType.COLLATE: 'COLLATE'>, <TokenType.ENUM16: 'ENUM16'>, <TokenType.RANGE: 'RANGE'>, <TokenType.INT128: 'INT128'>, <TokenType.UTINYINT: 'UTINYINT'>, <TokenType.AUTO_INCREMENT: 'AUTO_INCREMENT'>, <TokenType.ASC: 'ASC'>, <TokenType.ROLLUP: 'ROLLUP'>, <TokenType.DATERANGE: 'DATERANGE'>, <TokenType.EXECUTE: 'EXECUTE'>, <TokenType.DATABASE: 'DATABASE'>, <TokenType.REFERENCES: 'REFERENCES'>, <TokenType.TSTZMULTIRANGE: 'TSTZMULTIRANGE'>, <TokenType.TIMESTAMPNTZ: 'TIMESTAMPNTZ'>, <TokenType.UNNEST: 'UNNEST'>, <TokenType.DOUBLE: 'DOUBLE'>, <TokenType.TINYTEXT: 'TINYTEXT'>, <TokenType.MERGE: 'MERGE'>, <TokenType.TIMESTAMP_S: 'TIMESTAMP_S'>, <TokenType.USERDEFINED: 'USERDEFINED'>, <TokenType.IMAGE: 'IMAGE'>, <TokenType.COMMENT: 'COMMENT'>, <TokenType.KEEP: 'KEEP'>, <TokenType.HSTORE: 'HSTORE'>, <TokenType.AGGREGATEFUNCTION: 'AGGREGATEFUNCTION'>, <TokenType.TAG: 'TAG'>, <TokenType.SOME: 'SOME'>, <TokenType.LONGBLOB: 'LONGBLOB'>, <TokenType.MODEL: 'MODEL'>, <TokenType.GEOMETRY: 'GEOMETRY'>, <TokenType.BIGINT: 'BIGINT'>, <TokenType.TIMESTAMP: 'TIMESTAMP'>, <TokenType.SMALLMONEY: 'SMALLMONEY'>, <TokenType.IPV4: 'IPV4'>, <TokenType.RECURSIVE: 'RECURSIVE'>, <TokenType.PARTITION: 'PARTITION'>, <TokenType.BINARY: 'BINARY'>, <TokenType.ISNULL: 'ISNULL'>, <TokenType.SHOW: 'SHOW'>, <TokenType.UNPIVOT: 'UNPIVOT'>, <TokenType.SET: 'SET'>, <TokenType.STRAIGHT_JOIN: 'STRAIGHT_JOIN'>, <TokenType.BPCHAR: 'BPCHAR'>, <TokenType.NUMRANGE: 'NUMRANGE'>, <TokenType.MEDIUMBLOB: 'MEDIUMBLOB'>, <TokenType.COLUMN: 'COLUMN'>, <TokenType.VOLATILE: 'VOLATILE'>, <TokenType.END: 'END'>, <TokenType.CHAR: 'CHAR'>, <TokenType.FORMAT: 'FORMAT'>, <TokenType.ORDINALITY: 'ORDINALITY'>, <TokenType.INDEX: 'INDEX'>, <TokenType.INTERVAL: 'INTERVAL'>, <TokenType.ARRAY: 'ARRAY'>, <TokenType.UUID: 'UUID'>, <TokenType.DEFAULT: 'DEFAULT'>, <TokenType.TIMESTAMPLTZ: 'TIMESTAMPLTZ'>, <TokenType.DATETIME64: 'DATETIME64'>, <TokenType.IS: 'IS'>, <TokenType.TEMPORARY: 'TEMPORARY'>, <TokenType.DATE: 'DATE'>, <TokenType.SETTINGS: 'SETTINGS'>, <TokenType.UMEDIUMINT: 'UMEDIUMINT'>}
SHOW_TRIE: Dict = {}
SET_TRIE: Dict = {'GLOBAL': {0: True}, 'LOCAL': {0: True}, 'SESSION': {0: True}, 'TRANSACTION': {0: True}}
Inherited Members
sqlglot.parser.Parser
Parser
NO_PAREN_FUNCTIONS
STRUCT_TYPE_TOKENS
NESTED_TYPE_TOKENS
ENUM_TYPE_TOKENS
AGGREGATE_TYPE_TOKENS
TYPE_TOKENS
SIGNED_TO_UNSIGNED_TYPE_TOKEN
SUBQUERY_PREDICATES
RESERVED_TOKENS
DB_CREATABLES
CREATABLES
INTERVAL_VARS
ALIAS_TOKENS
ARRAY_CONSTRUCTORS
COMMENT_TABLE_ALIAS_TOKENS
UPDATE_ALIAS_TOKENS
TRIM_TYPES
FUNC_TOKENS
CONJUNCTION
ASSIGNMENT
DISJUNCTION
EQUALITY
COMPARISON
BITWISE
TERM
FACTOR
EXPONENT
TIMES
TIMESTAMPS
SET_OPERATIONS
JOIN_METHODS
JOIN_SIDES
JOIN_KINDS
JOIN_HINTS
LAMBDAS
COLUMN_OPERATORS
EXPRESSION_PARSERS
STATEMENT_PARSERS
UNARY_PARSERS
STRING_PARSERS
NUMERIC_PARSERS
PRIMARY_PARSERS
PLACEHOLDER_PARSERS
RANGE_PARSERS
CONSTRAINT_PARSERS
ALTER_PARSERS
ALTER_ALTER_PARSERS
SCHEMA_UNNAMED_CONSTRAINTS
INVALID_FUNC_NAME_TOKENS
FUNCTIONS_WITH_ALIASED_ARGS
KEY_VALUE_DEFINITIONS
QUERY_MODIFIER_PARSERS
SET_PARSERS
SHOW_PARSERS
TYPE_LITERAL_PARSERS
TYPE_CONVERTERS
DDL_SELECT_TOKENS
PRE_VOLATILE_TOKENS
TRANSACTION_KIND
TRANSACTION_CHARACTERISTICS
CONFLICT_ACTIONS
CREATE_SEQUENCE
ISOLATED_LOADING_OPTIONS
USABLES
CAST_ACTIONS
INSERT_ALTERNATIVES
CLONE_KEYWORDS
HISTORICAL_DATA_KIND
OPCLASS_FOLLOW_KEYWORDS
OPTYPE_FOLLOW_TOKENS
TABLE_INDEX_HINT_TOKENS
VIEW_ATTRIBUTES
WINDOW_ALIAS_TOKENS
WINDOW_BEFORE_PAREN_TOKENS
WINDOW_SIDES
JSON_KEY_VALUE_SEPARATOR_TOKENS
FETCH_TOKENS
ADD_CONSTRAINT_TOKENS
DISTINCT_TOKENS
NULL_TOKENS
UNNEST_OFFSET_ALIAS_TOKENS
SELECT_START_TOKENS
COPY_INTO_VARLEN_OPTIONS
PREFIXED_PIVOT_COLUMNS
IDENTIFY_PIVOT_STRINGS
ALTER_TABLE_ADD_REQUIRED_FOR_EACH_COLUMN
TABLESAMPLE_CSV
DEFAULT_SAMPLING_METHOD
SET_REQUIRES_ASSIGNMENT_DELIMITER
STRING_ALIASES
MODIFIERS_ATTACHED_TO_SET_OP
SET_OP_MODIFIERS
NO_PAREN_IF_COMMANDS
JSON_ARROWS_REQUIRE_JSON_TYPE
COLON_IS_JSON_EXTRACT
SUPPORTS_IMPLICIT_UNNEST
INTERVAL_SPANS
SUPPORTS_PARTITION_SELECTION
error_level
error_message_context
max_errors
dialect
reset
parse
parse_into
check_errors
raise_error
expression
validate_expression
errors
sql
sqlglot.dialects.spark2.Spark2.Parser
TRIM_PATTERN_FIRST
FUNCTION_PARSERS
sqlglot.dialects.hive.Hive.Parser
LOG_DEFAULTS_TO_LN
STRICT_CAST
VALUES_FOLLOWED_BY_PAREN
NO_PAREN_FUNCTION_PARSERS
PROPERTY_PARSERS
class Spark.Generator(sqlglot.dialects.spark2.Spark2.Generator):
128    class Generator(Spark2.Generator):
129        SUPPORTS_TO_NUMBER = True
130
131        TYPE_MAPPING = {
132            **Spark2.Generator.TYPE_MAPPING,
133            exp.DataType.Type.MONEY: "DECIMAL(15, 4)",
134            exp.DataType.Type.SMALLMONEY: "DECIMAL(6, 4)",
135            exp.DataType.Type.UNIQUEIDENTIFIER: "STRING",
136            exp.DataType.Type.TIMESTAMPLTZ: "TIMESTAMP_LTZ",
137            exp.DataType.Type.TIMESTAMPNTZ: "TIMESTAMP_NTZ",
138        }
139
140        TRANSFORMS = {
141            **Spark2.Generator.TRANSFORMS,
142            exp.ArrayConstructCompact: lambda self, e: self.func(
143                "ARRAY_COMPACT", self.func("ARRAY", *e.expressions)
144            ),
145            exp.Create: preprocess(
146                [
147                    remove_unique_constraints,
148                    lambda e: ctas_with_tmp_tables_to_create_tmp_view(
149                        e, temporary_storage_provider
150                    ),
151                    move_partitioned_by_to_schema_columns,
152                ]
153            ),
154            exp.PartitionedByProperty: lambda self,
155            e: f"PARTITIONED BY {self.wrap(self.expressions(sqls=[_normalize_partition(e) for e in e.this.expressions], skip_first=True))}",
156            exp.StartsWith: rename_func("STARTSWITH"),
157            exp.TsOrDsAdd: _dateadd_sql,
158            exp.TimestampAdd: _dateadd_sql,
159            exp.TryCast: lambda self, e: (
160                self.trycast_sql(e) if e.args.get("safe") else self.cast_sql(e)
161            ),
162        }
163        TRANSFORMS.pop(exp.AnyValue)
164        TRANSFORMS.pop(exp.DateDiff)
165        TRANSFORMS.pop(exp.Group)
166
167        def bracket_sql(self, expression: exp.Bracket) -> str:
168            if expression.args.get("safe"):
169                key = seq_get(self.bracket_offset_expressions(expression), 0)
170                return self.func("TRY_ELEMENT_AT", expression.this, key)
171
172            return super().bracket_sql(expression)
173
174        def computedcolumnconstraint_sql(self, expression: exp.ComputedColumnConstraint) -> str:
175            return f"GENERATED ALWAYS AS ({self.sql(expression, 'this')})"
176
177        def anyvalue_sql(self, expression: exp.AnyValue) -> str:
178            return self.function_fallback_sql(expression)
179
180        def datediff_sql(self, expression: exp.DateDiff) -> str:
181            end = self.sql(expression, "this")
182            start = self.sql(expression, "expression")
183
184            if expression.unit:
185                return self.func("DATEDIFF", unit_to_var(expression), start, end)
186
187            return self.func("DATEDIFF", end, start)

Generator converts a given syntax tree to the corresponding SQL string.

Arguments:
  • pretty: Whether to format the produced SQL string. Default: False.
  • identify: Determines when an identifier should be quoted. Possible values are: False (default): Never quote, except in cases where it's mandatory by the dialect. True or 'always': Always quote. 'safe': Only quote identifiers that are case insensitive.
  • normalize: Whether to normalize identifiers to lowercase. Default: False.
  • pad: The pad size in a formatted string. For example, this affects the indentation of a projection in a query, relative to its nesting level. Default: 2.
  • indent: The indentation size in a formatted string. For example, this affects the indentation of subqueries and filters under a WHERE clause. Default: 2.
  • normalize_functions: How to normalize function names. Possible values are: "upper" or True (default): Convert names to uppercase. "lower": Convert names to lowercase. False: Disables function name normalization.
  • unsupported_level: Determines the generator's behavior when it encounters unsupported expressions. Default ErrorLevel.WARN.
  • max_unsupported: Maximum number of unsupported messages to include in a raised UnsupportedError. This is only relevant if unsupported_level is ErrorLevel.RAISE. Default: 3
  • leading_comma: Whether the comma is leading or trailing in select expressions. This is only relevant when generating in pretty mode. Default: False
  • max_text_width: The max number of characters in a segment before creating new lines in pretty mode. The default is on the smaller end because the length only represents a segment and not the true line length. Default: 80
  • comments: Whether to preserve comments in the output SQL code. Default: True
SUPPORTS_TO_NUMBER = True
TYPE_MAPPING = {<Type.NCHAR: 'NCHAR'>: 'CHAR', <Type.NVARCHAR: 'NVARCHAR'>: 'VARCHAR', <Type.MEDIUMTEXT: 'MEDIUMTEXT'>: 'TEXT', <Type.LONGTEXT: 'LONGTEXT'>: 'TEXT', <Type.TINYTEXT: 'TINYTEXT'>: 'TEXT', <Type.MEDIUMBLOB: 'MEDIUMBLOB'>: 'BLOB', <Type.LONGBLOB: 'LONGBLOB'>: 'BLOB', <Type.TINYBLOB: 'TINYBLOB'>: 'BLOB', <Type.INET: 'INET'>: 'INET', <Type.ROWVERSION: 'ROWVERSION'>: 'BINARY', <Type.BIT: 'BIT'>: 'BOOLEAN', <Type.DATETIME: 'DATETIME'>: 'TIMESTAMP', <Type.TEXT: 'TEXT'>: 'STRING', <Type.TIME: 'TIME'>: 'TIMESTAMP', <Type.TIMESTAMPTZ: 'TIMESTAMPTZ'>: 'TIMESTAMP', <Type.UTINYINT: 'UTINYINT'>: 'SMALLINT', <Type.VARBINARY: 'VARBINARY'>: 'BINARY', <Type.MONEY: 'MONEY'>: 'DECIMAL(15, 4)', <Type.SMALLMONEY: 'SMALLMONEY'>: 'DECIMAL(6, 4)', <Type.UNIQUEIDENTIFIER: 'UNIQUEIDENTIFIER'>: 'STRING', <Type.TIMESTAMPLTZ: 'TIMESTAMPLTZ'>: 'TIMESTAMP_LTZ', <Type.TIMESTAMPNTZ: 'TIMESTAMPNTZ'>: 'TIMESTAMP_NTZ'}
TRANSFORMS = {<class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONPathKey'>: <function <lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONPathRoot'>: <function <lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONPathSubscript'>: <function <lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONPathWildcard'>: <function <lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.AllowedValuesProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.AutoRefreshProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.BackupProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CaseSpecificColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CharacterSetColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CharacterSetProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ClusteredColumnConstraint'>: <function Hive.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CollateColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CommentColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.CopyGrantsProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateFormatColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DefaultColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.EncodeColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.EphemeralColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ExcludeColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ExecuteAsProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ExternalProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.GlobalProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.HeapProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.IcebergProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.InheritsProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.InlineLengthColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.InputModelProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.IntervalSpan'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONExtract'>: <function Hive.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONExtractScalar'>: <function Hive.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LanguageProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LocationProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LogProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.MaterializedProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.NonClusteredColumnConstraint'>: <function Hive.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.NoPrimaryIndexProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.NotForReplicationColumnConstraint'>: <function Hive.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.OnCommitProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.OnProperty'>: <function Hive.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.OnUpdateColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.OutputModelProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.PathColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ProjectionPolicyColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RemoteWithConnectionModelProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ReturnsProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SampleProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SecureProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SetConfigProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SetProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SettingsProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SharingProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SqlReadWriteProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SqlSecurityProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StabilityProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StrictProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TemporaryProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TagColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TitleColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Timestamp'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ToMap'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ToTableProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TransformModelProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TransientProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.UppercaseColumnConstraint'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.UnloggedProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.VarMap'>: <function var_map_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ViewAttributeProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.VolatileProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.WithJournalTableProperty'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.WithOperator'>: <function Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Select'>: <function preprocess.<locals>._to_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Property'>: <function _property_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ApproxDistinct'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArgMax'>: <function arg_max_or_min_no_count.<locals>._arg_max_or_min_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArgMin'>: <function arg_max_or_min_no_count.<locals>._arg_max_or_min_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayConcat'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayToString'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArraySize'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.With'>: <function no_recursive_cte_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateAdd'>: <function _add_date_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateStrToDate'>: <function datestrtodate_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateSub'>: <function _add_date_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateToDi'>: <function Hive.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DiToDate'>: <function Hive.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.FileFormatProperty'>: <function Spark2.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.FromBase64'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.If'>: <function if_sql.<locals>._if_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.IsNan'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.JSONFormat'>: <function _json_format_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Map'>: <function _map_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Max'>: <function max_or_greatest>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.MD5Digest'>: <function Hive.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Min'>: <function min_or_least>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.NotNullColumnConstraint'>: <function Hive.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Create'>: <function preprocess.<locals>._to_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Quantile'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ApproxQuantile'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RegexpExtract'>: <function regexp_extract_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RegexpReplace'>: <function Spark2.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RegexpLike'>: <function Hive.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.RegexpSplit'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SafeDivide'>: <function no_safe_divide_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.SchemaCommentProperty'>: <function Hive.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayUniqueAgg'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Split'>: <function Hive.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StrPosition'>: <function strposition_to_locate_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StrToDate'>: <function _str_to_date>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StrToTime'>: <function Spark2.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StrToUnix'>: <function _str_to_unix_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StructExtract'>: <function struct_extract_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeStrToDate'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeStrToTime'>: <function timestrtotime_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeStrToUnix'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimestampTrunc'>: <function Spark2.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeToStr'>: <function Hive.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimeToUnix'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ToBase64'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TsOrDiToDi'>: <function Hive.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TsOrDsAdd'>: <function _dateadd_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TsOrDsDiff'>: <function _date_diff_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TsOrDsToDate'>: <function _to_date_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TryCast'>: <function Spark.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.UnixToStr'>: <function Hive.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.UnixToTime'>: <function _unix_to_time_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.UnixToTimeStr'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.PartitionedByProperty'>: <function Spark.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.NumberToStr'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.National'>: <function Hive.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.PrimaryKeyColumnConstraint'>: <function Hive.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ParseJSON'>: <function Hive.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.WeekOfYear'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DayOfMonth'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DayOfWeek'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArraySum'>: <function Spark2.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.AtTimeZone'>: <function Spark2.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.BitwiseLeftShift'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.BitwiseRightShift'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateFromParts'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DateTrunc'>: <function Spark2.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.DayOfYear'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.From'>: <function preprocess.<locals>._to_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.FromTimeZone'>: <function Spark2.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LogicalAnd'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.LogicalOr'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Pivot'>: <function preprocess.<locals>._to_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Reduce'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.Trim'>: <function trim_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.VariancePop'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.WithinGroup'>: <function preprocess.<locals>._to_sql>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.ArrayConstructCompact'>: <function Spark.Generator.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.StartsWith'>: <function rename_func.<locals>.<lambda>>, <class 'sqlglot.expressions.TimestampAdd'>: <function _dateadd_sql>}
def bracket_sql(self, expression: sqlglot.expressions.Bracket) -> str:
167        def bracket_sql(self, expression: exp.Bracket) -> str:
168            if expression.args.get("safe"):
169                key = seq_get(self.bracket_offset_expressions(expression), 0)
170                return self.func("TRY_ELEMENT_AT", expression.this, key)
171
172            return super().bracket_sql(expression)
def computedcolumnconstraint_sql(self, expression: sqlglot.expressions.ComputedColumnConstraint) -> str:
174        def computedcolumnconstraint_sql(self, expression: exp.ComputedColumnConstraint) -> str:
175            return f"GENERATED ALWAYS AS ({self.sql(expression, 'this')})"
def anyvalue_sql(self, expression: sqlglot.expressions.AnyValue) -> str:
177        def anyvalue_sql(self, expression: exp.AnyValue) -> str:
178            return self.function_fallback_sql(expression)
def datediff_sql(self, expression: sqlglot.expressions.DateDiff) -> str:
180        def datediff_sql(self, expression: exp.DateDiff) -> str:
181            end = self.sql(expression, "this")
182            start = self.sql(expression, "expression")
183
184            if expression.unit:
185                return self.func("DATEDIFF", unit_to_var(expression), start, end)
186
187            return self.func("DATEDIFF", end, start)
SELECT_KINDS: Tuple[str, ...] = ()
TRY_SUPPORTED = False
SUPPORTS_UESCAPE = False
Inherited Members
sqlglot.generator.Generator
Generator
NULL_ORDERING_SUPPORTED
IGNORE_NULLS_IN_FUNC
LOCKING_READS_SUPPORTED
EXPLICIT_SET_OP
MATCHED_BY_SOURCE
SINGLE_STRING_INTERVAL
INTERVAL_ALLOWS_PLURAL_FORM
LIMIT_ONLY_LITERALS
RENAME_TABLE_WITH_DB
GROUPINGS_SEP
QUERY_HINT_SEP
IS_BOOL_ALLOWED
DUPLICATE_KEY_UPDATE_WITH_SET
LIMIT_IS_TOP
RETURNING_END
TZ_TO_WITH_TIME_ZONE
VALUES_AS_TABLE
ALTER_TABLE_INCLUDE_COLUMN_KEYWORD
UNNEST_WITH_ORDINALITY
AGGREGATE_FILTER_SUPPORTED
SEMI_ANTI_JOIN_WITH_SIDE
COMPUTED_COLUMN_WITH_TYPE
SUPPORTS_TABLE_COPY
TABLESAMPLE_REQUIRES_PARENS
TABLESAMPLE_SIZE_IS_ROWS
TABLESAMPLE_KEYWORDS
TABLESAMPLE_SEED_KEYWORD
COLLATE_IS_FUNC
DATA_TYPE_SPECIFIERS_ALLOWED
ENSURE_BOOLS
CTE_RECURSIVE_KEYWORD_REQUIRED
SUPPORTS_SINGLE_ARG_CONCAT
SUPPORTS_TABLE_ALIAS_COLUMNS
UNPIVOT_ALIASES_ARE_IDENTIFIERS
JSON_KEY_VALUE_PAIR_SEP
INSERT_OVERWRITE
SUPPORTS_SELECT_INTO
SUPPORTS_UNLOGGED_TABLES
SUPPORTS_CREATE_TABLE_LIKE
LIKE_PROPERTY_INSIDE_SCHEMA
MULTI_ARG_DISTINCT
JSON_TYPE_REQUIRED_FOR_EXTRACTION
JSON_PATH_BRACKETED_KEY_SUPPORTED
SET_OP_MODIFIERS
COPY_PARAMS_ARE_WRAPPED
COPY_PARAMS_EQ_REQUIRED
COPY_HAS_INTO_KEYWORD
STAR_EXCEPT
HEX_FUNC
QUOTE_JSON_PATH
TIME_PART_SINGULARS
AFTER_HAVING_MODIFIER_TRANSFORMS
TOKEN_MAPPING
STRUCT_DELIMITER
PARAMETER_TOKEN
NAMED_PLACEHOLDER_TOKEN
RESERVED_KEYWORDS
WITH_SEPARATED_COMMENTS
EXCLUDE_COMMENTS
UNWRAPPED_INTERVAL_VALUES
PARAMETERIZABLE_TEXT_TYPES
SENTINEL_LINE_BREAK
pretty
identify
normalize
pad
unsupported_level
max_unsupported
leading_comma
max_text_width
comments
dialect
normalize_functions
unsupported_messages
generate
preprocess
unsupported
sep
seg
pad_comment
maybe_comment
wrap
no_identify
normalize_func
indent
sql
uncache_sql
cache_sql
characterset_sql
column_parts
column_sql
columnposition_sql
columnconstraint_sql
autoincrementcolumnconstraint_sql
compresscolumnconstraint_sql
generatedasidentitycolumnconstraint_sql
generatedasrowcolumnconstraint_sql
periodforsystemtimeconstraint_sql
notnullcolumnconstraint_sql
transformcolumnconstraint_sql
primarykeycolumnconstraint_sql
uniquecolumnconstraint_sql
createable_sql
create_sql
sequenceproperties_sql
clone_sql
describe_sql
heredoc_sql
prepend_ctes
with_sql
cte_sql
tablealias_sql
bitstring_sql
hexstring_sql
bytestring_sql
unicodestring_sql
rawstring_sql
datatypeparam_sql
directory_sql
delete_sql
drop_sql
except_sql
except_op
fetch_sql
filter_sql
hint_sql
indexparameters_sql
index_sql
identifier_sql
hex_sql
lowerhex_sql
inputoutputformat_sql
national_sql
partition_sql
properties_sql
root_properties
properties
with_properties
locate_properties
property_name
property_sql
likeproperty_sql
fallbackproperty_sql
journalproperty_sql
freespaceproperty_sql
checksumproperty_sql
mergeblockratioproperty_sql
datablocksizeproperty_sql
blockcompressionproperty_sql
isolatedloadingproperty_sql
partitionboundspec_sql
partitionedofproperty_sql
lockingproperty_sql
withdataproperty_sql
withsystemversioningproperty_sql
insert_sql
intersect_sql
intersect_op
introducer_sql
kill_sql
pseudotype_sql
objectidentifier_sql
onconflict_sql
returning_sql
rowformatdelimitedproperty_sql
withtablehint_sql
indextablehint_sql
historicaldata_sql
table_parts
table_sql
tablesample_sql
pivot_sql
tuple_sql
update_sql
values_sql
var_sql
into_sql
from_sql
group_sql
having_sql
connect_sql
prior_sql
join_sql
lambda_sql
lateral_op
lateral_sql
limit_sql
offset_sql
setitem_sql
set_sql
pragma_sql
lock_sql
literal_sql
escape_str
loaddata_sql
null_sql
boolean_sql
order_sql
withfill_sql
cluster_sql
distribute_sql
sort_sql
ordered_sql
matchrecognizemeasure_sql
matchrecognize_sql
query_modifiers
options_modifier
queryoption_sql
offset_limit_modifiers
after_limit_modifiers
select_sql
schema_columns_sql
star_sql
sessionparameter_sql
placeholder_sql
subquery_sql
qualify_sql
set_operations
union_sql
union_op
unnest_sql
prewhere_sql
where_sql
window_sql
partition_by_sql
windowspec_sql
withingroup_sql
between_sql
bracket_offset_expressions
all_sql
any_sql
exists_sql
case_sql
nextvaluefor_sql
extract_sql
trim_sql
convert_concat_args
concat_sql
concatws_sql
check_sql
foreignkey_sql
primarykey_sql
if_sql
matchagainst_sql
jsonkeyvalue_sql
jsonpath_sql
json_path_part
formatjson_sql
jsonobject_sql
jsonobjectagg_sql
jsonarray_sql
jsonarrayagg_sql
jsoncolumndef_sql
jsonschema_sql
jsontable_sql
openjsoncolumndef_sql
openjson_sql
in_sql
in_unnest_op
interval_sql
return_sql
reference_sql
anonymous_sql
paren_sql
neg_sql
not_sql
alias_sql
pivotalias_sql
aliases_sql
atindex_sql
attimezone_sql
fromtimezone_sql
add_sql
and_sql
or_sql
xor_sql
connector_sql
bitwiseand_sql
bitwiseleftshift_sql
bitwisenot_sql
bitwiseor_sql
bitwiserightshift_sql
bitwisexor_sql
currentdate_sql
currenttimestamp_sql
collate_sql
command_sql
comment_sql
mergetreettlaction_sql
mergetreettl_sql
transaction_sql
commit_sql
rollback_sql
altercolumn_sql
alterdiststyle_sql
altersortkey_sql
renametable_sql
renamecolumn_sql
altertable_sql
add_column_sql
droppartition_sql
addconstraint_sql
distinct_sql
ignorenulls_sql
respectnulls_sql
havingmax_sql
intdiv_sql
dpipe_sql
div_sql
overlaps_sql
distance_sql
dot_sql
eq_sql
propertyeq_sql
escape_sql
glob_sql
gt_sql
gte_sql
ilike_sql
ilikeany_sql
is_sql
like_sql
likeany_sql
similarto_sql
lt_sql
lte_sql
mod_sql
mul_sql
neq_sql
nullsafeeq_sql
nullsafeneq_sql
slice_sql
sub_sql
trycast_sql
try_sql
log_sql
use_sql
binary
function_fallback_sql
func
format_args
too_wide
format_time
expressions
op_expressions
naked_property
tag_sql
token_sql
userdefinedfunction_sql
joinhint_sql
kwarg_sql
when_sql
merge_sql
tochar_sql
tonumber_sql
dictproperty_sql
dictrange_sql
dictsubproperty_sql
oncluster_sql
clusteredbyproperty_sql
querytransform_sql
indexconstraintoption_sql
checkcolumnconstraint_sql
indexcolumnconstraint_sql
nvl2_sql
comprehension_sql
columnprefix_sql
opclass_sql
predict_sql
forin_sql
refresh_sql
operator_sql
toarray_sql
tsordstotime_sql
tsordstotimestamp_sql
tsordstodate_sql
unixdate_sql
lastday_sql
dateadd_sql
arrayany_sql
generateseries_sql
partitionrange_sql
truncatetable_sql
convert_sql
copyparameter_sql
credentials_sql
copy_sql
semicolon_sql
datadeletionproperty_sql
maskingpolicycolumnconstraint_sql
gapfill_sql
sqlglot.dialects.spark2.Spark2.Generator
QUERY_HINTS
NVL2_SUPPORTED
CAN_IMPLEMENT_ARRAY_ANY
PROPERTIES_LOCATION
WRAP_DERIVED_VALUES
CREATE_FUNCTION_RETURN_AS
struct_sql
cast_sql
columndef_sql
sqlglot.dialects.hive.Hive.Generator
LIMIT_FETCH
TABLESAMPLE_WITH_METHOD
JOIN_HINTS
TABLE_HINTS
INDEX_ON
EXTRACT_ALLOWS_QUOTES
LAST_DAY_SUPPORTS_DATE_PART
JSON_PATH_SINGLE_QUOTE_ESCAPE
WITH_PROPERTIES_PREFIX
EXPRESSIONS_WITHOUT_NESTED_CTES
SUPPORTED_JSON_PATH_PARTS
parameter_sql
schema_sql
constraint_sql
rowformatserdeproperty_sql
arrayagg_sql
datatype_sql
version_sql
alterset_sql
serdeproperties_sql